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with excellent sweet grass." It was extraordinary qualities, entertaining in this very neighbourhood that Dr. faint hopes of obtaining credit or even Richardson first became acquainted attention, our readers will not be with the Fiorin, in consequence of surprised if we make our selection having purchased a small farm on with great caution; nor must he be the little peninsula of Portrush; offended with us if we doubt the reawhich is situated a few miles to the sonableness of those expectations, in southwest of the Giants’ Causeway, which, too incautiously perhaps, for and projects in the form of a cliff his future fame, he indulges. Thus, about half a mile into the Northern when he describes the Fiorin, not ocean. This farm, Dr. R says, has only as superiour to most, if not all long been famous for the verdure, other grasses, and better fitted to abundance, and excellence of its pas- every separate use to which grass ture; and it has been repeatedly ob- can be applied; thriving almost served, that the tallow, and the butter equally in soils of the most contrary made from the milk of the cattle fed descriptions; the richest, the poorest, there, surpassed, both in quantity and the deepest, and the shallowest, the quality, those of any other farm in tops of mountains, and the bottoms the country. The grass of this pas- of valleys; bearing greater extremes ture consists almost entirely of Fio- of wet and of drought than any other rin. During three and twenty years, grass, or, perhaps, vegetable; growing Dr. R. made comparative experi- with full vigour under the shade of ments on the excellence of the Port- trees, and equally grateful to cattle rush pasturage, and that of some when mowed from this situation, as glebe which he possesses in the from the open field; and, lastly, as county of Tyrone; and though he being perfectly insensible to the highhad always good grass on the latter, est degree of cold, since he saw the and the glebe itself was in a very vegetation of its tenderest shoots unrich country, yet he invariably ob- interrupted by one of the bitterest served, that the same cow gave above frosts he remembers, and their lively a third more milk, and of a far supe- green preserved equally, whether riour quality, when fed on the Port- they were above the surface or burush, than on the Tyrone pasturage. ried under the snow; when, we say, This, he says, is the more remarka- he describes all these extraordinary ble, because the greater part of the and opposite qualities as existing in Portrush meadow is composed of a his favourite grass, who can choose very shallow soil, rarely three inches but smile at his fond partiality ? On deep, covering a solid basaltick rock; the report of his experiments, we are and much burnt up in summer. In fully disposed to rely with confidence; like manner, the Fiorin is distin- though even here we dare not anticiguished by its high verdure on the pate the same degree of success, from cliffs and steeps facing the Northern the general cultivation of this grass ocean, particularly about the Giants' which he met with in the particular Causeway; occasionally forcing its instances mentioned by bim. The exroots into the crevices of the rock, tent of that success may be judged of, and even into the dininutive inter- by the following statement. vals between the pillars of the cause- In November, 1806, Dr. Richardway.
son planted a piece of ground with The present occasion does not re- Fiorin; of which, having obtained a. quire a minute statement of the ob- number of distinct plants, he comservations and experiments made on menced by laying one down, and this grass by Dr. Richardson. And, sliglitly covering the root with earth: indeed, since he himself is “almost he then streiched its string in a line, afraid of entering into a detail of its laying a little loose earth upon it here
and there, merely for the purpose of being housed at the end of three holding it down. Where the string weeks, it was suffered to remain unended, another root was laid dowil, der the open air for more than two and its string was stretched in contie months; and, on the 4th of March, it nuation of the former line, and so on was still fresh and fragrant, and retainto the end of the piece of ground. At edthe healthy green in its strings: and two feet distance he made a simnilar through the whole of the winter, row, parallel to the former; and thus there was not a single string that continued till the whole piece of showed the least tendency to rot or ground was planted. The strings decay. soon showed symptoms of vegetation; Of the first crop, which was housed and in the following July, the inter- on Dec. 28, several strings were set mediate spaces were so completely in a hot house on the same day: these occupied by new strings, that it was soon began to put forth fresh sprouts. difficult to find out the original drills. Other strings, taken from the same The succeeding autumn was wet and hay, were planted on the 18th of Ja. severe, and the grass was, in conse- nuary, and the 5th of February fol. quence, flattened down; but, though lowing. These also, soon began to vematted like a crop of vetches, the getate from every point. The same under part was very thick, and ex- experiment was repeated on Feb. 27, clusively composed of long strings, March 18, and April 8, on strings taevery one of which was in bigh ve- ken both from the hay that was getation, from the root to the ex- housed, and from that which remaintreme point.
