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is well taken.” My reply to that is : Christian man, although I regret that he “ The United States never has been, is is opposed to the American public not, and never will be anything else but schools. He is much beloved all over a great missionary society."

the island, but he has a very difficult Nominally, the whole island is Roman proposition to handle. Under Spain Catholic, but under the Constitution of the Roman Catholic Church was the the United States there can be no Roman established religion, the clergy were paid Catholic island any more than there can by the State, and many held office under be a Presbyterian, a Baptist, a Congre- the government. But now, under Amergational, or an Episcopal island. Now, ican rule, there is, of course, no connecthe time of religious liberty having come, tion between Church and State, and Protestant missionaries of all names are many priests went away at the time of there and are working to evangelize and the Spanish evacuation. This leaves uplift the people of Porto Rico, to inspire the Church in a crippled condition as them with higher ideals of living, with regards numbers, while, I am told, the the hope of making of them good, Chris- amount of financial support is extremely tian American citizens, fit to live under small. the stars and stripes. While nominally, There is no doubt that, whatever may as I have said, the entire population is have been her shortcomings and faults, Roman Catholic, I think the great ma- the Roman Catholic Church has done jority of the people have no real allegi- much good, as is evidenced by the fact ance to that religion. This condition that the people of Porto Rico know a good of things is not confined to ignorant deal about Christianity. They may have people who have been neglected and perverted ideas, they may have grotesque who are the prey of superstition. It ways of showing their religion, as in the prevails among the better-informed ele- matter of the carnival and their noisy ment of the community, who may be demonstrations at Christmas and Easter, divided into three classes: (1) Those yet at the same time they know somewho are loyal to the Roman Catholic thing about redemption and about the Church ; (2) those who are bitterly and great Head and Founder of the Christian unreasonably opposed to the Roman Church. But the Church of Rome in Catholic Church (and many of them Porto Rico neglected the humanities. hate it with an unholy hatred); and (3) She built no hospitals; she had very few those who are absolutely indifferent, if schools, and those were pay schools; not agnostic.

she did not give to the people very With this condition of things we can much to elevate and brighten their lives. find a ready use for any man who can One manifestation of their conception expound the Bible to these people in of the humanities may be found in the their own language. While it is easy to inadequate methods of administering master Spanish enough for ordinary charitable relief. On every Saturday purposes, it is as difficult to learn to morning San Juan was crowded with preach in Spanish as to speak the Latin beggars. Saturday was called “beggars' of Cicero. The Spanish language is day." On that day copper coins were beautiful, dignified, subtle, with delicate thrown to these poor creatures and they shades of meaning, full of idiomatic ex- reaped a harvest, but their poverty was pressions, with many a pitfall for the ultimately only augmented, for begging unwary.

For instance, an American in became a professional industry. Porto Rico met a couple of gentlemen Regarding the attitude of the Roman coming down the street one day, and Catholic Church towards our missions, I said, genially, “ Buenos Dios, caballos !" was told that some one went to Bishop What he intended to say was :

Blenk and said, “Do you see what these dias, caballeros !” (Good-morning, gen- Protestants are doing ? Do you see tlemen). What he did say means, “Good how many they are drawing away with God, horses !” Bishop Blenk, the Roman them ?” “Yes,” he replied, “but what Catholic bishop, is an American, a gen- of that? If they can do anything to imtleman, a scholar, and, I think, a good prove the conditions of the Porto Ricans,

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for pity's sake let them do it; but you worry.” My reply to that is, “ If we can may depend on it these people will all help the Porto Ricans to live, we do not return to the Mother Church when they care who buries them; the Lord will come to die. You do not need to take care of them then."

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Beethoven as a Composer '

By Daniel Gregory Mason
GREAT man,

says Emerson, be the artistic spokesman of this new, “ finds himself in the river of enfranchised humanity. Haydn had

the thoughts and events, forced reflected for the first time in music the onward by the ideas and necessities of universal interest in all kinds of human his contemporaries. He stands where emotion, sacred and profane, that

