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without any thing upon their feet, find, afforded them more room, more and in rags, drew forth a multitude air, and more light. of Spaniards to behold them. Sur- They were now reduced to the rounded with men, women, and chil- number of twenty-eight, who were dren, it was with difficulty they could all confined in one apartment. Their make headway through them. The irons were examined and shabby appearance of a majority of strongly riveted upon them. Those the inhabitants showed, that the pric irons consisted of two heavy clevises soners were not entirely out of fash- which were placed round the ancles, ion in their tattered dress.
at the ends of which were holes, and After arriving at the place of con- through these ran an iron bolt, fasfinement, they were separated and tening them upon the ancles and put into three different rooms or joining one ancle with the other, at holes, almost destitute of the light about six inches apart, just enabling of the sun ; cut off from the circula- them 1o limp along, by hitching one tion of the air ; hot, filthy, and with- foot before the other. These irons out any thing to rest their heads upon weighed about 20 or 25 pounds but the bare ground. Whilst reflect- weight. At first their ancles became ing upon these sorrowful regions of so galled by them, which continually despair, they were comforted by the fretted the flesh whenever they atinformation from their keeper, that tempted to exercise, that it was with these were only temporary places of difficulty they could walk about the confinement until another one was fit- floor of the prison. At length having
grown lank and thin by the loss of The prison which was fitted up to flesh, they were enabled to raise the receive the prisoners was adjacent to, irons almost up to their knees, and and formed a part of the walls of the by means of strings tied to the bolts town, or the walls of the town form- and round their necks, kept them in ed the back walls of the prison-the that situation, by which they were front facing in upon the town. The much relieved in walking, . walls were made of stone and lime, Their keeper was an Old-Spainer, about 12 or 13 feet thick. The rooms and a sergeant of the guards. He or cells, in which the prisoners were was intrusted with the superintento be confined, were about 90 feet dence of all the prisoners in confinelong and about 30 wide. There were ment. He kept a kind of provision no windows or holes to let in light, shop, near the prison, and was the except through the gratings of the purveyor of the prisoners, and supdoor, where the guard was placed plied them, in behalf of the govern. a few small air holes led through the ment, with food. The prisoners were back of the prison; and sentinels served twice a day, with a sort of fare, were placed upon the top of the prison consisting of boiled plantains, rice, walls. The floor of the prison was and water, and sometimes a small made of bricks, which formed the piece of fish. About one pint of this only pillows the prisoners had to lay pottage was served out to each, in their heads upon. To this prison all the fore part of the day; and towards were removed after remaining seve- evening the same repeated. In some ral days in their temporary places of seasons of the year, when vegetables confinement, except those who were and food were not so plenty, they sentenced to labour at Bocca Chica. were scanted to a little rice and water, They were taken out and commenced or a boiled plantain or two, scarcely their term of servitude, of which sufficient to support nature. Their mention will be made afterwards. allowance was eighteen pence per This prison, although of a similar day. This was paid to the old sergeant, make to the first, they were happy to who for one shilling a piece, supplied
them with those two meals a day, and These they procured out of the money the surplus six pence he paid ihem. which was allowed them to live uponi This money they either laid out in The large straw hats were of great buying more food, or some kind of service in screening much of their covering for their bodies, or laid it bodies from the sun. After labouring up till times of sickness. After a in this manner for some time, they while, they were allowed the eighteen became more accustomed to the clipence in money, instead of food, with mate, their skins were soon tanned which they were to support them- from white to brown, and the heat selves.
became more endurable. They are In this situation they were to re- called up in the morning by their main, as they were told, until they drivers, at daylight, and put to work, could be removed to their places of At noon and night they are permitted Jabour. It was, however, understood to eat whatever they can procure with that they would not be removed du- their scanty pittance. At night they ring the war between England and are locked up in a prison, where they Spain, as the harbour was continually rest till morning. They passed and blockaded by English vessels. repassed the prison where their fel
Those nineteen prisoners who low countrymen were confined, but were sentenced to the Castle Bocca were not permitted to have any access Chica [Little Mouth] which is situa- to them. Whenever any one was ted at the mouth of the harbour of sick, he was sent to the slaves' hospi. Carthagena, were taken out and put tal, where he remained till his health to labour in the town of Carthagena ; was recovered. In this manner they their irons were taken off-an iron still continue to wear out their wea. band put round each of their ancles, ried lives. with a staple in it, by which two per- Soon after their imprisonment, sesons were chained together, with a veral were attacked with fevers, the Iarge ox-chain about 20 feet long, flux, black jaundice, and other disorand weighing afty or eighty pounds. ders that prevail during the sickly
- They were then put to labour with season. Their complaints were little the common criminal convict slaves attended to by their keepers. No asum of the place. Their labour consists sistance was offered them at first. principally in digging, fetching, and They were obliged to endure their carrying large stones and sand, for sickness, lying upon the hard tiles of the purpose of building fortifications, the prison floor. At length one of the &C.--this they do upon a handbarrow. prisoners, by the name of John Burk, After they get their load upon the died. This excited more attention to handbarrow, they place upon it their their complaints, and shortly afterchains, which would otherwise drag wards, they were indulged with the upon the ground, and proceed to care liberty of going to the hospital whenry it wherever it may be wanted. ever they were unwell.
