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made a purchase but he paid the of outliving his usefulness. He often money immediately; for small ar- dined among his friends, usually conticles the money was taken in the nected a comprehensive prayer with hand. He was truly generous, and his thanksgiving when the table was seldom denied relief. More was ex. dismissed, in which he noticed pare' pected from him than was meet. He ticular cases relative to the family was tenacious in his friendship, and and never protracted his visit long afwhen the transition of Providence ter dinner. He appeared often tired moved from prosperity to adversity, of popularity; and said, he almost

, he moved with it to abide by his friend. envied the man who could take his He felt sensibly when he was deserted, choice of food at an eating house, and and would remark: “ The world and pass unnoticed. He apprehended he the church ring changes." Disap- should not glorify God in his death

” pointed by many, he had not sufficient by any remarkable testimony, and confidence in mankind; and hence I was desirous to die suddenly. believe it was, he dreaded the thought

The following is an extract of a letter from the Rev. David Scurlocke, to Mr. John

a Nichols, who has lately published a work, entitled, The Epistolary Correspondence of Sir Richard Steele, &c. The letter is dated Lovehill Farm, Langley, December 24, 1784.

STEELE and Addison wrote the dison, “ since it is now past remedy, Spectators, &c. &c. chiefly in the there is nothing to be done but this: room where I now write. They rented if it proves to be a black child, you the house of my father for occasion- shall take it; if a fair one, the care of al retirement, and kept a housekeeper it shall fall to my lot." between them. It happened that this Though I have lately built a new housekeeper proved to be in a situa- house here, I have religiously resertion that could not escape the prying ved this old part, which is attached to eye of slanderous observation; when it, and have made it my

Sanctum Steele asked Addison, very gravely, Sanctorum. Oh! that it would inspire what they should do in such a dread- me with the genius that once inhabitful predicament? “ Why," says Ad- ed it!

9

a

FROM THE PHILOSOPHICAL MAGAZINE.

Some circumstances relative to Merino Sheep, chiefly collected from the Spanish

Shepherds, who attended those of the Flock of Paular, lately presented to His Majesty by the Government of Spain; with Particulars respecting that great National Acquisition; and also respecting the Sheep of the Flock of Negrete, imported from Spain by His Majesty in the Year 1791.* By Sir Joseph BANKS.

Soho Square, February 18, 1809. the interruption of our trade with Spain Sir John,

may still continue for some time longer, AT a time like the present, when I trust that a paper written with a view to Spanish wools, though at a price unheard- facilitate the production of this valuable of in the annals of traffick, still continue article in the United Kingdom, and to come to find a market; thus clearly proving, that municate some information relative to the their value, in the estimation of the con- important present of Merino sheep lately sumer, is far above any price that has been received by our most gracious Sovereign hitherto offered for them by the manu- from the government of Spain, will be infacturer; and when we must all agree, that teresting to you, sir. I beg the favour of

* From Communications to the Board of Agriculture,

yon, in case you shall approve it, to do me for that purpose, pass their summer the lionour of placing it at the disposal of in the elevated country, which supthe very useful institution over which you plies them with abundance of rich preside with so much advantage to the agricultural interests of this country.

grass; and they do not leave the moun I have the honour to be, sir,

tains till the frost of September beYour obedient and faithful

gins to damage the herbage. humble servant,

A flock in the aggregate is called a JOSEPH BANKS. cavana. This is divided into as many Sir John Sinclair, Bart. President

subdivisions, as there are thousands of of the Board of Agriculture.