. all the eyes of men look one way, and marked the dawn of the new era. But their hands all point in the direction in in his music the emotion remains naïve, which he should go. Every master has impulsive, childlike; it has not taken on found his materials collected, and his the earnestness, the sense of responsipower lay in his sympathy with his peo- bility, of manhood. It is still in the ple and in his love of the materials he spontaneous stage, has not become dewrought in. Men, nations, poets, arti- liberate, resolute, purposeful. But with sans, women, all have worked for him, Beethoven childishness is put away, and and he enters into their labors.” Had the new spirit steps boldly out into the Emerson wished to point the truth of world, aware of its obligations as well as this impressive generalization with of its privileges, clear-eyed, sad, and specific instance, he could hardly have serious, to live the full yet difficult life chosen a better example than the great of freedom. est composer of the early nineteenth The closeness of Beethoven's relation century, Ludwig van Beethoven.

to the idealistic spirit of his time is The eighteenth century had been a shown equally by two distinct yet suptime of formalism in art and literature, plementary aspects of his work. As of rigid conventionality in social life, of it was characteristic of the idealism paternalism in politics, and of dogmatic which fed him to set supreme store by ecclesiastical authority in religion. At human emotion in all its intensity and its end, however, all those dim, half- diversity, so it is characteristic of his conscious efforts of humanity towards music to voice emotion with a fullness, freer and fuller life which we may per- poignancy, definiteness, and variety that haps best suggest by the general term of sharply contrasts it with the more formal idealism were beginning to reach defi- decorative music of his forerunners. niteness and self-consciousness, Men And as it was equally characteristic of were beginning to assert deliberately and idealism to recognize the responsibilities openly what they had long been feeling of freedom, to restrain and control all intuitively but insecurely. They were particular emotions in the interest of a boldly erasing from their standards the balanced spiritual life, so it was equally mediæval formula, “Poverty, celibacy, characteristic of Beethoven to hold all and obedience,” to write in its place the his marvelous emotional expressiveness modern one, “Life, liberty, and the constantly in subordination to the inpursuit of happiness.” They were re- tegral effect of his composition as a volting from the tyrannies of Church whole, to value plastic beauty even more and State, to proclaim the sacredness of highly than eloquent appeal to feeling. the individual soul.

In other words, Beethoven the musician It was Beethoven's high privilege to is equally remarkable for two qualities,

eloquence of expression and beauty of "An article on

Mason will be found in the issue of The Outlook for January form, which in his best work are always

held in an exact and firmly controlled

2

66

ness.

balance. And if we would fully under- are in such a theme as that of the stand his supremacy, we must perceive “Eroica” Symphony! How inexorable not only his achievements in both direc- is its rhythm, how broad, solid, and tions, but the high artistic power with simple its harmonic foundation! What which he correlates them. Just as the controlled excitement, what restrained courage to insist on the rights of the ferocity, there is in that persistent fourindividual, and the wisdom to recognize tone motif of the Fifth Symphonyand support the rights of others, are the “Fate knocking at the door ”s What two essentials of true idealism, so elo- swift, concise assertiveness, as in the fiat quence and beauty are the equal requi- of an emperor, in the opening of the sites of genuine art.

Eighth Symphony, though it was called So closely interwoven, so mutually by Beethoven “my little one”! Elereactive, are these twin merits of expres- mental strength is the most constant, sion and form in the great works of pervasive quality of expression in Beethoven's prime—in the pianoforte Beethoven's work. sonatas from the Waldstein to Opus 90, Yet, like every comprehensively great in the String Quartets, Opus 59 and 74, man, he had the feminine tenderness in the fourth and fifth piano concertos and sentiment without which primal and the unique concerto for violin, in power is primitive, and will mere willfulthe Overture to “ Coriolanus,” the inci

His ruggedness hid the most dental music to Egmont,'

," and the delicate sensibility. At his most heroic opera, Fidelio,” in the Mass in C, and moments he is always melting into above all in the six great symphonies moods of wistfulness, yearning, and soft from the “ Eroica” to the Eighth—that emotion. To go for illustration no it seems like wanton violence and falsi- further than the symphonies, it is suffification to separate them, even for the cient to mention, in the “ Eroica,” the purposes of study. Synthesis, at any hesitant fervor of the second subject of rate, should go hand in hand with analy- the first movement; the deep and noble sis; we should constantly remember pathos of the subject of the funeral that the various qualities our critical march; the clear and rich emotion of reagents discern in this music exist in the Trio (in the third movement), with it not, as in our analysis, single and its wonderful final strains, of which Sir detached, but fused and interpenetrative George Grove said, “If ever horns in one artistic whole. The chemist may talked like flesh and blood, they do it find carbon and hydrogen and oxygen here;” in the Fifth Symphony, the in the rose, but a rose is something poignant appeal of the second subject more, something ineffably more, than a of the first movement, and the ceasecompound of these elements.

