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we cannot perceive that a gentleman convey. He talks also of “ a niggard is degraded by carrying a lady's para hand”-of" an antepast of heaven”. sol, because she can carry it herself. of ó throwing custom to his feet”On this principle, he ought not to cut of “Nature's kindly law,"--of “ the. up a chicken for her at table, “ for to tinet native to their sphere"-of" imthis labour she is equal."

pregning every emotion” of “con. The author speaks of his having generous superstructure”-of constructed his language with a short while," &c. greater latitude of rhetorical embel- In our judgment, this work, though lishment than is usually thought to far from being a flimsy, and inferiour be consistent with English prose; and production, will not afford much sawe have given a sample of these his tisfaction to either sex. It is barren Aights into airy regions. Besides of character; and the heroine sustaing which, we have detected occasional an unnatural part, when, instead of be. incorrectness, and an affectation of ing shown the world before she makes employing terms which are not in her choice, she is presented to us as common use. At p. 19, he exclaims: the sage moralist and the learned “How few are the authors whose critick. Quodcunque ostersis mihi sic, works can be read through without &c. receiving contamination." According Like most moderns, the author to the construction of this sentence, misquotes the couplet of Hudibras, works receive contamination in con- which should be: sequence of being read; a meaning “ lle that assenis against his will which the author does not intend to Is of the same opinion still.”

FROM THE QUARTERLY REVIEW. Memoir on Fiorin Grass, by W. Richardson, D. D. late Fellow of Trinity College,

Dublin. From Select Papers of the Belfast Literary Society. Fasciculus 1. IN laying before our readers an ly perhaps, inclined to derive from the account of this remarkable grass, words fave (grass) and reem [butter] and if it possessed but half the value observing, with respect to this etymo. able properties described by Dr. logy, that to his knowledge the term Richardson, it would still deserve the " butter grass" is most deservedly most serious attention, not only of applied to the Fiorin. But lest our individuals, but, even of the legisla- readers should be carried away by the ture, we shall make an indiscriminate idea that this grass possesses the use of the present and of a former properties of ihe Phulwarah, or memoir on the same subject, contain- is butter tree” of India, it is right to ed in the sixth volume of the Com inform them, that the butyraceous munications of the Board of Agriculo quality of the Fiorin does not show ture, and written by the same author. itself till the juice of the grass has The former memoir was communi. passed through the lacteals and mamile cated to the Agricultural Society at lary glands of the cow; and then not the request of Mr. Davy, who wite without the aid of a churn. The butter, nessed the remarkable characters of however, that is thus ultimately prothis grass on its native spot; and, we duced from it is remarkably excelare persuaded that this circumstance lent. The Fiorin is supposed to be will excite additional interest respecte the Agrostis stolonifera, of Linneus. ing its history.

But, as this point does not seem to The term Fiorin, by which the have been accurately ascertained, and native Irish distinguish this grass, as Curtis, in his Practical ObservaDr. Richardson is, somewhat fanciful. tiens, says, that he has experienced

VOL. II.

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more disliculty in ascertaining the who commanded the British cavalry several species of the Agrostis, than in the late campaigns in the north of of all the others put together; we sub. India, as soon as he saw the Fiorin, join the following description of it. was struck with its exact resemblance

