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dent or director of not less than twenty- has left, not only an enviable reputation, six corporations of more or less impor- but the memory of a spirit and a career tance.

which will be an inspiration to every one Mr. Baldwin's avocations filled as who knew him. great a place in the activities of his life as his vocation, and in his affections a far greater place. His affiliations with The Spectator university affairs were indicated by his

It was about the middle of December, membership in the University and Harvard Clubs and in the Alpha Delta Phi The Spectator's hostess was busy with fraternity. The supreme interest of his Christmas preparation. Now, in Beth' life of late years might be defined as a

lehem, Pennsylvania, Christmas preparapassion for civic welfare. His heart

tion means preparation really for Christwas in every real reform movement. A

mas. Not merely for the giving of capitalist, the associate of many of the presents, not merely for a family gatherlarge capitalists of the country, con

ing, not merely for the reception of a nected with some of its leading financial good old saint, the best of saints, the enterprises, his sympathies with working- patron of children. Among good Mo

ravians it means preparation to celebrate men were so strong that in heart he belonged to them rather than to the

the Nativity. Of course Santa Claus is class with whom his life was cast.

welcome-Santa As

Claus, that

“ Other Chairman of the Committee of Fifteen, Wise Man” who was wise enough not chosen by the Chamber of Commerce of to turn back to the East, to oblivion, but New York City in 1900 to .conduct a

to continue westward bringing gifts to war against vice, his tact and judgment little children through the ages.

Of were of great service; and there was no

course, too, there are Christmas trees. movement looking to the better manage

After all, however, these are but subment, politically and socially, of the sidiary, in the Moravian household, to affairs of the metropolis that did not

the Christmas story itself. The Specsecure his interest. Of late years, how- tator's hostess, therefore, was occupied ever, he had been most conspicuously when on this day she went to the tele

in getting ready for the Christmas story occupied with educational matters, and his services to Tuskegee and Hampton phone and called up the plumber. As and other schools in the South, his

soon as she heard his answering“ Hello !" knowledge of Southern conditions, and

she gave this order : “ Please send some his profound sympathy with the South

one up at once to solder the pond.” A in its struggles, were well interpreted by pause. Then in a voice of astonishment a public man of distinction who, on

came the simple ejaculation, "What !" hearing of Mr. Baldwin's illness, said : “He is of more importance in the solu- If that plumber had been a man of tion of the race problem in the United imagination, he need not have gratified States than any other man." As Presi-. this vivacious little woman's sense of dent of the General Educational Board humor. He ought to have understood of the South he shared with Mr. Ogden what was going on in that household the large responsibilities and honors of that time of year. The nursery had an educational work second in impor- become a place of mystery. The door tance to none in the United States. was shut. Across one end of the room There are many generous spirits among had been erected a low platform, and men of affairs in America who are using on this had appeared a wonderful minigreat financial positions for altruistic ature landscape.

ature landscape. The wall had disapends; but there has never been in the peared behind a background of little history of the country a finer citizen in evergreen trees. The ground was green business, nor one who more strikingly with moss from which paper rocks united idealism of aim with practical fiercely jutted. In the foreground, on a sagacity and method than Mr. Baldwin. dreary waste of sand, a company of leaden Dying at the early age of forty-one, he soldiers valiantly paraded. To the right

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towered a noble castle, at the very least involved, and the stairway was trans
a foot and a half high. To the left formed into a great cascade. Even the
stretched a quiet pond in which a foun- anachronism of a trolley-car or a me-
tain, mysteriously controlled from the chanical railway winding about in two
bath-room, spouted, fishes swam, and or three of the putzes had a charm of its
boats of various patterns plied. Under
the branch of a tree an angel, poised on
his wings, addressed some shepherds The final convincing appeal of this
with their sheep. And situated at the Christmas custom lies, after all, not in
point around which the whole scene was the opportunity it affords for the exercise
grouped stood a humble thatched log of ingenuity and artistic taste, not in the
house. There, in the open doorway, family traditions which surround the
surrounded by the cattle and protected little figures that are handed down from
by the husband, sat the Mother with the generation to generation, not even in the
Child on her knee.

neighborly feelings which the exchange
of visits fosters, but in the idea which

makes such charming anachronism posIn Pennsylvania many words have sible. It is the association of the chilbeen Anglicized which will never become dren's interests with the story of the generally current ; but there is one word

manger, the star, and the shepherds. which could be admitted to every Ameri- All day long, and day after day, the can's vocabulary without the Spectator's children of the household play beside veto, if what it represents might only the cattle-shed. The story is their story; become the possession of all American the Child is their Playmate. homes. That word is putz "—the name of this Christmas decoration. These putzes (note that the Spectator