lessly questing, gently insistent mood of If, bearing constantly in mind the the Andante; and in the Seventh, the artificiality of analysis, we nevertheless resigned yet still aspiring state of feelattempt an enumeration of separate qual- ing voiced by the melody in A-major in ities in Beethoven's mature work, we are the Allegretto. But it is impossible to first of all arrested by the vigor, definite do more than shadow forth dimly, in ness, and variety of his expression. In words, the emotions that glow with such Beethoven one can observe at least four deep color in this music. Moreover, to well-contrasted general types of express- enumerate them is as unnecessary as it iveness, to say nothing of the infinite is thankless. Everyone who knows gradations between them. There is, in music at all knows how incomparable is the first place, and as perhaps the domi- Beethoven in the expression of all shades nant quality in all his work, the virile of tender, romantic, and impassioned energy, the massive and cyclopean power, human feeling. as of a giant or a god, so well illustrated A third sort of expression characterisin the opening subjects of such works as tic of Beethoven is that of the whimsithe Third, Fifth, and Eighth Symphonies. cal, the perverse, the irrepressibly gay. What vigor, what inexhaustible force, Before him, the classical symphony had what a morning freshness and joy there had om for the brisk llity of the

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Haydn finale and for the forthright ani- Reprise; in the same movement, makes mation of the Mozart minuet; but noth- a similar impression, the modulation to ing like the Beethoven scherzo had the home-key of B-flat, after the long existed. In Italian the word scherzo groping in B-major, seeming like the means a joke; and when he substituted opening of a window in a darkened the rollicking scherzo for the more for- room. The wide stretches of rippling mal and stately minuet, Beethoven intro- violin figures, piano, in the “Scene by duced into music the element of banter, the Brook” of the Pastoral Symphony mischief, and whimsy. Even among his illustrate another use of this device of several scherzos there is such a diversity monotony. They affect the mind, as of mood that they introduce into music Beethoven meant they should, like a far more than one new kind of express placid, sun-bathed landscape at noon, sion; their fancy is protean, inexhaust flat, silent, motionless. But perhaps the ible. The scherzo of the “ Eroica” is a most striking instance of all is that wonmixture of mystery, gayety, and head- derful page in the Fifth Symphony that long élan ; in that of the Fifth Symphony, prepares for the Finale. The sustained a sort of groping as in darkness alter- C's of the strings, the suppressed, barely nates with incisive, grandiose, military audible tapping of the drums, in the boldness; in the allegro of the Pastoral rhythm of the central motif of the work, Symphony, taking the place of the the fragmentary, aimless, and yet cumuscherzo, there is rustic merrymaking, lative phrases of the violins, instill a the awkward, good-natured gambols of sense of some vast catastrophe impendpeasants; in the presto of the Seventh ing; and then, after the deliberate, there is upwelling geniality, the broad gradual crescendo, pressing upon every smile of amiable indolence; and in the nerve, the great, joyous theme of the “minuet” of the Eighth the old minuet Finale crashes in, to sweep all before it. stateliness gives place to a mixture of Marvelous indeed is this varied and ever animal spirits and intellectual subtlety. forcible expression of feeling in the great Nor are the Scherzos proper the only works of Beethoven's maturity ; but even embodiment of the antics of this musical more marvelous is the steady power by Pan; such Finales as those of the Fourth, which he organizes these feelings into Seventh, and Eighth symphonies are but forms of perfect beauty, the unfaltering transfigured, ennobled scherzos, with the control by which he keeps the intensely largeness of the heroic spirit added to characteristic from degenerating into the fancy, whim, and tireless high spirits caricature, the impassioned from becomof the insatiable humorist. Beethoven ing hysterical. He never forgets that, as is the extreme exponent of the spirit of an artist, he is the master, not the slave, comedy in music.

