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is more successful in vindicating his not tell all ; and these relations, as we royal mistress from the charge of have already observed, and as our betraying the interests of her country quotations prove, are highly honourto family considerations. Indeed, of able to the object of the writer's adothis accusation, so vehemently urged, ration. It is, however, obvious to and so frequently reiterated by the remark, that the admission of some demagogues of the revolution, we virtues implies not the exclusion of have never seen any thing approach- all crimes; and that those feelings of ing to proof; and it is in the highest the heart, which are here attributed degree improbable.

to the late queen of France, are not The parts of this work which re- incompatible with that indulgence of late to the queen are very interesting; the passions which has by others been and the narrative of political affairs is ascribed to her. M. Weber's devoonly irksome because it has been so tion has induced him to delineate a often told. As to the real truth, the goddess, and the malignity of political whole truth, and nothing but the truth, enemies has excited them to paint a respecting the ill fated Maria Antoi- demon. The truth, as in other cases, netta, we suppose that we are not yet most probably lies between the two to obtain it. For us it is in course im. extremes : possible to pronounce it, or to gain “ The web of our life is of a mingled it even by comparing different ac- yarn, good and ill together. Our virtues counts. We have readily inserted a

would be proud, if our faults whipped

them not; and our crimes would de. number of those statements which are made in this volume by one who spair, if, they were not cherished by our must know something, but perhaps will SHAKSPEARE, All's well that Ends well

FROM THE LITERARY PANORAMA.

Dissertations on the Gipsies: representing their Manner of Life, Family Economy,

Occupations and Trades, Marriages and Education, Sickness, Death, and Burial, Religion, Language, Sciences and Arts, &c. &c. &c. with a Historical Inquiry concerning their Origin and first Appearance in Europe. From the German of H. M. G. Grellmann. London. 1807.

HUMAN nature in every state his diligence, and is become no unis an object of rational inquiry: po- worthy spectacle to beings of a supelished nations delight us by their re- riour class. Angels may well finements, savage tribes excite our Admire such wit in human shape, curiosity by their rudeness ; man And show a Newton as we show an ape. seems to approach to the nature of It is probable, that if we could exaangels here, while there the differ- mine the history of the world comence between man and brute is pletely, we should find nations, as scarcely perceptible. Which of these well as individuals, formed by cirextremes is most natural ?-that in cumstances either to honour and dig. which every faculty of his mind is nity, or to depravity and disgrace. exalted, and the soul triumphs, as it The triumphs of a single hero have were, over the tabernacle of clay; or often been the means of spreading that in which the clay fabrick enve- calamity among thousands and tens lopes completely the ethereal inha- of thousands of his fellow men; and bitant, and man is evidently allied to' while the loud clarions have prothe dust of the earth? If man was claimed his triumphs, the sighs of formerly a demigod, the mighty is suffering humanity, the desolations sadly fallen ; if he was formerly a that have marked his course, the pribrute, he is wonderfully improved by vations under which the vanquished

have sunk, have appealed to heaven even ingenious, yet unwilling to against him, in clamours far louder work. Their tempers are hasty and than those re-echoed around his violeni. They are cowardly, some say throne. The effects of such convul. cruel; and ihough they have chiefs sions we discover in the expatriation to whom they submit, yet they pay of various tribes, and in their inigra. little or no obedience to law; and all tions to distant lands. Such appears

the endeavours of the governing powto have been the origin of those ro- ers, wherever they reside, cannot ving families, that, happily for our make them good soldiers, agricultucountry, seldom go in bodies suffi- rists, or craftsmen. They are a peociently numerous to disturb the pub- ple apart, and apart they are likely to lick peace, though they pilfer what. continue. ever their hands can reach, as indivi- The volume before us has already duals, or in groups terrify the lonely appeared in an English dress. We traveller, now and then, into acts of remember it many years ago. The involuntary charity. On the conti- title may serve as an analysis of it. nent, their depredations are not al. We shall do no more than transcribe ways equally moderate. They do mis- a few extracts, some of which may chief on a larger scale, and have been contribute to increase the caution of known to require the interposition of our readers, should they ever have' a military force to reduce them to any intercourse with Gipsies. submission.

