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these are entirely raw materials, many of province extends along the shores of which are essentially necessary in our ma- the Mediterranean sea, and abounds nufacture.”
in cors and cattle. The vicinity of Greater advantages in point of trade
Tetuan produces (as has been alreathan these, no country can hold forth; and it is Mr. Jackson's opinion:
dy observed) the most delicious “That we have it in our power; by pro: melons, apricots, plums, strawber
oranges in the world; figs, grapes, per representations and a judicious negotiation, to supply, through this channel, a ries, apples, pears, pomegranates, great part of the interiour of Africa with citrons, lemons, limes, and the reour superfluous manufactures, while we freshing fruit of the opuntia, or might receive in return many very valuable and useful articles ; such as oil of prickly pear. It has forests of oak, olives, hides, skins, almonds, gums, wax,
cork, and other valuable trees of large silver, and gold ; in addition to which may growth. Hemp, cotton of a superiour be mentioned, oranges and lemons, of quality, honey, wax, gum Arabick, which a greater quantity might be pro- and the tobacco called Mequinasi, so cured from two ports [Tetuan and Rabat] much esteemed for making snuff. in the empire, than is afforded both by Spain and Portugal. The oranges of Te. In the central division are the towns tuan” he says are the finest in the world, of Marocco, Saffee, and the port of and are sold for eight drahims, or about Mogodor. This fine province abounds 3s. 6d. per thousand. In short, nothing in horses and horned cattle. The is wanting to secure a most extensive and lucrative trade with Marocco, but an
horses of Abda are of the most select established friendship between the two breed in the country. The goats are nations, strengthened by a mutual return innumerable, and their skins form a of good offices and attentions. Indeed," principal article of exportation from he adds, “ the present emperour, Muley the port of Mogodor. The mounSoliman, may be said to have made overtures of this nature.”
tains of Haha produce the famous The fact I find to be as follows. wood called Arar, new to this counMuley Soliman, the reigning mo
try, which is proof against rot or the
worm. narch, who is better versed in the laws of the Koran, than any man in In the southern district, Suse is his empire, and in his nature more considered as the most extensive, merciful than any of the antecedent and, excepting in grain, the richest sovereigns of Marocco, wrote a letter province of the empire. The olive, with his own hand to his majesty almond, date, orange, grape, and all our king, which after being sent to the other fruits of the northern prothe universities for interpretation, vinces abound here, particularly about was rendered into English by the au. Terodant, the capital of Suse ; and thor of this volume, and we presume according to our author's account, has been answered. In this imperial there is not, perhaps, a finer climate letter, Muley Soliman, addressing his in the world than that of Suse, in majesty by the sacred title of sultan, which province he resided at Agapays him the highest respect that deer or Santa Cruz. The sugar-cane ever was offered by a Mooselman to grows spontaneously about Terodant; a Christian king.
cotton, indigo, gum, and various In the twenty-four first pages of kinds of medicinal herbs are prothis work, the author gives a geo- duced, and the stick liquorice in prographical account of the four grand fusion. Wax in great quantity, the divisions of the empire of Marocco, gums euphorbium, sandrac and ama. viz. northern, central, southern, and rad, wild thyme, worm-seed, orriss eastern.
root, orchilla weed, and coloquinth; In the northern division, we find antimony, saltpetre of a superiour the towns of Fez, Mequinas, Tetuan, quality, copper, and silver are here Tangier, and many others, whose found; the two latter in abundance names are not so familiar to us. This about Elala and in Shtuka.
The 'eastern district so overflows loured with a light tint of red on in dates, that a camel load, or three its back and head, but so intensely quintal, is sold for two dollars. The white in the under parts, as to give people, who live beyond the Atlas pain to the eyes by its dazzling brilmountains in the district of Tafilelt, liancy. The stone called bizoar, is are described of such inviolable ho- a concretion produced by this animal, nesty, that a robbery has scarcely but whether formed in the stomach been known in the memory of man, or elsewhere, Mr. Jackson does fiot though they use no locks. Gold undertake to say, and thinks it is not dust is here the circulating medium accurately ascertained. This stone in all transactions of magnitude. is scraped and taken as an antidote There are mines of antimony and against poison. lead ore, and they carry on a consi. The avadad is a singular animal, derable trade to Timbuctoo, Housa, who throws bimself from the steepest and Jinnie, south of Sahara.
