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refrain from smiling, and nearly all even by captivity. In some houses must be amused by them.

we see the Wanderu [Simia Silenue It is said, that there are some races of Linnæus) a cunning and audacious of monkeys which keep up a cer- monkey, much inclined to ridicule tain discipline among themselves. and grimace. He may be taught to Though active in the highest degree dress and undress himself; to spin; to in pillaging plantations and cultivated poke the fire ; to push a wheelbarrow; grounds, they seldom go on impor. or play on a tambourine. He will tant expeditions for this purpose but wash earthen vessels or glasses within numerous troops. If they medi- out breaking them, and carry light tate an attack, for instance, on a me- burthens from place to place, whenlon bed, a large party of them en- ever he is ordered to do so. A mon. ters the garden. The animals range key of this species has been obthemselves, if possible, under a hedge served to turn a spit with one hand or fence, at some distance from each whilst with the other he held a piece other, and throw the melons, from of bread under the meat to receive hand to hand, with astonishing rapi. the gravy. It is, perhaps, needless to dity. The line they form usually remark, that he immediately afterterminates in a mountain or forest, wards devoured it. and all their operations are executed A wanderu was exhibited at Bourduring the most profound silence. deaux, in the year 1762, which by his

Wafer tells us, that when he was actions excited much astonishment on shore in the island of Gorgonia, in the spectators. When mounted he observed several monkeys, of the on an extended cord, he first stretchfour fingered species, come down, at ed out each of his feet to have them low water, to the rocks of the seacoast, chalked; then, taking in his hand a for the purpose of devouring oysters. pole weighted at each end, similar They got at the food contained within to the balance employed by ropethe shells, by placing one oyster on dancers, he walked backward and a stone, and beating it in pieces with forward, cut capers, and executed another. The Malbrouk of Bengal numerous other tricks, with infinitely (Simia Faunus of Linnæus] is report. greater ease and celerity than the ed to do the same.

most expert rope-dancer that had Many of these animals, and parti- before been seen. cularly the preacher, and four fingered The monkeys, however, that are monkeys [Simia beelzebul and Simia trained and educated by some of the taniscus of Linnæus] have sometimes Indian buffoons, are reported to be dreadful contentions, in which great by far the most agile and adroit of numbers on both sides are frequently all animals that are reared in captislain. They employ weapons in vity. their combats ; and often arm them- Some of the apes, such as the oran selves with stones and pieces of wood, otans, the patas, and the dog-faced which they throw with sure aim, and afres, are said always to place a senastonishing violence, at each other. tinel on the top of a tree, or on some They have, on these occasions, nei- other elevated situation, to keep watch ther deserters nor stragglers; for in when the rest are either about to sleep times of danger they never forsake or to engage in any marauding expeeach other. They run along the dition. The motions or the cry of plains, and even leap from tree to this animal are a signal of danger, tree with surprising rapidity. and immediately the whole troop

The ins.incts and sagacity of these scampers off with the utmost rapidianimals are, in many instances, such ty. It has been asserted, but few as not in be injured or diminished persons will be inclined to credit the assertion, that the sentinels are often ed in order of battle. They happenpunished with death for neglecting ed one night to encamp on a moun. their duty.

tain, that was inhabited by a numeThe Europeans at the Cape of rous tribe of monkeys. On the folGood Hope sometimes catch young lowing morning, they saw at a disapes by stratagem, or by previously tance what appeared to be an immense killing their dam, and bring them body of troops approaching them, as up with

care for the purpose of if with the intention of coming to an; rendering them afterwards service engagement. The commanders, as able. When they have attained their well as the soldiers, were in the utgrowth, they are taught to guard most astonishment. Having entirely the house of their owner during the subdued the prince of the country, night, and on all occasions of his they could not conceive from whence absence. This they do with great this new force could have come. They fidelity; but as they increase in age, had not previously been informed of their mischievous propensities deve- any thing of the kind. The alarm lop themselves, and they oftentimes was immediately given, and in a short become extremely illtempered and time the whole Macedonian army was ferocious. These apes, which are drawn up in battle-array, to combat of the ursine species, are so much with this unexpected enemy. The inclined to imitation, that they sel- prince of the country, who was a dom see any thing done without at- prisoner in the camp, was interrogatempting to do the same. Some of led respecting it. He was surprised them are very stubborn and per- to be informed of such a force in the verse ; but many are readily suscep- neighbourhood, and requested pertible of education, learning, without mission to behold it himself. He difficulty, almost every thing that is smiled at the mistake; and the Mataught them.

