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from pitfalls by brief, respectful, and judicious com- We have seen, in our own time, that the tincture mentary; and that his great achievements may be at of a national flag is no trivial matter, but may once commemorated and corrected by men of slower pace, of drier light, and of more tranquil, broad-set, and have an important bearing on the fortunes of a comprehensive judgment."-Q. R , p. 50.

dynasty. I would therefore ask, why was there The passages from Mr. Gladstone's paper in the the difference above described between the two Quarterly seem to be effects whose causes are to flags, and what was the exact meaning of the be found in Macaulay's paper in the Edinburgh.

latter ?


U.S. Club, Edinburgb.

P.S.—In reference to the standard of 1745, I THE JACOBITE STANDARDS.

find the following in Brown's History of the HighAs in the days of Redgauntlet and Allan Fair-lands, vol. iii. p. 20 :-“The flag used upon this ford, there are still to be found persons—most occasion was of silk, of a white, blue, and red texloyal subjects, however—in whose company it is ture (sic), but without any motto.” more polite to speak of “the Chevalier,” or “Prince Charles Edward,” than to use the commoner phrase

SHAKSPEARIANA. with reference to those personages. From some

“ SKILL."members of this class whom I have met, I learn “I think you bave as little skill to fear as I have that some uncertainty exists with regard to the purpose."- - Winter's Tale, Act iv. sc. 3, 1. 157. exact form and import of the standards raised | The Oxford editors alter it to as little skill in during the Reb — I mean the affairs of ’15 and fear,” which, as Warburton says, has no kind of 245. I have recently come upon the following sense in this place. Mr. P. A. Daniel would read minute description of the standard of 1715. It call in lieu of skill. Directly I read the passage will be noticed that the flag, and the pretensions, it struck me that one of the early meanings of set up on this occasion were in perfect accord :- skill might be “cause,” “reason.” In this I find

“The Earl of Mar erected the Chevalier's standard I am confirmed ; for Warburton says, “ To have there (Castleton of Brae- Mar] on the 6th of September, skill to do a thing” was a phrase formerly in use 1715; and proclaimed him King of Scotland, England, equivalent to our “To have a reason to do a France, and Ireland, &c. This standard, supposed to be thing”; and Latham gives as a third meaning of was blue, having on one side the Scottish arms wrought skill,“ reason," "cause," and he says this is the in gold, and on the other the Scottish thistle, with these very ancient meaning of the word ; and he quotes words beneath, 'No Union’; and on the top the ancient the Winter's Tale. Indeed the Saxon has quite motto, Nemo me impune lacessit.' It had pendants of another word for our "skill” in the way we now white ribbon, one of which had these words written upon

use it.

Skill seem to be derived from A.-S. it, . For our wronged king and oppressed country. The other ribbon had • For our lives and liberties. It is scylan, which Lye renders “distinguere, dividere, reported that when this standard was first erected, the absolvere, liberare. Wæl scel on innan reocende ornamental ball on the top fell off, which depressed the hraw, cædes distinguebat intus fumantia cadavera.” spirits of the superstitious Highlanders, who deemed it - Fr. Jud., p. 26, 1. 6. Conf. Icelandic skilja, ominous of misfortune in the cause for which they were which Cleas by renders “to part, separate, divide ; Geo. Charles of Alloa, quoted in Hogg's Jacobite Relics, and then to distinguish, discern, understand 2nd Ser. p. 257).

[O. Eng. to skill].” He says the original sense, to The narrative is there given in illustration of the cut, L. secare, appears in the Gothic skilja = a falling of the “golden knop,” mentioned in the butcher. third verse of the song, “Up and waur them a', “Skills not” occurs once in 2 Henry VI. Willie.”*

Act iii. sc. 1, and twice in the Taming of the Shrer, The standard raised at Glenfinnan, in 1745, is Act iii. sc. 2, where it means matters not," “is thus described :

of no importance.”

R. S. CHARNOCK. “It was a large banner of red silk, with a white space

Junior Garrick Club. in the centre, but without the motto · Tandem Trium.