So The art of goldwashing is brought to We have very little doubt of the

much greater perfection in Transylvania,

In the description of the process adopted Gipsies being a cast of the population in that country, it is said that all the riof India ; and whoever has perused vers, brooks, and even the pools which Dr. Buchanan's Travels in Mysore the rain forms, produce gold. Of these with attention, will find sundry tribes the river Aranyosh is the richest, inso. to which they bear a marked resem

much that the historians have compared it

to the Tagus and Pactolus. Excepting blance. We may add, that some of the Wallachians, who live by the rivers, our officers, returned from India, the goldwashers consist chiefly of Gipsies. have readily understood the language They can judge with the greatest certiused by this people, and have been tude where to wash to advantage. The understood by them. Such is our in- apparatus used by them for this work is formation, from competent authority.

a crooked board, four or five feet long, by

two or three broad, generally provided The hint may be pursued by whoever with a wooden rim on each side. Over this desires conviction on the subject. board they spread a woollen cloth, and This is the opinion also of M. Grell- scatter the gold-sand, mixed with water, mann, who has compiled a vocabulary upon it. The small grains of the metal re

the cloth which they afr of the Gipsy language, the words of main sticking,

terwards wash in a vessel of water, and which he compares with the Sanscrit, then separate the gold by means of the and other dialects of Hisdoostan. He trough." When larger particles of sand supposes, with great probability, that

are found in their washing, they make these tribes were expelled from their deeper channels in the middle of their original country by the famous li. crooked boards, to stop the small pieces mur Beg, in 1401.-[How far did

as they roll down. They closely examine

these small stones, and some are freTimur penetrate into Hindoostạn ?] quently found to have solid gold fixed in -They first appeared in Germany them." about 1407, and they are now found in all countries of Europe. Their “ In the year 1557, during the troubles numbers cannot be less than 7 or in Zapoly, the castle of Nagy Ida, in the 800,000 persons.

Their manners

county of Abauywar, was in danger of beare every where unsettled, sordid, ing besieged and taken by the imperial

troops. Francis Von Perenyi, who had thievish, rude, idle, and profligate the command, being short of men, was They are ignorant, cunning, adroit, obliged to have recourse to the Gipsies,

VOL. II.

N

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of whom he collected a thousand. These This history shows sufficiently the
he furnished with proper means of de- inaptitude of Gipsies for a military
fence, and stationed them in the outworks, life; yet in some Hungarian regi-
keeping his own small complement of
men to garrison the citadel. The Gipsies ments, one eighth of the corps is of
imagined that they should be perfectly this cast. Equal difficulty attends
free from annoyance behind their ina the supposition that they will ever
trenchments, and therefore went coura- produce men of learning ; since they
geously to their post. Every thing was in have no letters. They are also stran-
order when the enemy arrived, and the
storm commenced. The Gipsies, behind gers to religion, and religious rites.
their fortifications, supported the attack They suffer their children to undergo
with so much more resolution than was baptism several times, if the prospect
expected, returning the enemy's fire with of profit presents itself. However,
such alacrity, that the assailants, little they appear to be fond of their chil-
suspecting who were the defendants, dren. We are not willing to enlarge
were actually retreating. They had hard-
ly quitted their ground, when the

on the vices and horrid crimes im.

conquerors, elated with joy on their victory, crept puted to them. After all, the stranout of their holes, crying after them: gest circumstance attending this peoGo and be hanged, you rascals! Thank ple is, the attention paid to their jar. God we had no more powder and shot, or we would have played the very devil with gon and predictions

by the credulous you !- What! replied the retiring be among ourselves. That to these evi. siegers, as they turned about, and, to dently ignorant wanderers should be their great astonishment, instead of regu. attributed the faculty of foreknow. lar troops, discovered a motley Gipsy ledge, a faculty from which truly tribe, are you the heroes? is it so with wise men shrink, must be considered you ?' Immediately wheeling about to the

as a folly in which our nation is not left, sword in hand, they drove the black crew back to their works, forced their singular, and little other than a reway after, and in a few minutes totally proach on the human mind itself. subdued them.”