Each plant consists of numerous to the Indian grass, and was satisfied strings [stolones) which are imme- they were of the same species. The diately connected with the root; and characteristick mark of the Dúb, acthese strings are kuotted or jointed cording to colonel Macan, is this, at intervals, of from three to five that from each joint a root strikes inches. From each joint a thin, grassy downwards, and a sprout shoots upenvelope issues in the direction of the wards. It is propagated in India, not string; within which, lateral sprouts by seed, but by scattering its strings shoot forth, nearly at right angles, on the surface, and dibbling them in. to the joint. These sprouts, together in the rainy season it creeps along with the extreme point of the strings, the ground, and runs to a consideraare of a most lively green colour. The ble length, rooting at every joint; in strings themselves are much paler at the dry season it is much covered all times, and in March, are nearly by the dust and flying sand, whence white. The envelope withers as soon it derives its name, which, in the as it has discharged its obvious office, Persian language, signifies" hidden.” of protecting the advancing sprout Colonel Macan adds, that it is most from the effects of the weather, and industriously sought for, and prefergives the whole a more decayed ap- red to all other grasses in India, or pearance than might be expected account of its superiorly nutritive from its quantity, being itself a very quality, as food for cattle. thin membrane. The strings, which In sir W. Jones's catalogue of are the essential part, and constitute Indian plants, the Dáb is classed as nine tenths of the crop, vary in length a species of Agrostis; and the engraa. from three to seven feet; but are ving of it, which is copied from Dr. usually between four and five feet Roxburgh, represents it as a knotted long Their number is sometimes very or jointed grass, with fibres issuing great; and in one instance Dr. Ric from the lower, and sprouts from the chardson found one hundred and forty upper side of each joint; but the paissuing from one spontaneous root, nicle, or flowering part, is very difeach of which haul six buds. If the ferent from that of the Fiorin, and joints touch the ground, or even the resembles that of the Panicum dacty. damp mat formed by the intertexture lon, or creeping Panick grass; exceptof the strings, a sprout shoots up- ing that the spikes, which are there wards, and fibres strike downwards four in number, spread horizontally and form a rout. Each joint is, there from the stalk.- We shall take the fore, a set, from which the plant may liberty of extracting from sir W. be propagated. So that the sponta- Jones's Botanical Observations on neous root abovementioned, produced select Indian Plants, contained in the eight hundred and forty sets.* second volume of his works, the fol

The foregoing description corre- lowing account of the Dúrvá or Dub. sponds in many points, with the Dúr- "Nothing essential can be added to vá, or, as it is cominonly called, the the mere botanical description of this Dúb of India. And Dr. Richardson most beautiful grass, which Van says, that his friend, colonel Macan, Rheede has exhibited a coarse de * The panicle, or flowering part of the

lineation of its leaves only. Its flowFiorin, judging from a drawing of it which

ers, in their perfect state, are among accompanies Dr. Richardson's first me.

the loveliest objects in the vegetable moir, reseinbles that of the festuca pra

world; and appear, through a lens, tensis or meadow fesçue grass,

like minute rubies and emeralds in

a

a

canstant motion from the least breath swampy throughout the year, being of air. It is the sweetest and most often submerged by the water of a nutritious pasture for cattle; and its spring, which rises at about the disusefulness, added to its beauty, in- tance of half a mile. It has been conduced the Hindoos, in their earliest stantly observed, that the earlier the ages, to believe that it was the man spring swells, the more plentiful is sion of a benevolent nymph.” Even the crop. The immediate soil of the the Véda celebrates it; as in the fol- meadow consists of a bed of small, lowing text of the A'l'harvana: loose pebbles, which are all of a sili“ May Dúrvá, which rose from the cious nature, with a scanty covering water of life, which has a hundred of mould; and though the herbage of roots and a hundred stems, efface a the adjoining meadows is altogether hundred of my sins, and prolong my very exuberant, yet this exuberance existence on earth a hundred years!" may be traced, increasingordeclining,

But the excellence of the Fiorin, according as the soil varies, more or supposing it to be the Agrostis sto- less, from that of the principal mealonifera, is neither unknown nor un- dow. The produce of the meadow celebrated in the annals of English consists of several grasses; the chief agriculture; although, from particu- of which are varieties of the Poa trilar circumstances, its history has been vialis, the Alopecurus pratensis, and hitherto involved in much obscurity. the Agrostis stolonifera. It is mowed It constitutes a considerable portion twice in summer, and, after a favoura of the produce of a meadow in Wilt- able season for watering, the first crop shire, the uncommon fertility of is nearly five tons from each acre; which was noticed by herbarists the second, about half as much. The more than one hundred and fifty years first crop consists principally of the since. This meadow, which is situa- Poa trivialis; the last, of the Agrostis ted near Orcheston, about twelve stolonisera. With respect to the grass miles to the north of Salisbury, is of this celebrated meadow, it is olyspoken of in Howe's Phytologia Bri- served, that all cattle eat it eagerly, tannica, which was published in the and that horses will eat the hay made year 1650; and in Merrel's Pinax, from it in preference to corn, mixed published in 1667. And references with chaff. are made to these authors respecting We have carried ihe foregoing obit, in bishop Gibson's additions to servations, on the Indian and the Cainden. It is again mentioned in Orcheston grass, further than to Stillingtleet's Miscellaneous Tracts. many may seem necessary; hoping