“ CHARIEST” (5th S. vi. 345, 405.)— In Leicesphans,' which has been so often assigned to it, as also the significant emblems of a crown and coffin with which tershire there is no difficulty in understanding this the terror of England at one time adorned it” (History word. Of a man who is unwilling to impart some of the Rebellion of 1745.46, by Robert Chambers, p. 42). desired information it is said, “He is chary of his It will be observed that this flag was perfectly words "; and of a man with ample means but who different from that raised in “ the '15”; and it is gives alms scantily, “He is chary of his money." to this point I would ask the attention of such of

THOMAS North. your readers as may be interested in the subject. “I HAD RATHER LIE IN THE WOOLLEN” (5th S. “The golden knop down from the top

vi. 288.)-Surely Beatrice's exclamation in Much Unto the ground did fa', Willie,

Ado about Nothing means, “I had rather lie Then second-sighted Sandy said,

between the blankets," which, as every one knows, We'll do nae gude at a', Willie."

is most uncomfortable.



(Commencing at fo. 65 b.)

June 1576. The names of certayne lawiers in euery of QUEEN ELIZABETH.

the foure Innes of Courte. The following lists occur in the Lansdowne MS.,

Greis Inne. No. 683, and in a handwriting coeval with the Single Reader:—Mr. Gerrard, hir majesty's Attorney period to which they refer. The first of them is generall. Mr. Seckfor, Master of the Requests. Mr. particularly interesting on account of the presence Meres, of the Counsell of Yorke ; of good liuing. Mr. of two of the Spencer, alias Spenser, family ; it Barton, of tho counsell in the Marches of Wales; of good

liuing. being now generally supposed, I believe, that the

Double Readers—Mr. Kitchen, of the counsell of the poet's father was a merchant of the City of Citie of London ; of good wealthé. Mr. Alcock, of CanLondon.

torbury; poore. Mr. Rodes, of the Counsell of Yorke; (Commencing at fo. 62".*)

of great liuing and very learned. Mr. Colbie ; of great

liuing. The names of sondry the wisest and best merchaunts

Single Readers-Mr. Jute ; of one hundredth marks in london to deale in the weightiest causes of the Citie living'; Recorder of Cambridge ; very learned. Mr as occasion is ofired.

Kearle; of great liuing. Mr. Allington ; discontinueth; Anthonye Cage

Edmond Hall

poore. Mr. Auger ; very learned ; welthie. Mr. WhisGeorge Bonde

Robert Howse

kins ; learned; poore; of smale fame for practise. Gerard Gore

Johñ Lacye

Mr. Yeluerton; learned; of great gayne and wealth. ffrauncis Bowyer

Ambrose Smithe

Mr. Snagge; learned; of great liuing and practise. Nicholas Backhouse

William Gibbons

Mr. Brogrove ; very learned; poore; sınally practised; Thomas Starkie

Johñ Allat

worthy of great practise. Robert Ofley William Hewet

Barristers— Mr. Burnam, at York. Mr. Burket, hir Raufe Woodcock

Thomas Cranfield majesty's Attorney at Yorke. Mr. Neuell, at York. Mr. Jobñ Spencer

Robert Trapps

Kempe; learned. Mr. Esconte. Mr. Sturd, Mr. Pur. Henry Campion

Johñ Kirbie

fray, no practisers. Mr. Daniell’; of great practise ; Richard Barnes

Nicholas Parkins

very welthie and relligions. Mr. Smithe. Mr. Boothe; Thomas Gore

William Phillipps smaly practised. Mr. Godfrey: wel practised; riche. George Stoddard

Richard Maye

Mr. Shuttleworthe : very learned and riche, and well William Albanye

Christofer Hodgeson practised. Mr. Williams; smally learned.
Martyn Calthroppe
William Dixon

The Midle Temple.
Thomas Browne

Mathew Colcloth
Thomas Skinner
Nicholas Spencer

Double Readers--Mr. Plowden ; uery learned ; of great Richard Pecock

Henry Billingsley

liuing. Mr. ffleetewood, Recorder of London; very Nicholas Wheler

Andrew Palmer

learned and riche. Mr. Nicholls; learned ; riche. Mr. Richard Hilles

William Webbe

Popham; very learned; of great liuing : hir majesty's Richard Peacockt

Mr. Johñ Riche

Sollicitour. Mr. ffarmer; very learned ; riche. Nicholas Wheler

Auncell Becket

Gent; wel practised.
Richard Hillest
Robert Wynche

Single Readers- Mr. Rosse ; wel practised. Mr. CrampNicholas Luddington Thomas Bressie

ton; wel practised. Mr. Archer; wealthie. Mr. SteRichard Martyn

Hugh Ofleye

phens. Mr. Dale; practised. Mr. ffenner; learned. Thomas Aldersey John Hevdon

Thinner Temple.
Richard Saltonstall'
Johĩ Violet

Double Readers-Mr. Kelloway, Surviour of Liveries. Stephen Slange

Richard Thornell'