sheep belonging to it; each sheep, A considerable part of Estrema. besides being sear-marked in the face Gura, Leon, and the neighbouring with a hot iron when young, is bran. provinces of Spain, is appropriated ded after every shearing with a broad to the maintenance of the Merino pitch brand, generally of the first lete flocks, called by the Spaniards tras. ler of the name of the proprietor, and humantes, as are also broad green each subdivision is distinguished roads, leading from one province to from the rest by the part of the sheep's the other, and extensive resting-pla: body on which this mark is placed. ces, where the sheep are baited on By the laws of the mesta, each the road. So careful is the police of cavana must be governed by an offithe country to preserve them during cer called mayoral; for each subdi. their journeys from all hazard of dis- vision of a thousand sheep, five shep turbance or interruption, that no per- herds and four dogs are appointed. son, not even a foot passenger, is Some of these inferiour shepherds obsuffered to travel upon these roads tain the office of rabadon, the duty of while the sheep are in motion, unless which is to give a general superintenhe belongs to the flocks.

dance under the control of the mayo. The country on which the sheep ral, also to prescribe and administer are depastured, both in the southern medicines to the sick sheep. At the and the northern parts, is set out into time of travelling, and when the ewes divisions, separated from each other are yeaning, one or two extra shepby land marks only, without any herds are allowed for each thousand kind of fences. Each of these is called sheep. a dehesa, and is of a size capable of The number of Merino sheep in maintaining a flock of about a thou- Spain is estimated by Burgoyne at sand sheep; a greater number of 6,000,000; these of course must be course, in the south country, where attended by 30,000 shepherds, and the lambs are reared, and fewer in 24,000 dogs at ordinary times, and the north country, where the sheep they find occasional employment for arrive after the flock has been culled. 5 or 10,000 additional persons in the

Every proprietor must possess as Seasons of lambing and of travelling. many of these in each province as In their journey, each subdivision will maintain his flock. In the tem. is attended by its own shepherds and perate season of winter and spring, dogs, and kept separate, as far as may the flocks remain in Estremadura, be, from all others. The duty of the and there the ewes bring forth their dogs is to chase the wolves, who are al. Jambs in December. As soon as the ways upon the watch when the sheep increasing heats of April and May are on the road, and are more wily have scorched up the

grass,

than our foxes. They are taught also, dered the pasturage scanty, they com- when a sick sheep lags behind, unol.

their march towards the served by the shepherds, to stay with mountains of Leon; and, after having and defend it, till some one returns been shorn on the road, at vast esta- back in search of it. There are, be. blishments called esquileos, erected sides, in each subdivision aboat sis.

and ren

mence

VOL. II.

3

taire wethers, called mansos. These does not appear that any account is wear bells, and are obedient to the rendered by them to their employers, voices of the shepherds, who fre- of the value of the skins, the tallow, quently give them small pieces of &c. The profit derived by a proprietor bread. Some of the shepherds lead; from a flock, is estimated on an avethe mansos are always near them, rage at about one shilling a head, and and this disposes the flock to follow. the produce of a capital vested in a

Every sheep is well acquainted fock is said to fluctuate between five with the situation of the dehesa to and ten per cent. which its subdivision belongs, and The sheep are always low kept. It will at the end of the journey go is the business of each mayoral to straight to it, without the guidance of increase his flock to as large a numthe shepherds. Here the flock grazes ber as the land allotted to it can posall the day under the eyes of the atten- sibly maintain. When it has arrived at dants. When the evening comes on, that pitch, all further increase is usethe sheep are collected together, and less, as there is no sale for these they soon lie down to rest. The shep- sheep, unless some neighbouring herds and their dogs then lie down on flock has been reduced by mortality the ground round the flock, and below its proper number. The most sleep, as they term it, under the stars, of the lambs are, therefore, every year or in huts that afford little shelter killed as soon as they are yeaned, from inclement weather; and this is and each of those preserved is made their custom all the year, except that to suck two or three ewes; the shepeach is allowed, in his lurn, an ab- herds say, that the wool of a ewe that sence of about a month, which he brings up her lamb without assistance spends with his family; and it is re- is reduced in its value. markable, that the families of these At shearing time the shepherds, shepherds reside entirely in Leon. shearers, washers, and a multitude of

The shepherds who came with his unnecessary attendants, are fed upon majesty's flock were questioned on the flesh of the culled sheep; and it the subject of giving salt to their seems that the consumption occasion. sheep. They declared that this is only ed by this season of feasting is suffidone in the hottest season of the year, cient to devour the whole of the sheep when the sheep are on the mountains; that are draughted from the flock. that in September it is left off; and Mutton in Spain is not a favourite food; that they dare not give salt to ewes in truth, it is not in that country pre. forward with lambs, being of opinion pared for the palate as it is in this. that it causes abortion.