With the Moravians the Nativity is does not say Pütze) vary with the taste, supremely the children's festival. It is the ingenuity, the resources, and the on Christmas Eve that the little children traditions of the different families. One, and the boys and girls have their loveas that of the Spectator's hostess, has a

feasts. It is then they gather in the cattle-shed made by the grandfather; church and have their little repast, and, another lacks the rocks of specially pre

with small beeswax candles in their pared paper, but has instead real tree- hands, sing their Christmas chorales. stumps preserved in the cellar from year

It is thus that the Moravian Church to year; another has a many-pointed gathers its congregation together and star which, by an ingenious application reminds them, “Except ye become as of dry batteries and clockwork, is made

little children." to glimmer and twinkle realistically. Profiting by a well-established though It is just because the Moravians really obsolescent custom, the Spectator after celebrate Christmas that the old MoraChristmas joined a party which went vian Church at Bethlehem was the most from door to door with the request, natural possible place for a Christmas

May we please see your putz ?” At Festival of Bach music. To call that each door there was the hospitable wel festival a series of services would be

a come and the expression of pleasure at about as misleading as to call it a series the appreciation which the neighborly of concerts, but it would be no more so. visit evinced ; at each home, too, there It was strictly a festival, a celebration. was some new feature, ingenious or artis. Yet though this Bach festival, like those tic, that added flavor to the individuality which have preceded it, owed its existof the putz. Indeed, the possible variety ence to conditions which were created is endless, from the simple group ar- by Moravian traditions, it was by no ranged beneath a Christmas tree to the means exclusively Moravian. The other elaborate design which the Spectator celebrations--the putz and the love heard of as having existed in some feasts-had been church celebrations ; former year, in which the entire hall was this festival was a community celebra

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tion. The Bach Choir, which is became despondent. He told of the permanent chorus of some six score difficulty of counting eleven bars of voices, has among its members people of rests, of humming B flat while seven various denominations. Hecktown and other parts circled about, and of their Shimersville join with Nazareth and suddenly attacking that B flat while the Bethlehem in producing this fine musi- sopranos were doing their best to insist cal institution. There are members who on everybody's singing C. He shook his travel fifteen or twenty miles every day head. Besides,” he added in despair, there is a rehearsal. The old Moravian “I don't think there will be any tenors in Church has become the center of a com- heaven.” In the Spectator's opinion there munity that has a genuine enthusiasm would be ample justification for extendfor this old but living Protestant church ing special mercy to tenors if thereby music.

this motet could be included among the

songs of praise in the New Jerusalem. These recurrent festivals are the cre- The members of the Bach Choir have a ation of Mr. J. Fred Wolle. The flame peculiar idiom. Of course they sing of musical devotion that burns so brightly nothing but Bach's music; nevertheless, in the region round about Bethlehem a not infrequent question at a rehearsal has been caught from him. The excel has been, “ Are we going to sing Bach lence with which the Bach choir sings to-night?” In their vocabulary“ Bach” this intricate music is due to his patience means the mass in B Minor. Now the as conductor. The victory which Bach Spectator believes that this word ought has won in this Pennsylvania town is to be expanded to include “ the motet.” due to his artistic faith. Yet the one This, he feels, belongs with the very name which cannot be found either on Bach of Bach. the official circulars or the official programme is that of Mr. Wolle. In this Some day all the musical people of one respect Mr. Wolle has failed: he America will learn to prize this Bach has not been able to hide his light under Choir as many of them do already. Then a bushel. He has tried to, but the only there will come the suggestion of an 'effect has been that the whole bushel endowment fund to meet the expenses, glows.

which now are a burden and a limitation

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on the technical excellence of soloists And in this, too, the Bach Choir has and orchestra. It is costly to hold recaught his spirit. One evening, after hearsals, especially with orchestra players most of the people had left the church, and professional singers. In the meanthe Spectator noticed that the chorus time the Spectator hopes that a fund will was reassembling evidently for a re- be raised to erect a fireproof building hearsal. So he sat down unobtrusively for the old Moravian archives which are and let the billows of sound roll over now shelved in the church. Possibly him. It was the great motet for double the old Bell House, solidly built of stone chorus, “Sing ye to the Lord." The and brick, could be adapted to this use next day the Spectator met a bass of the without serious modification. The Specchorus and told him of this unexpected tator's wife will be uneasy until those immersion. The eyes of this quiet, archives are safe. The Spectator has, matter-of-fact man fairly shone as he therefore, reasons which affect the peace told of the delight with which the whole of his own home for urging at least this choir saw Mr. Wolle's gesture to remain one reform. for this last rehearsal, and added, “The choir doesn't care whether nobody