cedonians were not a little chagrined Condamine and Bouger saw, in that they should have been such fools Peru, some domesticated monkeys as to take a troop of these imitative of large size, which had been admit- animals for a band of armed men. ted into the apartments of the acade- All the apes and monkeys are remicians, during the time they were ported to entertain a natural aversion employed in making observations in and antipathy to the crocodile. It is the mountains. These animals great said, that some of them will even faint ly excited the astonishment of the at seeing or smelling the skin of one academicians, by afterwards, of their of these frightful reptiles. own accord, going through a series The animals of that subdivision of of imitations. They planted the sig- the tribe denominated saħajous have nals, ran to the pendulum, and then long tails, which they can coil up, immediately to the table, as if for the and employ in some respects, but purpose of committing to paper the particularly in descending trees, as a observations they had made. They hand. By means of their tails, they occasionally pointed the telescopes are also able to swing themselves towards the heavens, as if to view the backward and forward amongst the planets or stars, and performed nu

branches of trees. merous other feats of a similar na- Monkeys are seldom known to proture.

duce young ones, except in hot cliThe whimsical occurrence which mates. The Barbary apes, however, took place before the troops of Alex. [Simia inuus of Linnæus) which are ander the Great, is too singular and found wild at Gibraltar, bring young too amusing to be passed over in ones in great abundance amongst the silence. The soldiers under com- inaccessible precipices of the rock. mand of this monarch always march- A female of this species has also been

VOL. II.

H

a

known to produce offspring in a state with arrows.

But it often happens, of captivity, at one of the hotels in when the sapajous are shot, that in Paris. A striated monkey [Simia jac- the act of falling from the tree they chus] brought forth young ones in seize hold of a branch with their tail, the house of a merchant at Lisbon, and, dying in this situation, continue and another in that of a lady in suspended even for a long time after Paris.

death. When a monkey of some Female monkeys generally carry of the larger species is woundtheir young ones nearly in the same ed, the rest will frequently collect manner as negresses do their chil- together, and with great fury purdren. The little animals cling to the sue the hunters to their huts or lodgback of their dam by their hind feet, 'ments. and embrace the neck with their It was formerly supposed that man paws. When the females suckle was the only animal which could be them, it is said that they hold them infected by the smallpox and measles; in their arms, and present the teat as but it is now ascertained that mona woman would to a child.

keys, kept in houses where these comMonkeys usually live in much more plaints prevail, are also liable to reextensive troops than apes. The ceive the infection. troops of patas, or red monkeys of In the year 1767, the inhabitants Senegal, are reported to amount some- of Saint Germain-en-Laie, near Paris, times to as many as three or four were witness to a monkey's catching thousand. Some naturalists believe the small pox, by playing with chilthat they form a sort of republick, in dren who were infected, and the aniwhich a great degree of subordina- mal bore the marks of it for a consi. tion is kept up.

That they always derable time afterwards. A circumtravel in good order, conducted by stance nearly similar was observed chiefs, the strongest and most expe- also at Paris. M. Paulet, a medical rienced animals of their troop; and man of some eminence, was called that, on these occasions, some of the upon, in 1770, to attend a person largest monkeys are likewise placed who had the measles. As the disease in the rear, the sound of whose voice was contagious, he requested that immediately silences that of any of every possible precaution might be the others that happen to be too noisy. taken to prevent it from spreading ; The orderly and expert retreat of and particularly that a monkey,accusthese creatures from danger is an tomed to play with the children of amusing sight to Europeans, unac- the house, should, on no account, customed to the native manners of have any communication with the such animals. The negroes believe invalid.The request was made too them to be a vagabond race of men, late. One of the sick person's sis• who are too indolent to construct ters, and at the same time also the habitations to live in, or to culti- monkey, which had been accustomed rate the ground for subsistence. to sleep at the foot of her bed, was They sometimes commit dreadful attacked by the disease. The monhavock in the fields and gardens of key, in consequence, was treated in persons who inhabit the countries the same manner as a human subject. where they abound.

M. Paulet, on examining the state of The different species of monkeys the animals pulse, found it so quick are seldom known to intermix or as- that it was scarcely possible to count sociate together; but each tribe gene the pulsations. In the axillary arterally inhabits a different quarter. The ry these were much more sensible negroes who have not been taught than in any other. And he declared the use of fire arms, are said to kill that, as nearly as he could count them by shooting them in the face them, they were about five hundred

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m a minute. We ought to remark, is no other quadruped which bears that this monkey was of a very low any resemblance to them. Most anistature, and that in all animals, the mals seem at times to be actuated by shorter they are the quicker is their the spirit of revenge. By the differpulse. These facts, which are well ent means that are employed to gra authenticated, sufficiently prove (in- tify this passion, we may in a meadependently of others) that the small- sure judge of the different degrees pox and measles are not diseases en- of their instinct; and every one knows tirely confined to the human species; how greatly the monkey exceeds all but that animals, as well as men, are other brutes in its vindictive malice. liable to receive the infection from There appears, in some measure, an them. Numerous instances have oc- analogy even betwixt the vices, if we curred of the smallpox being com- may so call them, of the monkeys, municated to and from animals. and the disgusting brutality too often Those from cattle are now well observable in the vitious and degraded known. A shepherd infected with part of mankind. the smallpox has been known to The animals of the monkey tribe communicate the disease to his differ very essentially from each other sheep, and these sheep to those of in their general manners and habits another flock. A horse has been ob- of life. The oran otan is susceptible served to be covered with the pus- of more considerable attainments than tules of the smallpox. Goats are any of the others. The short muzsometimes attacked by it; and, when zled monkeys, with long tails, such this is the case, great numbers gene- as the greater part of the guenons, rally perish. (See Roder. à Castro, sapajous, and sagoins, are for the most lib. 4. de Meteor. Microc. cap. 6.] part exceedingly tractable, and reThis dreadful contagion is likewise ceive a certain degree of instruction frequently known to extend to the without much difficulty. But some of focks of raindeer in Lapland.