FROM THE EDINBURGH REVIEW

An Account of the Application of Gas from Coal to Economical Purposes. By W.

Murdoch. Communicated to the Royal Society by Sir Joseph Banks.-Phil. Trans.

for 1808. Considerations on the Nature and Objects of the intended Light and Heat Company

London, 1808. A National Light and Heat Company, &c. with four Tables of Calculations, &c. And various other Pamphlets. By F. A. Winsor.

THE first in this list is a very of facts. We have witnessed some interesting paper. It consists only obscure attempts to light with gas, of a few pages; but the facts it con- that did not succeed. And we have tains are curious; and it leads to the read pamphlets on the subject, cir. consideration of a subject, which has culated, perhaps, to allure subscriexcited a good deal of attention in bers, which are as full of extravathe metropolis, and is soon, it is said, gance as they are void of science. to undergo a parliamentary discus. But, in spite of these failures, and sion. We have neither the power amidst all the nonsense that has been nor the wish to prejudge the cause; published, and all the, ridicule, in a nor would we willingly hurt the feel- great measure merited, that has been ings of any individual. Our object is thrown on some of the projects, still little more than a simple statement we think there is discernible a basis

of sound and practicable improve impaired by the unavoidable alloy of ment, to the development of which smoky vapour. A separation, how. a small portion of our time may be ever, may be effected by the distilling usefully devoted.

process, which leaves the pure aërial As the subject has been involved fluid such as we have described. All in much confusion, and, to many of the new plans for lighting with coal our readers, must be altogether new, gas, proceed upon the principle of we shall first endeavour to state, in purifying this fuid, collecting it in a brief and popular way, the chymi- reservoirs, and distributing it in tubes. cal composition of coal, before we From the furnace where the coal is

, detail the new applications that are distilled, a main pipe may convey all proposed to be made of its ingredi- the evaporable matter into a large ents.

reservoir or gasometer, where, by Pit-coal exists in this island in various means, chiefly, we believe, strata, which, as far as concerns the by washing with water, it may be hundredth generation after us, may freed from impurities, and propabe pronounced inexhaustible; and is gated through the tubes in every so admirably adapted, both for do- direction by its own elasticity. If mestick purposes and the uses of the nothing confine it, it will issue from arts, that it is justly regarded as a the extremities in an equable flow, most essential constituent of our na- but still invisible, till a lighted taper tional wealth. When exposed to be applied, when it bursts into flame, heat, as we see it every day in our and continues to burn as long as the grates, it is manifestly composed of gas is supplied. Mr. Accum found, a fixed base of carbonaceous matter, by a comparison of shadows, in the and a variety of evaporable sub- manner suggested by count Rum. stances, which are driven off in the ford, that the light of a gas flame is form of smoke and flame. But, in- to that of an equal-sized flame of a stead of being consumed in this open candle or lamp as 3 to 1;* or, in way, the coal may be distilled, and other words, that to light up a certhese evaporable matters collected in tain space, one gas flame will give proper vessels, and examined. They as much light as three candles burnare then found to contain, besides a ing with a flame of equal size. The considerable quantity of matter, which products of the combustion are in is condensed by cold into tar and al. both cases the same-water and care kaline liquor, an invisible elastick bonick acid gas; but with this matefluid, or gas, which no cold nor effusion of water can condense or absorb. jets ; and the gaseous oxide is occasionally It is a compound of two highly in

seen near the root of the flame, or in con. flammable gases, which chymists call

tact with the coal. It is possible that . the light hydrocarbonate, and the

small portion of this oxide may mix with

prepared gas. heavy hydrocarbonate, or olefiant gas; and this mixture burns with a very