. "But no publick inquiry took place re- they may help to elucidate the sub). specting it, till some years ago: the ject of the present memoir, of which Bath Agricultural Society, struck by we shall now give às short and conthe accounts of its remarkable ferti. nected an epitome as we are able. lity, emplɔyed agents for the purpose The testimonies in favour of the of ascertaining the nature of its pro- excellent pasturage of Ireland are duce. Since that time it has been vi. numerous, from Giraldus Cambrensis sited by several botanists, from whose down to the present day. That which accounts we have collected those cir- is most to our purpose we found in a cumstances of its history, which are letter, dated 1693, contained in a Namost applicable to the present occa- tural History of Ireland; wliich was sion. The meadow is situated in the published at Dublin in 1726. This lowest part of a very narrow, winding letter, in giving an account of the valley, sheltered on each side by gra- Giants’ Causeway, and describing the dual, but by no means lofty, acclivi. neighbouring coast as elevated very ties of chalk. It is subject to frequent far above the sea, but rising gradually and continued inundations during the on the land side, to the edge of the winter, and is rarely otherwise than precipice, says, 6 that it is all covereil

can

with excellent sweet grass. It was

extraordinary qualities, entertaining in this very neighbourhood that Dr. faint hopes of obtaining credit or even Richardson first became acquainted attention, our readers will not be with the Fiorin, in consequence of surprised if we make our selection having purchased a small farm on with great caution; nor must be be the little peninsula of Portrush; offended with us if we doubt the reawhich is situated a few miles to the sonableness of those expectations, in southwest of the Giants’ Causeway, which, too incautiously perhaps, for and projects in the form of a cliff his future fame, he indulyes. Thus, about half a mile into the Northern when he describes the Fiorin, not ocean. This farm, Dr. R. says, has only as superiour to most, if not all long been famous for the verdure, other grasses, and better fitted to abundance, and excellence of its pas- every separate use to which grass ture; and it has been repeatedly ob- be applied; thriving almost served, that the tallow, and the butter equally in soils of the most contrary made from the milk of the cattle fed descriptions; the richest, the poorest, there, surpassed, both in quantity and the deepest, and the shallowest, the quality, those of any other farm in tops of mountains, and the bottoms the country. The grass of this pas- of valleys; bearing greater extremes ture consists almost entirely of Fio- of wet and of drought than any other rin. During three and twenty years, grass, or, perhaps, vegetable; growing Dr. R. made comparative experi- with full vigour under the shade of ments on the excellence of the Porc- trees, and equally grateful to cattle rush pasturage, and that of some when mowed from this situation, as glebe which he possesses in the from the open field; and, lastly, as county of Tyrone; and though he being perfectly insensible to the highhad always good grass on the latter, est degree of cold, since he saw the and the glebe itself was in a very vegetation of its tenderest shoots unrich country, yet he in variably ob- interrupted by one of the bitterest served, that the same cow gave above frosts he remembers, and their lively a third more milk, and of a far supe- green preserved equally, whether riour quality, when fed on the Port- they were above the surface or burush, than on the Tyrone pasturage. ried under the snow; when, we say, This, he says, is the more remarka- he describes all these extraordinary ble, because the greater part of the and opposite qualities as existing in Portrush meadow is composed of a his favourite grass, who can choose very shallow soil, rarely three inches but smile at his fond partiality? On deep, covering a solid basaltick rock; the report of his experiments, we are and much burnt up in summer. In fully disposed to rely with confidence; like manner, the Fiorin is distin- though even here we dare not anticiguished by its high verdure on the pate the same degree of success, from cliffs and steeps facing the Northern the general cultivation of this grass ocean, particularly about the Giants' which he met with in the particular Causeway; occasionally forcing its instances mentioned by bim. The exroots into the crevices of the rock, tent of that success may be judged of, and even into the diminutive inter- by the following statement. vals between the pillars of the cause- In November, 1806, Dr. Richardway.

