« PredošláPokračovať »
dle of March, or later than the middle But it is unnecessary to dwell lon. of September, at which seasons the ger on the excellencies of this grass. farmer is necessarily very much en- Enough has been said, gaged in other employments, the ceive, to direct the attention of the Fiorin strings may be planted at any agricultural reader to a subject, time: and, according to Dr. Richard. which, unless the author of the preson, a crop may be obtained from this sent memoir has greatly deceived grass more cheaply and more expe. himself, must be considered of the ditiously than from any other. highest importance.
FROM THE BRITISH CRITICK. Compendium of the Laws and Constitution of England. By William Enfield, M. A:
12mo. pp. 374. 48. 6.1. 1809. THIS compendium may be pro- tertaining and instructive, are not perly characterized as a clear and necessary to a right understanding well digested abridgment of Black of the subject, the compiler has stone's Commentaries, and may be brought the whole system of English a very convenient manual to those law into a narrow compass, and has who have not sufficient leisure to pe- given us the substance of an expenruse the original. We have not ob. sive work, at a very inconsiderable served that any material point of law price. We do not hesitate to recomis omitted, or misrepresented. By mend this publication as one of the leaving out the declamatory and dis. most useful of the kind, which have cursive passages, which, though en- come under our notice.
FROM THE BRITISH CRITICK. Tales of Instruction and Amusement. Written for the Use of young Persons. By Miss
Mitchell, Author of Rational Amusement, Faithful Contract, and Moral Tales. Octavo pp. 252. 1807.
INDEED these are, in a high de- “ You are now entering on a more gree, “ Tales of Instruction and extensive plan of education: you are Amusement;" and we strongly re- mixing with a larger society: but do commend them to the use of young not in the publick seminary, forget the persons. It appears, from an affection- private friend. Let those precepts it ate dedication to Miss and Miss M.
has always been my ardent desire to A. Harrison, that the author was inculcale, still live in your remememployed in conducting their educa• brance. Let them warn you, that tion, during the early part of it; and however desirable. musick, drawing, we find, with great satisfaction, this and those elegant accomplishments, lesson continually inculcated, that re. befitting your rank, may be, they are ligion and virtue, must ever be the still but secondary considerations; basis of solid happiness We cannot which, though they may render you afford room for one of these tales, agreeable, can never, without higher though they are far from being long acquirements, make you beloved. or tedious; but a few lines, from the They may impart pleasure, but can dedication, will sufficiently recom- never bestow happiness." p. 6. mend the whole book.
SPIRIT OF THE MAGAZINES.
BIOGRAPHICAL ANECDOTES OF TIIE LATE MARSILAL SOUWOROW.
THE following are extracts from of conduct obtained, at length, such a historical account of the celebra. a preponderance over his mind, that ted field marshal count Souworow he found obedience of every descripRymniski, prince Italiski, lately pub- tion became absolutely impossible; lished in the French language, by M. and that, in the end, he would even Guillauinanches-Duboscage, lieuten- have refused to command the armies ant colonel of Kinbourne dragoons, of his sovereign, had she attempted to and staff officer in the army of field trace a plan for his campaign, or to marshal Souworow, in the years bind him to such or such operations, 1794, 1795, and 1796.
in preference to any other. “ When Souworow was born at Moscow, in my sovereign does me the honour to 1730, of a family originally Swedish, intrust me with the command of her enjoying but a very small property. armies,” would he say, “ she believes He entered the army in 1742, as a me capable of leading them to vicioprivate soldier; and was forced to re- ry; and how can she judge better than main undistinguished during many an old soldier, like me, who is on the years, in inferiour situations. In the spot, of the best course to that object ? course of this time, feeling the supe. In consequence, when she sends me riority of his own mental powers, and orders contrary to her true interest, the insufficiency of those of his chiefs, I suppose that they have been sugwhose faults he could see and point gested to her by courtiers, her eneout, he resolved, in order to raise mies; and I act in the manner which himself above their command, to af- appears to me to be most conducive fect that singularity of character, to her glory.” which afterwards, through habit, be- In many circumstances, the genius came in hiin a second nature; and of Souworow, overstepping the narstamped both his mind and his per- low limits of the orders he had reson, with characteristicks exclusively ceived, led him boldly on to certain his own. In this he succeeded com- victory. Of this the following are inpletely. In a short time he attracted stances: notice, and the dawn of his talents In the campaign of 1771, in which pierced through the obscurity of the he served as major general, he relower stations, to which he had been ceived information that the marshal confined for the first five years. After of Lithuania was forming an army of the year 1749, his rise was sufficiently Poles, at Stalowitz. lle immediately rapid, and ten years afterwards, being gave notice of it to Boutourlin, comthen twenty nine years of age, he was