cliffs and precipices of the Atlas To these geographical observations mountains with impunity, and lights there is attached a map of West Bar- on his horns and shoulders in the bary, including Suse and Tafilelt; plains below, when thirst compels also one other, showing the tract him to the stream. These curious across the desert, as followed by the tumblers, hitherto undescribed, are so caravans from Fez to Timbuctoo. In very wild, as not to be approached these maps Mr. Jackson professes to without great danger, and my author have corrected the abuses and mis- believes he is correct in affirming, takes with respect to names, which that the only two skins of this animal in others will be found. He also which ever found their way to Euvouches for their accuracy, and ex- rope, and then with considerable diffipresses his belief, that in a short time culty and expense, were by him prethey will be considered the most sented to sir Joseph Banks. correct of any hitherto published. Mr. Jackson, speaking of the rhi.
In his zoology, chapter the se- noceros, says: venth, Mr. Jackson expatiates in an “With regard to the animal called by
our heralds the uricorn, and represented interesting manner on the beauty of the gazel or antelope, and quotes an
in armorial bearings, I doubt if ever such
an animal existed ; for I have frequently Arabian sonnet to show how the poets
conversed with men, who bad been twenty in that language have made it the years in the different countries of the in. vehicle to convey compliments to teriour of Africa, but never could learn their mistresses : You have the eyes
that a beast with one horn existed, in of an antelope, lady-you possess the figure resembling a horse.” beauty of a gazel. “These,” he says,
In the like cautious, unassuming " are irresistible compliments with style, which marks so strongly the the Arabs. In short, perfect beauty inquirer after truth, he says that and gazel beauty are synonymous
“ The jumars, the reputed offspring of
the ass and the bull or cow, are animals terms."
whose existence is still doubted. I have The animal called El Horreh, an
never, in any of my travels, seen such a inhabitant of Sahara, and never found one; but I was once informed by the best to the northward of the river Suse, authority, that such a beast was sometimes is held in sovereign estimation by the
seen in Bledel-Jerrede ; my informer had Arabs, as the emblem of cleanliness;
not, however, seen it himself. Dr. Shaw
has described one, that he saw in Barbaand if we may believe the tradition
ry; notwithstanding which, the count de of its never lying down, lest it should Buffon disputes its existence.” dehile the purity of its skin, we may I come now to speak of that wonsuppose it conscious of its beauty. derful animal the heirie, or desert Il is described as somewhat similar camel, which, by the providence of to the gazel in its forin and size, co- the Creator, seems exclusively be
stowed upon those whose lot it is to ven days) cannot, by my author's traverse that trackless waste, those computation, be less than one thouburning and intolerable sands, which, sand miles respectively. The witif no such animal were in being, nesses to the truth of the latter fact would form a chasm and impassable are of the highest respectability, and barrier between nation and nation, the time passed by the way was asinhabitants of the same continent, certained by the date of the despatch ; and for ever separate those who are which the rider of the heirie brought. reciprocally dependant on each other There is also an authentick anecdote for an interchange of produce ne- of a sebavee, that went from Mogocessary to the comforts, and in many dor to Marocco, and returned to cases to the immediate wants of each. Mogodor between sunrise and eleven That this creature should be endowed o'clock at night; a journey of two with powers and properties, that ena- hundred miles. This is a performble it to journey day after day with- ance that challenges all the annals of out food or water over those dreadful Newmarket to equal, and perhaps tracis, where neither water nor food exceeds what their philosophy can can be had, decidedly evinces a di- expound, or their candour give pervine interposition. But for a more fect credit to. Yet it is no wonder in particular description of the astonish- the country where the animal is ing performances of this extraordi- known, and might be backed by the nary animal, I must refer my reader attestations of thousands.
