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said, “ It is a dialogue between husband. sequence are maintained, and the general and wife, or lover and mistress; between structure is not for a moment forgotten. the entreating and the resisting prin- After the imitation of the bird-notes, in ciple ;" he tacitly admitted that the the second movement, the musical sensonatas in F-minor, opus 57, and in tence is rounded out to completion by D-minor, opus 27, were illustrative of the lovely concluding phrase, imitated Shakespeare's "Tempest.” Other works, by various instruments. It is only necesnot specifically named by him, wore, very sary to play the bird-notes alone, omitnaturally, titles given by others; as, the ting the supplementary phrase, to see “ Pastoral Sonata,” the “ Moonlight So how much of the effect is a matter of nata," and the “Sonata Appassionata.” pure music. And that Beethoven realAt the same period that he was writing ized this himself, that he was clearly these instrumental works with program- aware that music affects us more by setmistic aspect, he wrote also his incidental ting up vague but potent emotions in us music descriptive of Goethe's “ Egmont,” by means of a beautiful embodiment his ov ture on the subject of “ Corio of expressive sounds than by merely lanus,” and his single opera, “Fidelio.” copying what is in the actual world, is
Yet, in spite of all these indications of evidenced by the motto he inscribes at the direction in which music was moving the head of his score : “ Mehr Ausdruck with Beethoven, his keen instinct for der Empfindung als Malerei ”—“ More pure beauty, which, as we have seen, was the expression of feeling than painting.” as essential a part of his nature as his Even more succinct, if that is possible, is interest in vivid expression, served as a a note in one of his sketch-books: “ Pasbrake to its progress, and kept him from toral Symphony: no picture, but someallowing mere delineation to become his thing in which the emotions are expressed ideal. As Sir Hubert Parry well says, which are aroused in men by the pleasthe Pastoral Symphony is like a mani- ure of the country.” festo on that point. Of all Beethoven's This attitude of Beethoven's towards works, it ventures furthest into the do- programme music, both in practice and main of programme music. It contains in theory, is but a crucial and striking actual imitations of sights and sounds in example of his general attitude towards nature, as the rippling of the brooks music, an attitude produced both by (strings); the muttering of thunder (con- the tendencies of the historic moment trabasses in their low register); flashes and by his innate affinities, and the of lightning (violins); the bassoon of an foundation of his supreme greatness. old peasant sitting on a barrel, and able Had he had less capacity or taste for to play but three tones; and the song of expression of the most definite and vivid the nightingale (Alute), quail (oboe), and emotions, he would not have been able cuckoo (clarinet). All the movements to carry music beyond the formalism of bear descriptive titles, as follows: “The Haydn and Mozart, and to make it voice awakening of happy feelings on arriving the self-conscious idealism, the romantic in the country; Scene by the brook; intensity, the various, many-sided, and Merry gathering of peasants; Thunder- profound spiritual life, of modern men. storm ; Shepherd's song, Rejoicing, and Had he not, on the other hand, clung thankfulness after the storm." It is pertinaciously to the plastic beauty obvious that here Beethoven was push- which, after all, is the most thoroughing the descriptive power of music to its going and pervasive and indispensable limits. Yet it is important to note that expressive agent of musical art, had he even here neither his instinctive sense allowed his interest in the characteristic of the proper uses of the musical art nor to betray him into crudity, literalism, his reasoned conviction as to the nature partiality, and ugliness, he would have of musical expression forsook him, deprived music of that period of full Throughout the growlings of the thun- maturity and ripeness which he repreder, the music pursues its way coher- sents, and ushered in too soon the inevently and according to its own laws. itable decadence, in which art is no The rhythmic scheme and the harmonic longer whole and balanced, but seeks
special effects and particular expres- pathetically incomplete work of the ro sions, becomes meteoric, dazzling, and manticists came to give a sort of Indian fragmentary. That period was bound summer brightness to the musical year, to come, as the parabola must make its it was meet that it should have its full descending as well as its ascending harvest of ripe, sound, and wholesome curve, or the plant have its autumn as beauty. And that it had, in the incomwell as its spring and summer. But parably sane and noble works of Beebefore the charming and appealing but thoven.