Mr. George Bromeley, Attorney of the Duchie. Mr. Anthony Ratcliff

Robert Christofer

Withe. Mr. Poole. Mr. Mariot. Johñ Mabbsen

William Thorowgood Single Readers-Mr. Risden. Mr. Walter. Mr. HurThomas Ware

John Totten

leston. Mr. Halton. Mr. Pargrave. Mr. Bullock. Mr. John Harte

Richard Warren

Graye. Mr. Wiatt. Mr. Smithe. Mr. Hare.
Thomas Riggs
George Sotherton

Lincoln's Inne.
William Cockin

Ricbard Stapers
William Towerson
William Rowe

Mr. Richard Kingsmill, Attorney in the Courte of Henry Pranell'

Edward Elmer

Wardes. Mr. Kempe; of smale accompt; a double George Crowther

Richard Adams

reader. Mr. Baker ; of great liuing; wel practised ; a Walter ffishe

Richard Smitbe

single reader. Mr. Clinche; wel practised. Mr. Dalton; John Harrison

Thomas Bayard

wel practised; not welthie. Mr. Walmesley: very Blase Saunders

Arthure Malbye

learned; welthie. Mr. Owen; welthie. Mr. Wykes; William Abram

Charles Hoskins

very riche; wel practised. Mr. Cooper; practised. Mr. Edmond Burton

Johñ Wetherall

George Kingsmill; wel practised; welthie. Mr. EgerRichard Reynolds

Hughe Morgan

ton; very learned ; a younge practiser, and very toward. Johñ Denham Edmond Hogens


William Harding Christopher Edwards William Megges Thomas Allen

George Withens



Anthony Walthall William Widnell

The Sentimental and Masonic Magazine (vol. vi. ffrauncis Dodd William Sherington Stephen Woodroofe. May, 1795, p. 446) contains the following verses

by Thomas Moore, addressed to Samuel Whyte, his • One of the lists previous to this is dated 1579.

old schoolmaster. They are rendered all the more | Repeated?

interesting from the fact of their having been


written when the poet was between fourteen and Lord Beacon sfield “powerful, but a dolt,” should fifteen years of age, and being probably penned in assume that very title himself. his father's little “ back parlour” in Aungier The late eloquent pulpit orator, W.J. Fox, may Street, Dublin, from which they are dated “Jan. also be held to have seen not far enough into the 1, 1795.” Moore was born in May, 1780. future when in 1836 he said, in his Lecture on “ To Samuel Whyte, Esq.,

the Morality of the Press :Principal of the Grammar School, Grafton Street.

“How extraordinary would a Prime Minister of this Hail ! heaven-born votary of the laureld Nine

country think it if any one were to propose—a creation That in the groves of Science strike their lyres ! of peers being supposed to be in contemplation--that he Thy strains, which breathe a harmony divine,

should elevate to the Upper House men who had distinSage Reason guides, and wild-eyed Fancy fires. guished themselves merely as authors, though in their If e'er from Genius' torch one little spark

authorship they might have developed the bighest powers Glow'd in my soul, thy breath increased the flame;

of intellect with which humanity has ever been invested ! Thy smiles beam'd sunshine on my wandering bark,

How astonished he would be if one were to say, ' Make That dared to try Castalia's dangerous stream.

a peer of Lytton Bulwer!'" Oh ! then for thee may many a joy-wing'd year

Lytton Bulwer and Babington Macaulay were With not a stain, but still new charms appear; elevated to the peerage surely much more because Till, when at length thy mortal course is run,

they “had distinguished themselves as authors” Thou settist, in cloudless glory, like a sinking Sun.

than from the fact that they also drifted into poli“THOMAS MOORE.

tical life. As politicians, their eminence is certainly “Aungier Street, Jan. 1, 1795."

secondary to their fame as literary men; as authors, Following these verses are some lines " by a they live among the immortals. Lady,” addressed likewise to Mr. Whyte,