6. The to the very words of Mr. Jackson. swiftness of the beirie is thus de
“ Mounted on the heirie or desart ca. scribed by the Arabs in their figuramel (which is in figure similar to the tive style : When thou shalt meet a camel of burden, but more clegantly heirie, and say to the rider, Salem former) the Arab, with his loins, breast, Alick! ere he shall have answered and ears, bound round, to prevent the
thee, Alick Salem! he all be afar percussion of air proceeding from a quick motion, rapidly traverses, upon the back
off, and nearly out of sight; for his of this abstemious animal, the scorching
swifiness is like the wind.” desert, the fiery atmosphere of which When my author computes by the parches and impedes respiration so as
terın of a day's journey, he is to be almost to produce suffocation. The mo
understood as speaking of a journey tion of the herrie is violent, and can be endured only by those patient, abstenious,
of seven hours, at the rate of three and hardy Arabs, who are accustomed to
miles and a half an hour, which is it. The most inferiour kind of heirie are the rate of the camel of burden ; so called Talatayee, a terin expressive of that a day's journey is on an average their going three days journey in one. about twenty-four miles. As for the The next kind is called Sebayee, a term
animal called a dromedary (if any appropriated to that, which goes seven days journey in one, and this is the ge
such be in existence) it is absolutely neral character; there is also one called unknown and unheard of in western Tasayee, or the heirie of nine days; Africa, and remains a question for these are extremely rare.”
the naturalists to decide. Mr. Jackson says [p. 41] “ A jour- As the Arabs of the desert have ney of thirty-five days caravan tra- this superiour breed of camels, in velling will be performed by a se- like manner they have the desert bayee in five days. They go from horse, Sh’rubah Er’rech, which liTimbuctoo to Tafilelt in seven days. terally signifies Wind-sucker ; the One of these animals once animal is so called, from his hanging from Fort St. Joseph on the Senegal out his tongue at one side of his river to the house of Messrs. Cabane mouth, when in speed, and, as it and Depras, at Mogodor, in seven were, sucking in the air. In height days.” These astonishing trajects about fourteen hands, and gaunt as a (each performed in the space of se- grayhound. His extraordinary powers
seem to be seated in the breadth and « who had two Sahatawan horses in strength of his chest, which is two his stables (horses of the desert) and spans between his fore-legs ; these, finding it inconvenient to feed them though extremely fine in bone, are constantly on camel's milk, he reuncommonly strong in sinew, and his solved to try them on the usual food swiftness and durability exceed those given to Barbary horses. He accordof the common barb almost in the ingly had their food gradually changed, same degree, as the sebayee exceeds and in a short time fed them altogethe common camel. The arab em- ther with barley, and occasionally ploys him chiefly in hunting the os- wheat and straw. They grew fat, trich, a sport in which he is particu- and looked better than before; but larly expert. The motion of this they lost their speed, and soon afterlittle speedy animal is uneasy to an wards died, as if nature had desi ned unpractised rider. He is very low in them to be appropriated solely to that the crest, and carries his head straight district, whose arid and extensive out, and so tucked up (as the jockey plains render their use essentially nephrase is) that he must be girted cessary.” round the breast. The Scheik Abyd If Mr. Jackson's famous barb was Allah, a familiar friend of Mr. Jack. as speedy as one of our profest runson, rode one of these horses from ning horses, the experimert of his Mogodor to Santa Cruz, which is match with the Scheik Abyd Allah not less than a hundred English miles, might tempt our gentlemen of the between the dawn of day and four turf to speculate upon an importation o'clock in the afternoon. My author of one of these Sh'rabah Er'rechs, also informs me, that upon meeting or wind suckers, accompanied with, this Scheik on the sands of Mogodor, a nursery of camels, and an Arab so mounted, and being challenged to for his training groom and rider. His try the speed of his Barbary horse, breed, however, might be attainable, which was one of the finest in that and an object, perhaps, which some country, fifteen hands and a half may think worthy of ihe experiment. high, the Scheik upon his desert gal- “ Gold and silver mines are found loway gave him a start of one hundred in several parts of the empire of yards in the distance of about one Marocco, particularly about Messa, mile, and soon passed him with a in the province of Suse." Of these velocity that put all competition of the emperour had caused some to be speed instantly out of question. destroyed from reasons of policy, and
The Arabs, who inhabit the culti- others, particularly one very rich in vated spots, called Oasis, in the de. silver, which being situated between sert, where this horse is bred, feed two clans, who were continually him upon camel's milk, to which he fighting for it, was rendered of no becomes so attached as to reject all use to either. Iron, copper, and lead other sustenance, even water; and ore, salt petre, sulphur, and antimony, when brought to Marocco, which of the finest quality are in great sometimes happens, he falls away- abundance, and “ vast quantities of "and if obliged ultimately from hun salt are conveyed by the Akkabas to ger, to eat barley and straw, the Moor- Soudan, where none is produced, and ish provender, he recovers, gradually on that account is so valuable at Timfills up, and becomes handsome to buctoo, that a pound weight is frethe sight, but loses entirely his usual quently bartered for an ounce of gold speed. Nay, he does more than dust.” To that city, the great em: thiş, for Mr. Jackson quotes an in- porium of central Africa, where imstance within his knowledge,of Alkaid mense treasures of gold are amassed, Omar ben Daudy, an Arab of Raham- and which is as yet unvisited by any menah, and governour of Mogodor European açlventurer, the curiosity
of the reader will naturally be di- finest ostrich feathers and ambergris rected.