We have our lamb-fairs, our hogIt is scarcely credible, though it fairs, our shearling-fairs, our fairs for appears on the best authority to be culls, and our markets for fat sheep; true, that under the operation of the where the mutton, having passed laws of the nesta, which confide the through these different stages of precare of the sheep to the management paration, each under the care of men of their shepherds, without admitting whose soil and whose skill are best any interference on the part of the suited to the part they have been proprietor, no profit of the flock taught by their interest to assign 10 comes to the hands of the owner, ex- themselves, is offered for sale; and if cept what is derived from the wool. fat and good, it seldom fails to comThe carcases of the culled sheep are mand a price by the pound, from five consumed by the shepherds,* and it to ten per cent. dearer than that of

*

* The shepherds, on discovering the shearers and washers, at the esquileos, drift of the questions put to them on ihis allowance is made for the mutton with head, said that in settling the wagcs vs the which they are fed.

beef. In Spain they have no such Paular, Negrete, and Escurial, have sheep-fairs calculated to subdivide the been withheld from exportation, and education of each animal, by making retained for the royal manufactory of it pass through many hands, as works Gaudalaxara, ever since it was first of art do in a manufacturing concern; established. and they have not any fat sheep mar- The cavana of Paular consists of kets that at all resemble ours. The 36,000 sheep. It originally belonged low state of grazing in Spain ought to the rich Carthusian monastery of not therefore to be wondered at, nor that name, near Segovia. Soon after the poverty of the Spanish farmers. the prince of the peace rose into pow. They till a soil sufficiently productive er, he purchased the flock from the by nature; but are robbed of the re- monks, with the land belonging to it, ward due to the occupier, by the want both in Estremadura and in Leon, at of an advantageous market for their a price equal to twenty French franks produce, and the benefit of an exten- a head, 16s. 8d. English. All the sive consumption. Till the manufac- sheep lately arrived are marked with turing and mercantile parts of a com- a large M. the mark of don Manuel. munity become opulent enough to The number sent from Spain to the pay liberal prices, the agricultural king was 2001, equal to two subdivipart of it cannot grow rich by selling. sions of the original cavana. To make

That the sole purpose of the jour- the present the more valuable, these neys taken annually by these sheep were selected by the shepherds from is to seek food in places where it can eight subdivisions, in order to choose be found; and that these migrations young, well shaped, and fine woolled would not be undertaken. if either in animals. This fact is evident, from the northern or the southern pro- the marks which are placed on eight vinces a sefficiency of good pasture different parts of the bodies of ihe could be obtained during the whole sheep now at Kew. year, appears a matter of certainty. The whole number embarked was That change of pasture has no effect' 2,214. Of these, 214 were presented upon their wool, is clear, from all the by the Spaniards to some of his maexperiments tried in other countries, jesty's ministers, and 427 died on the and in Spain also; for Burgoyne tells journey, either at sea or on their way us, that there are stationary flocks, from Portsmouth to Kew. His maboth in Leon and in Estremadura, jesty was graciously pleased to take which produce wool quite as fine as upon himself the whole of the loss, that of the trashumantes.