* We should have suspected the pro. brilliant and beautiful light. It is this portion was overrated, had not the same gas which furnishes the flame in our

accurate experimenters assured us, “that

500 cubick inches of gas, burnt from the common fires;* but its beauty is there orifice of a jet, so as to produce a flame

equal in size to that of an ordinary can. There are, in fact, according to Mr. dle, consumed 1076 cubick inches of oxyDavy, three inflammable gases given out gene gas in the same time that a candle in our fires—the two we have mentioned, kept burning in the best possible manner, and the gaseous oxide of carbon, which consumed only 279. And we know, that is known by its blue flame. They are all the intensity of any artificial light depends distinctly perceptible. The light hydro- on the rapidity with which oxygene is abcarbonate forms the main body of the sorbed.--See Appendix to Report of the fame; the olefiant appears in brilliant Committee, &c.

a

rial difference, that candles frequent- " the whole of the rooms of this, the ly, and lamps always, give out a most extensive cotton mill in the quantity of smoke and soot; whereas kingdom, with the counting house the combustion of the gas is perfect, and store-room, and the adjacent and leaves no sensible residuum- dwelling house of Mr. Lee, are now, nothing that can soil the most deli- and have been for several years, lightcate white. Its effects on the air of ed up with the gas from coal, to the a room are, therefore, less insalubri- exclusion of all other artificial light." ous than those of a candle, since the The manner in which the

gas
is

proonly noxious substance it yields is cured and distributed, we shall quote carbonick acid gas; and this it pro- in his own words. duces in smaller quantity than our “ The coal is distilled in large iron re. common lights. From the inflamma- torts, which, during the winter are kept ble properties of the gas, explosions, constantly at work, except during the inbursting of tubes, and other dangers tervals of charging: and the gas, as it

arises from them, is conveyed by iron might be apprehended. But there is

pipes into large reservoirs or gasometers, no ground for such fears. On the

where it is washed and purified, previous. contrary, nothing can be more sim

to its being conveyed through other ple or easy in the management The pipes, called mains, to the mill. These gas may be confined by a stop-cock mains branch off into a variety of ramifiwith perfect safety, and issued as

cations, forming a length of several miles,

and diminish in size as the quantity of gas occasion requires. When it is ex

to be passed through them becomes less. hausted, the flame goes out as quiet. The burners, where the gas is consumed, ly as the flame of a candle does, when are connected with the above mains by the tallow is spent.

short tubes, each of which is furnished Such are the nature and properties

with a cock, to regulate the admission of of this curious and beautiful sub.

gas to each burner, and to shut it totally

off when requisite. This latter operation stance, when examined in a small may likewise be instantaneously performed way in the laboratory of the chymist. throughout the whole of the burners in each But it frequently happens, that theo- room, by turning a cock, with which each ries perfectly just and elegant in

main is provided, near its entrance into the themselves, and confirmed by expe

room.'

By a comparison of shadows, the ments on a small scale, with a nice apparatus and skilful management,

whole light of the gas flames used are yet, when attempted in the large dles of 6 to the lib. We cannot en.

was found equal to that of 2500 canand wholesale way, utterly incapable ter into all the items of expense : of being reduced to practice; and thus, many a promising plan has they are given with the most scrupu. ended with performing nothing. But, statement for one year stands thus.

lous accuracy; and the economical in the case before us, there are facts, The cost of the cannel coal which he of the description we want, to be col. lected from different quarters, and and of common coal to carbonize it,

used to furnish the gas, is 257. furnished by individuals unconnected with each other, which fully verify duct the value of the coke, 931. and

201. in all, 1451. from which dethe anticipations of theory, and the conclusions of more limited experi

the whole expense in coal is reduced

to 521. The interest of capital sunk in ment. The first, and by far the most va ·

the apparatus, with a liberal allow. luable of these facts, is contained in

ance for tear and wear, is stated at Mr. Murdoch's paper; the chief ob

5501. making the total expense of ject of which is to describe the mode lighting the manufactory about 6001. of lighting the cotion-mill of Messrs.

a year. That of candles, to give the Philips and Lee, at Manchester,

* Vide Nicholson's Philosophical JourFrom this account we learn, that nal for October laste

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