HENRY CAMPKIN, F.S.A. perusal of the new edition of his poems.” In the seventh verse she thus refers to his “pupil Moore": 'SUCH AS SHOULD BE SAVED.”—In Acts ii. 47, “While every plant of genius shows

the phrase used of those who were added to the Beneath whose forming hand it rose,

Church at Pentecost has caused much controversy
Your pupil Moore delights me more
Than ever school-boy did before ;

among scholars, and in its English dress has perThe votive lay to you consign'd

plexed many humble and timid believers. It has Has force with classic ease combin'd," &c. been asked what is the precise meaning of oi An asterisk over the last word of the foregoing cocópevol. The rendering in the A.V., which verse directs the attention of the reader to a note has a strongly Calvinistic flavour and bias, is con(which I subjoin) by the editor of the magazine :

fessedly wrong.

Some well-intentioned persons “ This particularly alludes to the stanzas preceding have endeavoured to make out that the present (Moore's lines to Whyte), and other admired perfor participle was in this case used through a grammances exhibited by Master Moore, the young gentlematical looseness in a future sense. man noticed in Whyte's Poems lately published, page 264, ing the Tabula of Cebes the other day I lighted who at a very early age entered the University from on a solution of the problem. The Tabula is one Mr. Whyte’s Academy, with distinguished honour to him of the least known but not the least valuable parts self, as well as his able and worthy Preceptor." R. W. H. Nash, B.A.

of Greek ethical literature. It is a kind of brief Florinda Place, Dublin.

Pilgrim's Progress, and therefore its terminology is in an instance like this of marked significance.

The Tabula is so short that I need not give chapter POETICAL AND LITERARY PREVISION.-Poet and verse, but I wish to mention that in it there and prophet are said to be synonymous terms, but occurs the phrase oi owcóplevou, and from the conthe prophet's mantle certainly fell not upon text it is obvious that the two words mean not Thomas Moore's shoulders when, in his Odes upon

“those who were predestined to be saved,” not Cash, Corn, Catholics, and other Matters: Selected even, to adopt a formula of the Latin Church, from the Columns of the TimesJournal (12mo., “those who were in a state of salvation," but Lond., 1828), he ventured on the under-printed simply “ those who were treading the path towards snuff-out of the now Earl of Beaconsfield :

moral perfection." I have no doubt that in the “ Yonder behind us limps young Vivian Grey,

New Testament the meaning is absolutely the same, Whose life, poor youth, was long since blown away,

and that in this as in other cruces a theological Like a torn paper-kite, on which the wind

doubt has been created by an imperfect knowledge No further purchase for a puff can find.”

of the refinements of the Greek language. Let us These lines occur in a satirical sketch entitled hope that, in the fresh version of the New TestaImitation of the Infernoof Dante, at p. 158 of ment, the radical mistranslation of which I have the little volume above referred to. They are to spoken will be corrected even at the cost, which be found also on p. 520 of the single vol. edition from a purely literary point of view is lamentable, of Moore's Works, royal 8vo., 1850. It is curious of a studied paraphrase. that Mr. Disraeli, having (in Vivian Grey) styled Still, a paraphrase is a lesser evil than an ap

But on open



at it.

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parent limitation of the divine mercy to sinners It is not a little remarkable that so careful and owing to a defect in language or scholarship, and accurate a critic in all matters of dates as De to take an analogous example, has not much con- Morgan was should have assumed that this date fusion been introduced into scientific theolooy of March 18, 1733, did not mean the historic because St. Augustine happened originally to bave year but indicated the legal year, that is, a twelvebeen a lawyer ? H. DE BURGH HOLLINGS. month later, when there was no need for such an New University Club.

assumption, and the evidence of probability was BRADSHAW THE REGICIDE.-- Mr. Thorne, in his don in February, 1733 (historic year), and is

against it. Newton's book was published in LonHandbook to the Environs of London, recently advertised in the London Magazine for that month. published, has fallen into a curious error with That it was reprinting in Dublin the following regard to President Bradshaw. In his account of month is just what might be expected, and John Edmonton he states that Bury Hall was “ once the Stokes's date at once settles the question of priority, residence of Bradshaw, who presided at the trial without supposing that the Dublin edition was of Charles I.” As I believe Mr. Thorne is not not printed till the following year. De Morgan the first who has made this mistake, perhaps a

was clearly right in his conclusion, but I think as true statement of the case may not be uninteresting to the readers of “N. & Q.” Bury Hall was for clearly wrong in the evidence by which he arrived