are collected by the caravans in their The caravans of Marocco, Fez, passage on the confines of the desert. Tunis, Algier, Tripoli, Egypt, &c. As the caravans perform their have, from time immemorial, carried stated daily journies over this trackon a very extensive and lucrative less waste, they direct their course trade with Timbuctoo, across the to certain well known hospitable spots, great desert Sahara, between the interspersed like islands in the ocean, months of September and April in- called Oasi's, or Wahsi's, which are clusive. From Fez, the distance inhabited, cultivated, and of amazing may be reckoned at fifteen hundred fertility and luxuriance; in these the miles, S.S.E.
caravans halt about seven days, for “ The articles transported by the com- the purpose of feeding, refreshing pany of merchants trading from Fez to
their camels, and recruiting their Timbuctoo, are principally as follows: Various kinds of German linens, viz. pla
water skins. tillas, rouans, brettanias, muslins of dif
There is no reason why any Euroferent qualities, particularly muls, Irish pean traveller might not safely attach linens, cambricks, fine cloths of particu- himself to one of these accumulated Jar colours, coral beads,, amber beads, caravans, and visit Timbuctoo, propearls, Bengal raw silk, brass nails (in
vided only that he had made himself great request) coffee, fine hyson teas, refined sugar, and various manufactures
a master of the western Arabick; an of Fez and Tafilelt, viz, shawls and sashes indispensable accomplishment, which of silk and gold, hayks of silk, of cotton I understand Mungo Parke to have and silk mixed, of cotton and of wool; been deficient in, and of course unalso an immense quantity of (hayk filelly) qualified for the task he undertook. Tafilelt hayks, a particularly light and fine manufacture of that place, and admirably
The caravans perform the traverse adapted to the climate of Soudan; to these of the desert, including their sojournmay be added red woollen caps, the ge- ments at the watering places, in about neral covering of the head, turbans, Ita- one hundred and thirty days, going lian silks, nutmegs, cloves, ginger, and
at the rate of three miles and an half pepper, Venetian beads, cowries, and a considerable quantity of tobacco and salt,
an hour, and travelling seven hours the produce of Barbary and Bled-el-jer
a day. Out of these one hundred rêde."
and thirty, they rest seventy-five The returns made for these arti- days, which leaves fifty-five days for cles by the traders at Timbuctoo, actual travelling, and from these data consist in gold dust, twisted rings of the reader may easily make a loose Wangara of pure gold, gold rings computation of the distance. It is wrought at Jinnie, where they make practicable, however, for caravans to various trinkets of such workmanship perform this journey in much less as would be difficult to imitate either time, and there is a note [p. 241] in England or France, bars of gold, in which Mr. Jackson says, “ That elephant's teeth, gum of Soudan, when he had a commercial establishgrains of Sahara [called by us grainsment at Agadeer, he himself received of paradise] odoriferous gums of ex- a caravan of gum Soudan from Timquisite perfume, for the purposes of buctoo in eighty-two days." fumigation, slaves in great number, As the slaves of Wangara and brought from the regions which bor. Houssa, purchased by the caravans der on the Jibbel Kumra, or Mountains at Timbuctoo, are sold on their reof the Moon(so called from their white turn to the Moors and Arabs of Barbaor lunar colour) a chain, which, with ry, it is clear that there is a traffick for little or no intermission, runs through the human species carried on between the continent of Africa from west to inhabitants of the same continent, in east, viz. from Assentee in the west to which no European nation, or even Abyssinia in the east-whilst the individual, is concerned. This traf