Through a regrettable error, the excellent comes.

portrait of General Nogi which was pubfished in The Outlook of January 7 was not

credited to the photographers who made it Speaking of that motet, the Spectator It was from a stereograph made by James remarked to a tenor that it ought to be Ricalton at General Nogi's headquarters included in the celestial repertory. The Underwood & Underwood, New York, and

before Port Arthur, on September 13, for tenor, a usually cheerful man, suddenly copyright, 1904, by this well-known firm.

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Power of architect, power of painter, and sculptor, and bard,

Living forever in temple, and picture, and statue, and song, Look how the world with the lights that ye lit is engirdled and

starred : Brief was the fame of your life, but the lamps of your art burn long.

Where is the master of music, and how has he vanished away?
Where are the works that he wrought in the air as a palace of

dreams? Gone—all gone—like the light on the clouds at the close of the day! Darkness enfolds him, and silence descends on the fields and the

streams.

Once, at the wave of his wand, all the billows of musical sound

Followed his will, as the sea was ruled by the prophet of old: Now that his hand is relaxed, and the rod has dropped to the ground,

Lo, how still are the shores where the mystical harmonies rolled!

Nay, but not still are the hearts that were filled with that marvelous

sea ; Purer and deeper forever the tides of their being shall roll, Sounding with echoes of joy, and of thanks, O Master, to thee,

Music immortal endures in the depths of the human soul.

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HE views which are expressed in here. The more one studies the com

this article are my own. I have posite parts of the costs of our transpor

entertained them a long time, tation, and then contrasts our railway and have frequently voiced them. In rates with those charged in other counno sense must they be considered as the tries, and further compares our wages views of the Administration, and in no and material costs with the prices paid way should it be interpreted that they abroad, the more he will wonder how are to be pressed upon members of Con- the American roads can afford to make gress. They are offered as pertinent the low rates now charged. to a very important subject now being Personally, I am in favor of the proper discussed, and are based entirely on regulation of our railways by the Fedmy own somewhat extensive experience eral Government. With that regulation in the transportation business of the should come proper protection. It is country.

only fair that regulation and protection To start with, every good citizen should go together. If the public is to should be in favor of the extermination be protected against a railway charge of rebates and special privileges of all de- that is unreasonably high, the railways scriptions which discriminate in favor of (which are generally owned by the pubone shipper and against another. Funda- lic) should be protected against a rate mentally, this proposed reform is right. which is unreasonably low.

There are very few complaints of rail- Five years ago, before the Industrial way rates per se in the United States. Commission, I stated : Rates generally are reasonable. Over The results of consolidation of small railninety per cent of the complaints made ways into large systems have been to lower are of the relation of rates as between mar

the charges of transportation, improve the

service rendered, and advance the wages of kets. Occasionally there have been com

the men employed. plaints as to the relation of rates between Unless legalized pooling is authorized by commodities, but it is very rare that a Congress, the railways of the country are complaint is made that any given rate is

more than likely to pass into the hands of a unreasonably high or extortionate. There ized, a pool of earnings will be accomplished.

few owners, and then, without being legalare, in my opinion, as many rates in I believe the Inter-State Commerce Comexistence in this country which may be mission, or some similar body, has come to fairly considered too low, as there are

stay. I am in favor of its having proper rates which a court would decide to be pooling, that it should be empowered to pass,

authority, and am willing, under legalized too high. Rates that are unreasonably subject to review, upon the reasonableness low may be just as disastrous to com- of rates. munities as rates which may be too high. The only change in my views since

Railway rates are, without doubt, that time is a more decided conviction lower by much more than one-third in that Federal supervision is necessary, this country than anywhere else in the and I believe that one of three things is world. This, coupled with the facts that sure to take place in the conduct of railway employees in this country ap- our railway systems: proximate fifty per cent. more in wages First-Legalization of pools—the right and that all materials and supplies used of the railways to make enforceable by the railways are purchased in a high contracts between themselves as to a market, speaks volumes as to the tri- division of earnings, so that they can umphs in transportation by land achieved resist the temptations of big shippers

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