the apes, and baboons, with long muzSuch is the summary of the prin- zles, are so savage and ferocious as cipal observations that have been to be incapable of any education what. transmitted to us by different travellers, respecting the manners and ha- The monkeys of the new continen:, bits of life of the animals which con- as might naturally be supposed, differ stitute this interesting tribe ; and (at least in some degree) in their hafrom what has been said, it appears bits of life from those of the old that they have a nearer alliance than world. The great Author of Nature any other quadruped, in the general has assigned to them several characconformation of their bodies, to the teristicks that are peculiar to them. human race. They consequently have selves : such, amongst others, are the art of imitating human actions the situation and separation of the better than any others, since they nasal orifices; and the presence of are able to use their fore feet as two additional grinders in each jaw.

From the general organiza. We, likewise, are acquainted with no tion of the monkeys, they are like. species of monkey, belonging to the wise capable of an education nearer ancient world, that has a preheusile allied to that of man, than any other tail, or the bony pouch observable in animal. Some naturalists have attri- the throat of the preacher monkey buted infinitely too much sagacity to and the arabata [Simia beelzebul and them, whilst others have certainly Simia seniculus of Linnæus.] not allowed enough. The monkeys In some countries monkeys, even seem to do those things which man- in their wild state, are rendered ser. kind do before their reason is maty. viceable to mankind. It is said, that red by age ; and in this respect there in districts where pepper and cocoa

ever.

grow, the inhabitants, availing them- times, when they have caught the selves of the imitative faculties and

young ones, they put them into a the agility of the monkeys, are able cage, and appear to teaze and torment to procure an infinitely greater quan. them, in order that they may likewise tity of these articles than they could catch the parents. do by any other means. They mount The hunters of some countries some of the lowest branches of the place near the haunts of monkeys trees, break off the extremities where vessels containing strong and intoxithe fruit grows, and then descend and cating liquors. The animals drink carefully range them together on of them, and in a short time become the ground. The animals afterwards so drunk, as to lie down on the spot ascend the same trees, strip the and fall asleep. branches all the way to the top, and Some of the Indians ascend to the dispose them in a similar manner. summits of the mountains in which After the monkeys have gone to rest, the animals breed, and construct there the Indians return and carry off the a pile of wood, round the base of spril.

which they spread a quantity of In some places, it is this inclina- maize. They place on the pile some tion to imitate human actions which substance, which, on being exposed leads to their destruction. The In- to heat, explodes with tremendous dians carry in their hands vessels fill. noise. This is contrived to explode ed with water, and rub their faces during the time that the monkeys with it in the presence of the mon- are employed in devouring the maize, keys; then substituting a kind of and, in the terrour and astonishment, glue instead of water, leave the vès- theoldanimals scamper off on all sides sels begind them and retire. The with the utmost rapidity, leaving their observant creatures seize the vessels young ones a prev to the hunters. and do the same; when the glue, ad- The dexterity of monkeys is such, hering strongly to their hair and eye- that, although burthened by their offlids, completely blinds them, and pre- spring clinging to their backs, they vents every possibility of their effect- can leap from tree to tree, if the dising an escape.

tance is not very great, and secure In other places, the natives také to their hold among the branches with the habitations of the monkeys a kind the greatest certainty. When they of boots, which they put on and pull perceive any person taking aim at off their legs several times successive them, either with a gun or bow, they ly. These are then rubbed over in the cry out and grind their teeth someinside with a strong glue; and when times in the most horrible manner. the monkeys attempt to do the same, They are often able to avoid the arthey are unable to disengage them. rows that are shot at them, and someselves, and, consequently, are caught times they even catch them in their without difficulty.

hands. When any one of their comSometimes the inhabitants carry in munity is shot, and falls to the ground, their hands a mirror, and appear to all the rest set up a dismal and treamuse themselves by looking at it in mendous howl, which makes all the different attitudes. In place of these adjacent mountains and woods rethey leave a kind of traps, not unlike sound. If a monkey is wounded, and the glasses in external appearance, does not fall, it frequently happens which, when the animals take them that his companions will seize and up, seize and secure them by the carry it off far beyond the reach of paws.

their enemy: and miserable is the The inhabitants of St. Vincent fate of that hunter who is imprudent le Blanc catch monkeys in several enough to venture near their haunts kinds of traps and snares. Some during that same day. When the

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