mander in chief of the Russian army, made lieutenant colonel. However, in a very cautious and indolent man; repursuance of his adopted system, the questing at the same time an order for more he advanced in rank, the more attacking them. Boutourlin, knowing he affected to be whimsical This line that Souworow had only a few hun. dred men under him, expressly for- renew the siege, and to take the combad him to undertake any thing. But mand of it. Notwithstanding the danSouworow, who, that very instant, gers attending an expedition which had learned that the Polish confede- had already miscarried twice, Sou. rates had defeated the Petersburgh worow, always relying with confiregiment, that their numbers were dence on his own resources, accepted daily increasing, and already exceed- the proposal by saying simply: “It is ed five thousand, judged that he could the empress's wish: she must be obeynot delay for one moment, the de- ed.” He immediately assembled his struction of a nucleus, already too troops, and after four days of forced considerable. He hastily collected his marches, arrived under the walls of little army, amounting to one thousand Ismaïloff; several days were spent in men only, and marched in quest of preparing fascines, ladders, and all the enemy. In four days he marched the instruments necessary for an asupwards of fifty leagues, fell unex- sault. In the meantime, he got a fort pectedly upon the Poles, in the mid- constructed in a remote place, to exdle of the night, defeated and dis- ercise his soldiers in scaling walls; persed them, and took Stalowitz, with and, the better to deceive the enemy, twelve pieces of cannon. The day af- he caused a trench to be opened withter he followed up bis rictory, and in thirty or forty fathoms of the place; elestroyed whatever had escaped from as if he meant to proceed by a reguthe first battle. He then hastened to lar siege. “ Every thing was prepared transmit to Boutourlin the details of for the assault,” says the author, this daring expedition, by writing to “the orders were given, the columns him:“ As a soldier I have disobeyed; were beginning their march, in the I must be punished; and I send you middle of the night, when an officer my sword-But, as a Russian, I have arrived with despatches from prince elone my duty, in destroying the con- Potemkin. Souworow guessed that federate forces, which we could not those despatches contained an order have withstood had they been a}- to retreat, or some secret snare. The lowed sufficient time in which to col. fact was, tbat Potemkin could not but lect.” Boutourlin was wonder-struck. shudder at the uncertainty of such an Not knowing in wbat manner to act enterprise; when, considering the intowards Souworow, he determined to clemency of the season, the fortificawrite to the empress for orders. On tions of Ismailoff, mounting 232 the receipt of his letter, Catherine guns, and defended by 43,000 men; wrote to the victorious general: his anxiety was considerably increa“ Marshal Boutourlin, as your chief, sed by the knowledge he had, that one must put you under an arrest, to half of that army was composed of punish the want of subordination in Janissaries, commanded by seven the soldier; as your sovereign, I re- Pacha's; while Souworow, to overserve to myself the pleasure of re- come so great difficulties, had only compensing the zeal of the faithful 28,009 men, the half of whom were subject, who, by a splendid action, cossacks Wishing, therefore, to has so well served his country.” She throw the whole blame and the whole sent him the order of St. Alexander. shame of the iniscarriage on that ge
In 1790, the empress had given peral, he had written to him, not to express orders to take Ismaïlofl; the risk the assault, unless he was certain siege of that place having been twice of taking the place. raised. Potenkin, who commanded “ Souworow guessing the contents the Russian army, fearing to disobey of the letter, ordered his aide-ceCatherine for the third time, commu. camp to get a horse ready for him, nicated his orders to Souworow, pro- at his tent door, in such a situation as sosing to hiin, at the same time, to to bar the entrance. Heixcommended
at the same time, to keep the mes. from agreeable; but his look was full senger waiting, as he intended to take of fire, quick, and above all, it was his despatches himself on going out. penetrating. It was impossible to see He soon after made his appearance, more wrinkles, or more expressive, pretended not to perceive the mes, than those on his forehead. At the senger, vaulted on his horse, and set age of sixty four, his head, whitened forward at full gallop, to join the co- by age, and by the fatigues of war, lumns of his army.