When they were let out to labour, The prisoners seeing no prospect being almost naked, the scorching of meliorating their condition, turned sun was so powerful, as to raise blis- their attention to the making of a ters upon the parts exposed to the breach in the wall of the prison. heat; the middle of the day was al. Every convenient moment that could most insupportable, many would faint be embraced, with safety, was approand fall under the load they were priated to that purpose, not only dulcompelled to carry. This, instead of ring the night, but sometimes during exciting pity, would only bring upon the day. The person from whom them the lash of the negro slave- detection was most to be feared, was driver, who attended them. At first the sentinel at the door, and by watchthey suffered much for want of hats, ing his motions through the grates, they might direct the one at work, in risk and blame upon themselves. such a manner as to avoid suspicion. Sometimes the sickness and removal During the night, a lamp was kept of several of the prisoners to the continually burning in the back part hospital, would cause a cessation of the prison, for the benefit of the of their progress for awhile ; but it sentinel ; and as the prisoners had was again renewed upon their recolittle else to do in the day time, except very. indulge themselves in sleep and rest, In order to be prepared to rid it was generally the case that more or themselves of their irons, by the time less of them were up during the the hole through the walls should be night, walking the floor for exercise completed, or upon any other favourand air. This practice was now re- able occasion, they procured (by cergularly pursued, that the noise of tain out-door assistance) several old their irons and their talk, might knives, which by means of a file they drown the noise of the hammer. The made into saws. With these, while hole where they were at work, was some were engaged at the walls, at the further end of the prison, and others were busy sawing upon their about 80 feet from the door, so that bolts, which passed through their anño uncommon noise beyond what was cle irons, and connected them toge. constantly made amongst so many ther. When they ceased sawing, the prisoners, was required to deceive saw cuts, made in the bolts, they fillthe ears of the sentinel. The wall, ed up with wax, by which means they through which they expected to pass, could scarcely be discovered upon inwas about thirteen feet thick, and spection. After several months sawa was made of stones, bricks, and more ing, occasionally in this manner, they tar cemented together. The stones had succeeded in sawing their bolts were not of the hardest kind, but ge- so far off as to be enabled, with their nerally such as are found along the hands, by bending them backwards seashore, from whence they were and forwards, to break them apart. brought. After one night's work was This being done, they filled the cuts over, and just before morning, the up with wax, and remained in that sipieces of stone, brick, and mortar, tuation, prepared to throw them off &c. which came from the hole, were whenever occasion required. by means of water and lime, which Those who were sick at the hospi. was privately procured, made into a tal, having recovered, returned to kind of mortar, and replaced into the their prison, and commenced workhole, the outside rubbed over with a ing at the breach in the wall, with all little white-wash, and the old ham- possible diligence. Mr. Lippincott mock hung before it as usual. So and Mr. Sherman had previously rethat the keeper when he came into ceived from a friend certain advances the prison, seeing every thing in its in money, for which they gave him proper place, his suspicion was not their bills on their friends in America. excited, nor had he any curiosity to This money was privately smuggled make any particular examinations. into their prison. To this they were
In this manner they continued to win a great measure indebted for their pursue their labour, alternately re- subsequent success. They were now lieving each other, particularly those enabled to obtain many things in pri- . who made their escape; the principal son necessary for carrying on their part of the rest being averse to the operations. They procured knives, attempt, conceiving it hazardous, and files, &c. and a sufficiency of provithat it possibly might involve them sions by which they were enabled to in a worse situation. But Mr. Lippin- recover strength to encounter the incott, Sherman, and Smith, were de- tended attempt. Many other advantermined to persevere and take the tages they derived from this source,
which it is not conceived necessary, fecting this, they crossed over, landed here to enumerate.
near a guard-house, and were near They had now, after about seven falling into the hands of the guard. months' diligent labour, though in- Owing to the darkness of the night, terrupted at intervals, so far finished however, they avoided them. Here the hole as to reach the outside of the they travelled about in search of a prison walls. A few minutes would place where they could be concealed complete it so as to enable them to for the ensuing day, until being weak pass out.
and fatigued with the difficulties they About this time one of the prison- had encountered, their strength failed ers, Mr. Jeremiah Powell, received a them, and they sat, or rather fell pardon from the king of Spain, and down in the street. It was nearly was discharged from his imprison- daylight; and they had but a short ment.