EDWARD SOLLY. many generations the seat of the Galliards, a family of French extraction, who, during the seventeenth “ DERANGE.”—Johnson has not admitted this and eighteenth centuries, were possessed of con- word and censures it (Hawkins's Apophthegms, siderable property in the neighbourhood of Ed- 215, i.e. the last volume of his edition of Johnson): monton and Enfield, acquired principally through disarrange is the word.” John Seager (A Supplemarriages with the heiresses of Wroth and Huxley. ment to Dr. Johnson's Dictionary, Lond., 1819, Early in the last century Joshua Galliard, Esq., 4to.) cites Adam Smith as an authority both for of Bury Hall, married Elizabeth, sister and sole derange and derangement. Todd (ed. 1827) cites heir of George Bradshaw, Esq., the last heir male Burke, On a Regicide Peace, as an authority for of the family of Bradshaw, of Bradshaw Hall and derange, noting that the British Critic (Sept. 1795, Abney, in Derbyshire, and Brampton Hall, Yorks. p. 237) branded the word as a Gallicism ; for President Bradshaw belonged to a junior branch derangement he cites Ruffhead and Paley. Richof this family, and had been dead upwards of half ardson cites Blair and Adam Smith for the verb, a century before the connexion between the Brad- Berkeley and Paley for the noun. Can no earlier shaws and the possessors of Bury Hall took place. examples be found? John E. B. Mayor. The Bradshaw arms appear among the Galliard St. John's College, Cambridge. quarterings on a shield over the chimney-piece, in one of the principal rooms at Bury Hall ; and,

THE WHITE TSAR.—This name, by which the as the house is of considerable antiquity, this too Emperor of Russia is now known throughout all may have given rise to the legend that the presi-Asia, is the literal translation-in Russian Biely dent resided there. I may add that the Galliard Tsar, in Mongol Tchagau Khan-of the present family became extinct in the male line about a corrupted form of the Chinese character Hwang, hundred years ago, when Bury Hall, with the chief “emperor.” The symbol used to express this idea part of the Bradshaw and Galliard estates in

was originally composed of the characters meaning Derbyshire and Middlesex, passed by marriage to

oneself” and “ruler”; Hwang, therefore, being Charles Bowles, Esq., of Sheen House, in the equivalent to “autocrat.” But, by the omission of a parish of Mortlake, Surrey (a younger son

of stroke, the symbol “ oneself” was changed into Humphry Bowles, Esq., of Wanstead Grove,

the symbol “ white," and hence the Chinese Essex, and Burford, in Shropshire), in whose word for “ emperor” became in Russian and family it now continues.

M. Y. S. Mongol the “ White Tsar.” See Douglas, Lan

guage of China, p. 19, 1875. NEWTON ON DANIEL.-In one of Augustus De

A. L. MAYHEW, M.A. Morgan's interesting little bibliographical notes in Wadham College, Oxford. the Athenæum in 1868, he discusses the question whether Sir Isaac Newton's Observations on Daniel,

THE UNICORN.—The accompanying Oriental &c., was first printed in 1733 in London or in Dub-account of the reason why the unicorn forms one lin, and ends :

of the supporters of the royal arms of Britain will “No doubt the first was the London edition, but no

be new to many


readers :doubt is some doubt, as surely as a true joke is no joke. “The following story was told me, and as I heard it The whim of a schoolboy is some evidence-Master John from one who neither knew I was an Englishman nor Stokes, aged ten years, has sent his name (as a subscriber bore any particular love to our country, it may be relied to the Dublin edition), 18th of March, 1733, and as this on as genuine. One evening, sitting among the rocks was only a week before the end of the year, it seems with a party of natives, the conversation turned on flags. clear that the London edition was the earlier of the two." A man sitting there said to a stranger, “Why do the

English put the wheed el win, the unicorn, on their held it fast to the table ; whereas, when he has so done, flag ?' and then related the following story of it, as one the person with whom he plays may take hold of both well known through the length and breadth of the land: ends, and draw it away." • The unicorn is found in a vast country south of Abys- The game is still practised at fairs, races, and their own laws. The water does not flow in rivers, but similar meetings under the name of " prick the lives in the bosom of the soil. When the others wish to garter”; the original phrase, “fast and loose,” drink, the unicorn inserts his horn into the earth : with however, is now used to designate the conduct of this he scoops a pool, satisfies his own thirst, and leaves those numerous slippery characters whose code of what he does not require to the rest. So these English ethics does not forbid them to say one thing and have the privilege of first discovering all things and then the rest of the world may come afterwards.' The story

do another.