of his inspiration, however seizing it may A fourth mood distinguishable in be. Though he infuses into music an Beethoven is the mood of mystery. He eloquence new to it, he remembers that loves to suggest the illimitable and the it is still music, and that it must be transcendent, to dissolve himself in beautiful as music. Titanic were the vagueness; to pique curiosity and stim- labors he imposed upon himself to give ulate imagination by long stretches of it balance, symmetry, logical coherence, pianissimo, of amorphous, ambiguous integral unity emerging from an infinite harmony, of strange, inarticulate melody variety of parts. His sketch-books are that baffles the attention—long, wide the standing evidence of what endless hushes, audible silences. In these moods effort it cost him to be an artist. In he seems to retire, after his onslaughts them we behold him at work, day by of expression, into the deep subterranean day, eliminating the irrelevant, reinforcreservoirs of the unexpressed. The In- ing the significant, exploring the sources troduction to the Fourth Symphony is of melodic, rhythmic, harmonic, and an example; one hears in it, as it were, structural variety, and returning upon his the groping of vast, unorganized im- task to gather up all the threads into one pulses that await a birth. The extended complete, close-woven fabric. The result pianissimo passage that leads into the was a type of music seldom equaled,

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before or since, for that ordered richness, symphony; Wagner, imitating in the that complex simplicity, which is beauty. “Waldweben” the murmurings of the

In the conception and execution of a forest—all these composers are writing great symphonic work, as an integral programme music. Of course there is no whole of many and diverse parts, Beetho- reason that programme music should not ven is unapproachable. All the success- be at the same time pure music, provided ive movements in a long work, all the that the desire to imitate nature accuthemes and transitions, all the rhythmic rately does not lead the composer to changes, all the modulations, temporary slight the requirements of plastic beauty or prolonged, are foreseen and adjusted in the ordering and combination of his with perfect control. There is no fea- material. A portrait may be good decorature of any moment that has not its rela- tion, if composition, massing, light and tion to the whole. Often the reason of shade, coloring, and so on, are not some apparent whim will not appear for sacrificed to a pitiless realism. Just so, pages ; but at last it will appear, and programme music can be made beautiful, when it does it will be seen to fulfill a if the needs of abstract tonal beauty are purpose never lost sight of. As a turret duly considered. or window at the extreme end of a build- But as a usual thing they are not. ing may balance a similar feature at the The programme

The programme composer generally other end, so Beethoven's treatment of a makes a fetish of his “ idea,” pursues it given theme, early in a movement, may with the enthusiasm of the literalist, and be determined and illuminated by what quite neglects the formal symmetry, the he finally does to it in the Coda. So stylistic congruity and harmony, of his integral is his work, so firmly held in the web of tones. The result is that pro grip of his inexorable artistic logic. gramme music is as a rule more interest

Beauty, in the great compositions of ing than moving; that in attempting to his prime, is therefore as omnipresent as make pure sounds do what words, or expression ; and their supreme greatness even colors and shapes, can do better, is in fact due to the perfect balance, in it sacrifices the legitimate and characthem, of these two equally important teristic effect of tones—the suggestion elements of musical effect. This will of a general state of feeling, potent by come out even more clearly in the course reason of its very vagueness, and transof a brief analysis of the highly signifi- figured by the abstract beauty of its cant attitude of Beethoven towards pro- medium. gramme music, which he understood, it Now Beethoven was obliged in his seems, better than most modern musi- early maturity to face and solve this cians.

problem of programme music, for himself. Programme music differs from pure His intense individualism, his amenamusic in being aimed rather at the bility to strong feeling, his natural inliteral imitation or delineation of objects terest in the characteristic, the dramatic, and events in the natural world than at the definite, and the opportunity he the presentation, through orderly and found, in music as he received it from consequently beautiful tone-combina- his forerunners, for a more detailed tions, of the general emotions that they expressiveness than had yet been

Schütz, a very early German attempted, all inclined him to take the composer, depicting by a long down- attitude of the programme composer. ward scale an angel descending from The poetic conception of a work was heaven; Beethoven, introducing the so clear and distinct in his mind that he notes of the nightingale, quail, and could easily assign it a descriptive title. cuckoo in his Pastoral Symphony; He called his third symphony “The Schubert, writing in the accompaniment Eroica,” his sixth the “ Pastoral," and

“The Trout," a leaping said that the motif of the fifth indicated figure suggestive of the motions of the “Fate Knocking at the Door.”

He fish in the water; Raff, sounding the called one of his piano sonatas "Les rhythm of a galloping horse all through Adieux, l'Absence et le Retour;" of the ride-movement of his “Lenore” another, that in G-major, opus 14, he

arouse.

of his song,

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