ed in the field; and the success was A portion of this meadow was the same in every instance. mowed, on December 7, 1807, and, This retentive faculty of the princontrary to Dr. Richardson's expec- ciple of vegetable life, so conspicuous tations, after so wet and severe a sea- in the Fiorin, Dr. Richardson thinks son, the sward, instead of sinking, may be explained by its peculiar nawas so raised up by the length and ture in not producing panicles till the coarseness of the strings, that in half second year; for, he argues, that as an hour it was dry. It was then made all vegetables appear to advance in a up in small heaps, which were after- state of progressive improvement, wards turned over every other day, until they arrive at the period of in order to expose the damp side to flowering and producing their seed, the wind. At the end of eight days after which the powers of vegetation these heaps were opened for half an seem to abate; and as most grasses hour; and then made into larger put forth their seed in the same year heaps, four feet high each, these in which they were sown, it hence were opened three or four times du- happeos, that grasses in general will ring a fortnight, and were housed at not support the inclemency of the the end of three weeks; reckoning . succeeding winter: but the Fiorin not from the time when the grass was putting forth its panicles till the secut, during which the weather was cond year, and consequently, not singularly unfavourable, attended having attained its point of perfection with great deluges of rain, succeeded till that time, the strings improve by an extraordinary heavy fall of progressively through the whole of snow, which was followed by close The first year; whence it follows, that damps.
it is even advantageous to defer the Another portion of the same mea- mowing of Fiorin till winter. dow was mowed on Dec. 26; and the Another great advantage attending process of making the hay was con- the cultivation of Fiorin is this, that ducted in the same manner as in the whereas grass seed cannot be sown preceding instance: but, instead of with prudence earlier than the mid
dle of March, or later than the middle But it is unnecessary to dwell lona of September, at which seasons the ger on the excellencies of this grass. farmer is necessarily very much en. Enough has been said, gaged in other employments, the ceive, to direct the attention of the Fiorin strings may be planted at any agricultural reader to a subject, time: and, according to Dr. Richard. which, unless the author of the preson, a crop may be obtained from this sent memoir has greatly deceived grass more cheaply and more expe. himself, must be considered of the ditiously than from any other. highest importance.
FROM THE BRITISH CRITICK.
Compendium of the Laws and Constitution of England. By William Enfield, M. 1:
12mo. pp. 374. 48. 6il. 1809. THIS compendium may be pro- tertaining and instructive, are not perly characterized as a clear and necessary to a right understanding well digested abridgment of Black of the subject, the compiler has stone's Commentaries, and may be brought the whole system of English a very convenient manual to those law into a narrow compass, and has who have not sufficient leisure to pe- given us the substance of an expenruse the original. We have not ob- sive work, at a very inconsiderable served that any material point of law price. We do not hesitate to recome is omitted, or misrepresented. By mend this publication as one of the leaving out the declamatory and dis most useful of the kind, which have cursive passages, which, though en- come under our notice.
FROM THE BRITISH CRITICK.
Tales of Instruction and Amusement. Written for the Use of young Persons. By Miss
Mitchell, Author of Rational Amusement, Faithful Contract, and Moral Tales. Octavo pp. 252. 1807.
INDEED these are, in a high de- “ You are now entering on a more gree,
“ Tales of Instruction and extensive plan of education: you are Amusement;" and we strongly re- mixing with a larger society: but do commend them to the use of young not in the publick seminary, forget the persons. It appears, from an affection- private friend. Let those precepts it ate dedication to Miss and Miss M. has always been my ardent desire to A. Harrison, that the author was inculcale, still live in your remememployed in conducting their educa- brance. Let them warn you, that tion, during the early part of it; and however desirable. musick, drawing, we find, with great satisfaction, this and those elegant accomplishments, lesson continually inculcated, that re- befitting your rank, may be, they are ligion and virtue, must ever be the still but secondary considerations; basis of solid happiness We cannot which, though they may render you afford room for one of these tales, agreeable, can never, without higher though they are far from being long acquirements, make you beloved. or tedious; but a few lines, from the They may impart pleasure, but can dedication, will sufficiently recom- never bestow happiness.” p. 6. mend the whole book.
BIOGRAPHICAL ANECDOTES OF THE LATE MARSHAL SOUWOROW.
THE following are extracts from of conduct obtained, at length, such a historical account of the celebra. a preponderance over his mind, that ted field marshal count Souworow he found obedience of every descripRymniski, prince Italiski, lately pub-, tion became absolutely impossible; lished in the French language, by M. and that, in the end, he would even Guillauinanches-Duboscage, lieuten- have refused to command the armies ant colonel of Kinbourne dragoons, of his sovereign, had she attempted to and staff officer in the army of field trace a plan for his campaign, or to marshal Souworow, in the years bind him to such or such operations, 1794, 1795, and 1796.