W. T. HYATT. was flattering, and the rest all assured the stranger (a

Enfield, N. native of Mosul) of its truth.”—Hon. F. Walpole, The Ansayrii, iii. p. 285.

The Rochdale LIBRARY.—On September 20 I wonder how many Englishmen could give and 21, 1876, was sold by public auction the colthe true reason for the unicorn appearing in the lection of books which formed this library. It was royal standard.

A. 0. V. P.

established in 1770, and was probably the longest [The English lion and the Scottish unicorn are said lived, if not the oldest, circulating library in Engto be united as supporters of the arms of England by the land, having existed for over 106 years. For some union of England and Scotland. The two together are years after its establishment its annual meetings to be found among Egyptian hieroglyphics, the unicorn were held at the various hotels in the town, and being really the graceful wild ass. There is somewhere in 1777 a catalogue was ordered to be printed and mention made of both in a game at chess, the lion re: sold at 2d. each. In 1775 it was resolved “ that presenting the powerful king, the unicorn the graceful every person who shall become a member shall queen.]

pay for his entrance 11., and 6s. as a subscription.” New Year's Day SUPERSTITIONS. - In some About fifteen years ago a proprietors ticket was parts of Devonshire it is believed to be particularly worth 21. 2s. and the annual subscription was 15s. unlucky to wash clothes on a New Year's Day, From that time there was a gradual decrease in because by so doing it is thought that a member the number of subscribers, chiefly owing to the of the family will be rendered liable to be washed counter attractions of Mudie, Smith, and others ; out of existence before the close of the current but the death blow to it was the opening of the year. This superstitious belief is carried so far by local Free Public Library in 1872. The subscripsome persons that they will not even permit any tion library contained about 9,000 volumes, the dishes, plates, &c., to be cleaned on the first day best of which were purchased by the Free Library,

GEO. C. BOASE. which has now on its shelves upwards of 25,000 Queen Anne's Gate, S.W.


H. FISHWICK, F.S.A. CuriouS ANAGRAMS.—The name of the vessel PARALLEL PASSAGES.—Milton's L'Allegro, lines that first attempted to lay the Atlantic cable was 53 and 54 :Faraday, and the name of the owners Siemens. “ Oft listening how the hounds and horn From these two names (Siemens, Faraday) the fol

Cheerly rouse the slumbering morn. lowing ingenious anagrams, which seem worthy of And The Spleen, by Matthew Green, lines 73 and preservation in “N. & Q.,” have been compounded | 74 :by a friend :

Hygeia's sons with bound and horn 1. Means, I fear, days. 2. Yes, man, said Fear. 3.

And jovial cry awake the morn." Yes, as I damn fear. 4. Fear is damn easy. 5. Yes, as

E. T. MAXWELL WALKER. if man dare. 6. May fair seas end! 7. Fain easy Chace Cottage, Enfield, N. dreams. 8. Seems if a day ran. 9. As may Fan desire. 10. Say if a mad sneer. 1), Fears amend, I say! 12. Curious SURNAMES.--I noted Frühstück at Ye ass, in mad fear! 13. I say, sad man free. 14. !f Linz am Donau, and Mangematin at Autun, any sea-dreams. 15. Men far said easy. 16. “Ein


R. S. CHARNOCK. Mess, Faraday.” 17. As I may end fears. 18. And sea

Junior Garrick. is my fear. 19. Sad is enemy afar.


“PALE GATE.”— A man directing me my way “Fast AND LOOSE.”—This is the name of a near Ashburton, Devon, said, “You 'll come to a cheating game, also called “pricking at the belt,” pale gate.” It proved to be a gate made with which appears to have been much practised by the pales placed in a vertical position on a frame. The gipsies in the time of Shakspeare. The following phrase was quite new to me ; but I found it to be is a description :

common in that district. - WM. PENGELLY. “A leathern belt is made up into a number of intricate

Torquay. folds, and placed edgewise upon a table. One of the folds is made to resenable the middle of a girdle, so that

MAYPOLES.- About four miles from Ashtonwhoever shall thrust a skewer into it would think he under-Lyne there are two maypoles existing, one

of the year.

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