retained but few of its hairs. “ The Russians scaled the in- Though, to all appearance, of a trenchments with intrepidity. The weak and delicate frame, he was blessTurks opposed to them a vigorous ,ed with a very robust and vigorous resistance; but the fortifications were constitution; which he had constantcarried. A dreadful conflict imme- ly strengthened by a sober, hardy, diately began in the town. In short, and active life. Being seldom or neafter ten hours of the most sanguina- ver sick, he supported fatigue better, ry, and almost unparalleled assault, perhaps, than men of a stronger victory declared for the Russians. make. Yet such was his want of bodily
Souworow, now victorious, sur strength, at the age already mentionrounded by his general officers, who ed, that even the bare weight of his were congratulating him, perceives sabre made him stoop. Potemkin's messenger:
( Who art Souworow, in his temper, was hasthou, brother?' says he, addressing ty and vehement. When he was him. It is I,' answered the officer, deeply affected, his countenance be
who yesterday evening brought came stern, commanding, and even despatches from prince Potemkin.' terrible; it portrayed the sensations Souworow then pretended to be in a of his heart. But this seldom hapgreat passion. Thou bringest me,' pened; and never without powerful said he, orders from my sovereign; motives. thou art here since yesterday; and On one point, this old warriour thou hast not delivered them to me!' showed a weakness. It respected his He immediately took the letter, and age. He could not bear to be put in threatening the messenger with the mind of it, and carefully avoided severest chastisement, handed it to whatever might recall it to his memoone of his generals, to read it aloud. ry. For this reason, looking-glasses
“ When that communication had were taken away, or covered, in his been made, Souworow turned towards apartments, or wherever he went on his officers, smiling and crossing a visit. Nothing was more comical himself: " Thanks be to God said he, than to see him pass before a looking• Ismailoff is taken; but for that I had glass. When, by mischance, he perbeen a lost man.'—The answer he ceived ore, he would run, shutiing immediately returned to prince Po- his eyes, and making all kind of wry temkin deserves to be known, from faces, till he was out of the room. its heroick conciseness:
“ It would be a great mistake, how66 The Russian standard floats on the ever,” observes the author, “ to conwalls of Ismailoff.-SOUWOROW." sider this oddity, as produced by saHe gave
that letter to the messen- perannuated pretensions to beauty. ger; and sent him off that very in- The marshal himself often made
merry with his own countenance; The exteriour appearance of mar- and as to his singular aversion for shal Souworow agreed perfectly with looking glasses, I have heard him the oddicy of his teniper. His stature repeat, frequently, that he never was short, about five feet one inch looked at himself, in order to avoid [French] his mouth was large; and being made sensible of the havock of the whole of his features was far time; and that he might continue to
believe himself still able to execute the entertainment was composed of the same military enterprises as in cossack-ragouts, excessively bad; but
; his youth; for the same reason when- which nobody presumed to notice as ever he found a chair in his way, he such. Each dish went round, and conwould leap over it, to show that he tained a separate mess for each guest. retained his activity. It was also for As Souworow was like no one, his the same cause that he seldom walk- mode of dress must of course, be uted, but always ran; particularly when terly unlike that of every body else.
. coming into, or going out of, his Jockey boots, half cleaned, ill made, apartment Nor was he deterred from and slouching, with knee pieces co
. so doing by the most numerous com- ming up very high; breeches of white pany. He would even redouble his dimity; a jacket of the same, with a capers, and his anticks of every kind, cape and facings of green linen; a before strangers of high rank; to con- white waistcoat underneath, and a vince them, that he was able, not- small woollen helmet, withstanding his age, to bear the fa. fringes. Such was his dress when tigues of war, fully as well as when a with the army, in all seasons of the young man."
year. What made this apparel still Marshal Souworow was in the ha- more whimsical, was the circumbit of rising, the whole year round, at stance of his having two old wounds, four o'clock in the morning; but one in the knee, and the other in the sometimes at iwelve at night. On ri- leg, which often incommoded hirn, sing, he went out of his tent, and had and compelled him, now and then, to several pails of cold water thrown on wear his boot on one leg only; having his naked body. Neither his advanced the knee band loosened, and the age, nor the inclemency of seasons, stocking down, on the other. Add to ever made him relax from this singu- this, a huge sabre hanging down to lar practice. He usually dined at eight the ground. He was so thin and sleno'clock in the morning in winter; and der, that this light dress seemed at seven in summer. Dinner was his hardly to hang on his person. When, principal meal. It was his only time however, the cold was excessively infor recreation; and he accordingly, tense, he would exchange the dimity indulged often in long sittings at ta- dress, for one of white cloth, exactly ble, where he sometimes forgot him- of the same fashion; but this was but self, for a longer time han he could seldom. In this singular costume, have wished. He never sat down to Souworow commanded, inspected, table, or rose from it, without saying addressed, and encamped his soldiers a previous grace, or returning thanks, on the frozen plains of Russia. He to which he sometimes added a short had obtained a great quantity of deblessing for his guests. It they diunot corations and diamonds, in recomünswer amen, he would say, jokingly, pense of his numerous victories. On *those who have not said amen shall occasions of important ceremony, he have no brandy.” Although he was was covered with them, and on those very fond of wine, and of liquors, yet occasions only, would he display his he never was seen intoxicated. He splendid uniform of field-marshal, ate and drank a great deal, because he but, in private, or at the head of his had naturally a great appetite; and, troops, of all his orders, he only wore besides, dinner was his only meal. the riband of the third class, of that of The rest of the day, he would take St. Andrew. only some cups of tea or of coffee. He Although this extreme external was in the habit of sleeping an hour simplicity had all the appearance of or two alter his dinner, according to
avarice, those would be egregiously the ordinary pracuce in Russia. His mistaken whocould suspect Souworow Lable was in general, far from delicate; of that mean vice. He always mani