which reduced the royal flock to 1573. The sheep lately presented to his Several more have since died. As the majesty are of th cavana of Paular, time of giving the ram in Spain is one of the very finest in point of pile, July, the ewes were full of lamb when and esteemed also above all others they embarked. Several of them cast for the beauty of carcase. In both their lambs. when the weather was these opinions, M.Lasteyrie, a French bad at sea, and are rendered so weak writer on sheep, who lived many years and infirm by abortion, that it is in Spain, and paid diligent attention much to be feared more will die, notto the Merino sheep, entirely agrees. withstanding the great care taken of He also tells us, that the cavana of them by his majesty's shepherds. A Negrete, from whence the sheep im-, few have died of the rot. This disease ported by his majesty in the year must have been contracted by halting 1791 were selected, is not only one some swampy district, in their of the finest piles, but produces also journey from the mountains to the the largest carcased sheep of all the sea at Gijon, where they were emMerinos. Mr. Burgoyne agrees with barked, as one sheep died rotton at him in asserting, that the piles of Portsmouth. There is every reason,

on

Moptareo,

however, to hope, that the disease will Fifteen more, not necessary to be not spread, as the land on which they enumerated. M. Lasteyrie, the are now kept has never been subject French writer on sheep, ranges to its ravages, being of a very light them not very differently. He states and sandy texture.

them as follows. But both English It is well worthy of observation, and French agree, that all the that although the Swedes, the Saxons, prima piles are nearly equal in finethe Danes, the Prussians, the Aus- ness of fibre, and consequently in trians, and of late the French, have, value to the manufacturer. either by the foresight of their go- Escurial, called by us Patrimonio, vernments, or the patriotick exer- Guadalupe, tions of individuals, imported Merino Paular, sheep, no nation has hitherto ventured

Infantado, to assert, that they possess the complete and unmixed race of any one Negrete, &c. cavana. This circumstance does not The Danes, he tells us, procured appear to have been attended to any their sheep from the best piles. But where but in England; though, iu fact, there is no appearance of their haveach cavana is a separate and distinct ing, since they obtained them, kept breed of sheep, not suffered by the the flocks separate, nor are they at Spaniards to mingle with others. The present, so remarkable for fine wool, difference in value of the wool of dif- as the Saxons, whose wool is now at ferent Spanish flocks is very great. At least, as fine as that of Spain is, upon this time, when Spanish wool is un- an average of prima and second late usually dear, the prima piles are piles. worth more than 78. a pound, and The Swedes were the first people yet the inferiour ones scarce reach who imported the Spanish breed. 58* Even the French, attentive as This good work was undertaken and that nation is to all things that con- completed by the patriotick exertions cern the interest of individuals, ap- of a merchant of the name of Alpear to have overlooked this circum- stroemer, in the year 1723. The next stance, and to have contentes them- who obtained an importation of Meselves with making up the numbers rino sheep were the Saxons, who are of their importations, without paying indebted for the benefits they enjoy any regard to it. Tbey have not, at from the improvement of their wools least, stated in any of their publica- to the prince Xavier, administrator tions, that attention was paid to the of the electorate, during the minority securing sheep of a prima pile, and of the elector, and brother-in-law to keeping the breed of that pile pure the king of Spain. The prince oband unmixed, after they had obtained tained a flock of these valuable aniit.

mais in 1766, and in 1778, an addiOur merchants in Spanish wool tion to it of 100 ranıs, and 200 ewes. range the prima piles in the follow. The Danes followed his useful ex. ing order of value, as appears by a ample, as also did both Prussia and statement in the year 1792.

Austria. Every one of these countries Paular,

continue at this moment, to profit Negrete,

largely by the improvement these Muro, Patrimonio, and

sheep have occasioned in their agri.

cultural concerns. So far from truth * Since this was written, Spanish wools is the too common assertion, that have risen to an esorbitant price. Prima

their wool will not continue fine in Leonesa is this week rated in the Farmers' any country but pain, that in the journal at 208. a pound, and Seville at year 805, when the ports of Spain 138, 6d.

were closed against us, a very large

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