time to provide for their safety. At On or about the 7th of November, length discovering a light, in a small 1807, about 11 o'clock at night, after hut at distance, they apthe usual hour of rest, they prepared proached it, made themselves known to take French leave of their old ser- to the poor tenants, as prisoners in geant. They divided the number of distress, and immediately offered prisoners, who were willing to risk them two or three pieces of gold. the danger, into different companies, They shook their heads, but upon doufor better safety after they were out. bling the sum, they consented to reMr. Lippincott and Sherman formed ceive, and secret them for a short one company by themselves. They time. They remained in this situathen drew lots to ascertain who tion until the next night, when they should first venture out, and the order made their escape to another place, in which they should proceed. The where they remained secreted for seprincipal immediate danger to be veral weeks, when they made another apprehended, was from the sentinels move, trusting to their friend, which upon the top of the wall, who might they carried in their pockets. not happen to be asleep upon their The other sixteen prisoners took a post. The person who drew the first course along the edge of the shore, chance to go out, happened to be a except Moses Smith, . who being prisoner who was unwell, and accord- somewhat unwell, and unable to proingly declined going. Mr. Lippin. ceed, concealed himself in the bushes, cott and Mr. Sherman agreed with where he lay until the second night, him to take his chance off his hands. during which time the cavalry and Mr. Sherman having taken off his other soldiers passed by, and were irons, first went out. Immediately Mr. near falling upon him in pursuit of Lippincott followed, and the rest pur- the prisoners. He crept out, and sued in their order. No noise was taking the course that Mr. Lippincott made, and the sentry remained un- and Sherman had taken, crossed the disturbed. Lippincott and Sherman river, where he again concealed himcrept round the walls of the town, self until the ensuing night, being until they came to a river, on the two days without eating. The next other side of which was a small vil. day he came across a friend who inlage. After travelling up and down formed him where he could find Mr. the shore of this river, they discover. Lippincott and Sherman. They recd a canoe hauled up before the door ceived him in with them and afforded of a Spanish hut. This with great him their assistance. Shortly afterdifficulty they dragged into the river, wards all three, Mr. Lippincott, Shernotwithstanding they were moles- man, and Smith, embarked on board ted by dogs, whose noise was near of a boat, that they procured for that thwarting their allempt. After el. purpose, and put 10 sea in expecta
tion of being picked up by some En- them to the Indian Territory, about glish vessel off the harbour. This 40 miles from Carthagena, where expectation was realized, though not they might easily make their escape. by an English vessel ; and after a voy- This agreement they concluded, and age of 31 days, they arrived safe in paid him what money they had, bethe United States in January 1808, ing in the whole about 50 dollars. when they proceeded to their homes The next day the Spaniard was inat Philadelphia and New York, ha- formed that the governour had offerving been absent more than two ed ten dollars a head for them. This years, and nearly two years in prison. reward he found would amount to
The other fifteen prisoners pursued more than he had received from the the edge of the shore for about ten prisoners. Accordingly, he went and miles, when their progress was inter- most treacherously made an agreecepted by a river or ferry. In pur- ment with the government to give suing this river up and down, in or- them up. The next day, towards der to cross, they happened all to evening, he, together with two or meet at an old Spaniard's house, for three other Spaniards, took the prithe purpose of procuring means to soners on board of a boat to carry cross over. The Spaniard imme- them to the place agreed upon. Afdiately knew who they were, and be- ter passing along by the town, he gan to ask them some questions, and rowed them to the shore, under some offered his services to assist them, pretence or other, when immediately which they gladly accepted. He en- appeared about 50 armed soldiers gaged with them, that upon their and horsemen, according to appointgiving him what money they had, he ment, ready to receive them, and inwould conceal them that night, and stantly took them into custody, and the next ensuing night would carry carried them back to their prison.
Observations on the Stratagems, &c. of Apes and Monkeys in a Wild State, and in
Captivity. INDEPENDENTLY of the ge- Every one will acknowledge that, neral form of these animals, and of in general, both apes and monkeys their external and internal organiza- are excessively ugly. Their limbs tion, which in many respects present are peculiarly strong; and they have a striking and humiliating resem- great delight in breaking, tearing in blance to those of men, their playful- pieces, or stealing whatever comes in ness, their frolicks, and gambols, have their way. In all their operations and in all ages attracted the notice of man- maneuvres, their agility is astonishkind. Some naturalists have asserted, ing. Whenever any thing offends or that they are capable of reasoning throws them into a passion, they
a and reflecting; and that they are indicate their rage by chattering guided by an instinctive sagacity violently with their teeth. Many of much superiour to that of the brute them, if beaten, will sigh, groan, and creation in general. They are, how- weep, like children; but most of ever, certainly destitute of every es- them, on these occasions, ulter dreadsential faculty of man: incapable as ful shrieks of distress. They make well of thought as of speech, there such ridiculous grimaces, place themis an immense interval betwixt the selves in such strange and whimsical creature formed in mind after the attitudes, and in other respects conimage of God, and these mere brutes, duct themselves so singularly, that bearing some rude traits of the ele. few persons, even of those who most mental parts of the human frame. dislike them, can, on these occasions,