son planted a piece of ground with The present occasion does not re- Fiorin; of which, having obtained a quire a minute statement of the ob- number of distinct plants, he comservations and experiments made on menced by laying one down, and this grass by Dr. Richardson. And, slightly covering the root with earth: indeed, since he himself is “almost he then stretched its string in a line, afraid of entering into a detail of its laying a little loose earth upon it here

and there, merely for the purpose of being housed at the end of three holding it down. Where the string weeks, it was suffered to remain unended, another root was laid down, der the open air for more than two and its string was stretched in contin months; and, on the 4th of March, it nuation of the former line, and so on was still fresh and fragrant, and retainto the end of the piece of ground. At ed the healthy green in its strings: and two feet distance he made a similar through the whole of the winter, Tow, parallel to the former; and thus ibere was not a single string that continued till the whole piece of showed the least tendency to rot or ground was planted. The strings decay. soon showed symptoms of vegetation; Of the first crop, which was housed and in the following July, the inter- on Dec. 28, several strings were set mediate spaces were so completely in a hot house on the same day: these occupied by new string's, that it was soon began to put forth fresh sprouts. difficult to find out the original drills. Other strings, taken from the same The succeeding autumn was wet and hay, were planted on the 18th of Ja. severe, and the grass was, in conse- nuary, and the 5th of February folquence, flattened down; but, though lowing. These also, soon began to vematted like a crop of vetches, the getate from every point. The same under part was very thick, and ex- experiment was repeated on Feb. 27, clusively composed of long strings, March 18, and April 8, on strings taevery one of which was in bigh ve- ken both from the hay that was getation, from the root to the ex- housed, and from that which remaintreme point.

ed in the field; and the success was A portion of this meadow was the same in every instance. mowed, on December 7, 1807, and, This retentive faculty of the princontrary to Dr. Richardson's expec- ciple of vegetable life, so conspicuous tations, after so wet and severe a sea- in the Fiorin, Dr. Richardson thinks son, the sward, instead of sinking, may be explained by its peculiar nawas so raised up by the length and ture in not producing panicles till the coarseness of the strings, that in half second year; for, he argues, that as an hour it was dry. It was then made all vegetables appear to advance in a up in small heaps, which were after- state of progressive improvement, wards turned over every other day, until they arrive at the period of in order to expose the damp side to flowering and producing their seed, the wind. At the end of eight days after which the powers of vegetation these heaps were opened for half an seem to abate;

and as most grasses hour; and then made into larger put forth their seed in the same year heaps, four feet high each, these in which they were sown, it hence were opened three or four times du- happens, that grasses in general will ring a fortnight, and were housed at not support the inclemency of the the end of three weeks; reckoning succeeding winter: but the Fiorin not from the time when the grass was putting forth its panicles till the secut, during which the weather was cond year, and consequently, not singularly unfavourable, attended having attained its point of perfection with great deluges of rain, succeeded till that time, the strings improve by an extraordinary heavy fall of progressively through the whole of snow, which was followed by close The first year; whence it follows, that damps.

it is even advantageous to defer the Another portion of the same mea. mowing of Fiorin till winter. dow was mowed on Dec. 26; and the Another great advantage attending process of making the hay was con- the cultivation of Fiorin is this, that ducted in the same manner as in the whereas grass seed cannot be sown preceding instance: but, instead of with prudence earlier than the mid

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