in preference to any other. “ When Souworow was born at Moscow, in my sovereign does me the honour to 1730, of a family originally Swedish, intrust me with the command of her enjoying but a very small property. armies," would he say, “she believes He entered the army in 1742, as a me capable of leading them to victoprivate soldier; and was forced to re- ry; and how can she judge better tha main undistinguished during many an old soldier, like me, who is on the years, in inferiour situations. In the spot, of the best course to that object ? course of this time, feeling the supe. In consequence, when she sends me riority of his own mental powers, and orders contrary to her true interest, the insufficiency of those of his chiefs, I suppose that they have been sugwhose faults he could see and point gested to her by courtiers, her eneout, he resolved, in order to raise mies; and I act in the manner which himself above their command, to af- appears to me to be most conducive fect that singularity of character, to her glory." which afterwards, through habit, be- In many circumstances, the genius came in hin a second nature; and of Souworow, overstepping the narstamped both his mind and his per- low limits of the orders he had reson, with characteristicks exclusively ceived, led him boldly on to certain his own. In this he succeeded com- victory. Of this the following are inpletely. In a short time he attracted stances: notice, and the dawn of his talents In the campaign of 1771, in which pierced through the obscurity of the he served as major general, he relower stations, to which he had been ceived information that the marshal confined for the first five years. After of Lithuania was forming an army of the year 1749, his rise was sufficiently Poles, at Stalowitz. lie immediately rapid, and ten years afterwards, being gave notice of it to Boutourlin, comthen twenty nine years of age, he was mander in chief of the Russian army, made lieutenant colonel. However, in a very cautious and indolent man; repursuance of his adopted system, the questing at the same time an order for more he advanced in rank, the more attacking them. Boutourlin, knowing he affected to be whimsical This line that Suuworow had only a few hun. dred men under him, expressly for- renew the siege, and to take the combad him to undertake any thing. But mand of it. Notwithstanding the danSouworow, who, that very instant, gers attending an expedition which had learned that the Polish confede- had already miscarried twice, Sou. rates had defeated the Petersburgh worow, always relying with confiregiment, that their numbers were dence on his own resources, accepted daily increasing, and already exceed the proposal by saying simply: “ It is ed five thousand, judged that he could the empress's wish: she must be obeynot delay for one moment, the de- ed." He immediately assembled his struction of a nucleus, already too troops, and after four days of forced considerable. He hastily collected his marches, arrived under the walls of little army, amounting to one thousand Ismaïloff; several days were spent in men only, and marched in quest of preparing fascines, ladders, and all
the enemy. In four days he marched the instruments necessary for an as. ' upwards of fifty leagues, fell unex- sault. In the meantime, he got a fort
pectedly upon the Poles, in the mid- constructed in a remote place, to exdle of the night, defeated and dis- ercise his .soldiers in scaling walls; persed them, and took Stalowitz, with and, the better to deceive the enemy, twelve pieces of cannon. The day af- he caused a trench to be opened with. ter he followed up his victory, and in thirty or forty fathoms of the place; destroyed whatever had escaped from as if he meant to proceed by a reguthe first battle. He then hastened to lar siege.“ Every thing was prepared transmit to Boutourlin the details of for the assault,” says the author, this daring expedition, by writing to “the orders were given, the columns him:“ As a soldier I have disobeyed; were beginning their march, in the I must be punished; and I send you middle of the night, when an officer my sword-But, as a Russian, I have arrived with despatches from prince done my duty, in destroying the con- Potemkin. Souworow guessed that federate forces, which we could not those despatches contained an order have withstood had they been al- to retreat, or some secret snare. The lowed sufficient time in which to col. fact was, that Potemkin could not but lect," Bontourlin was wonder-struck. shudder at the uncertainty of such an Not knowing in what manner to act enterprise; when, considering the intowards Souworow, he determined to clemency of the season, the fortificawrite to the empress for orders. On tions of Ismailoff, mounting 232 the receipt of his letter, Catherine guns, and defended by 43,000 men; wrote to the victorious general: his anxiety was considerably increati Marshal Boutourlin, as your chief, sed by the knowledge he had, that one must put you under an arrest, 10 half of that army was composed of punish the want of subordination in Janissaries, commanded by
seven the soldier; as your sovereign, I re- Pacha's; while Souworow, to overserve to myself the pleasure of re- come so great difficulties, had only compensing the zeal of the faithful 28,000 men, the half of whom were subject, who, by a splendid action, cossacks Wishing, therefore, to has so well served his country.” She throw the whole blame and the whole sent him the order of St. Alexander. shame of the iniscarriage on that ge
In 1790, the empress had given peral, he had written to him, not to express orders to take Ismaïlofl; the risk the assault, unless he was certain siege of that place having been twice of taking the place. raised. Potemkin, who commanded “ Souworow guessing the contents The Russian army, fearing to disobey of the letter, ordered his aide-deCatherine for the third time, commų. camp to get a horse ready for him, nicated his orders to Souworow, pro- at his tent door, in such a situation as posing to him, at the same time, to to bar the entrance. He recommended