Personality and the Pulpit
By James E. Freeman
Rector of St. Andrew's Memorial Church, Yonkers, New York
pulpit of his day may hardly is the blight that destroys much of the
find application to the later pul- preacher's usefulness. For a man to pit of the present. He was ready to change his whole bearing and manner admit the potency and necessary per- of speech when he comes to face men in manency of the Church as a religious the discussion of the eternal truths of institution, but to him it was a miracle God makes inefficient his utterance and that, in the face of its apparent lost grotesque his whole bearing. Effemipreaching power, it still survived. nacy of manner in the conduct of worWhatever may or may not be said of ship or in the delivery of a pulpit the average pulpit power of any age, message has contributed an immense certain it is that no period of revival deal to unman our pews. One of the or reformation has ever been accom- bitter cries of the hour is, “Where are plished without this mighty agency. the men ?” In the main, they are on When we come to analyze the re-creative the outside of the rim of religious activperiods and to disclose their immediate ity; and why? cause, we invariably find that it was a Because they can no longer accept as personality full of intense life and action a substitute for“ strong meat” the “milk standing in this ancient place of power for babes” that so many pulpits in the that gave them being. A preacherless land dole out. A pulpit pabulum, no period is invariably one of spiritual matter how fine its component parts dearth and inaction. Wherever or when-, may be, that is served in a kind of ever Liturgy has usurped the prophet's bottle form, with the concomitants of office, when ritual with its æsthetic trap the nursery accompanying it, will ever pings has occupied the supreme place in repel men who value their manhood. the service of the sanctuary, the decline The great preachers who have occupied of a strong and deep religious life has a central place in the world's horoscope been swift and certain. There is no have been virile men—men who were profession that demands more of per- not afflicted with either a physical or a sonality than the ministry; and is mental condition that suggested anæmia. equally true that in none is the test of real Frederick Robertson at Brighton may worth made with more persistency. To not, by reason of his fearless conviclose sight of the value of our individu- tions, have been the idol of the English ality here in this sacred office, to subor- Church, but he filled with men every dinate what God has made us and to place in which he spoke. Even his play a rôle not our own, is to render physical ills could not dam up the flow superficial our work and unreal our of his strong, masculine utterances; it character. Nothing is more baneful, was personality plus a message. Canon yes, and painful too, than the unreality Liddon at St. Paul's, London, filled the of the man in the pulpit.
great cathedral with a multitude that
waited breathless for his matchless scribed in his splendid poem, of whom voice to declare the truths they yearned the village folk could say: for; every line in that finely molded face "I venerate the man whose heart is warm, suggested manhood. Phillips Brooks, Whose hands are pure, whose doctrine and
whose life, our own peerless preacher, had so much of personality that to look at him was a
Coincident, exhibit lucid proof
That he is honest in the sacred cause. sermon and to hear him an inspiration. To such I render more than mere respect, The manhood of Trinity Church pulpit, Whose actions say that they respect themBoston, is wrought into the very fabric
selves." of that stately building.
Our pulpit is not some platform three Who could think of the splendid by (five encircled with a rail; it is the preacher of Notre Dame, the refined world through which we move. Our and princely Lacordaire, as delivering message is not the brief we carry in his wonderful conferences before the some velvet cover embroidered with a noblest men in France in an effeminate symbol ; it is the every utterance of our or lachrymose style? The preachers lips. Said Dryden, “ He bore his great who to-day are translating with singular commission in his look.” There is a power the blessed truths of the Christ subtle influence that, like “the shadow are men who are not held by apron- of Peter,” either draws men to our side strings to any system or method of or drives them from us. It is the incarpulpit style, either past or present. nation of our creed, the witness of our Both in the rendition of the service and faith, the secret of our hope, the eviin the delivery of the message, whether dence of our authority. To climb the from manuscript or extempore, virility pulpit stairs with a life that is written characterizes their every attitude and over with the characters of wholesome utterance. While piety of the deepest, truth is better than to have the eloquence truest kind is the essential prerequisite of a golden-mouthed Chrysostom. The for all holy offices, manhood of the personality in the pulpit is the centrip strongest, noblest type is its necessary etal force of the church, the sun in its complement.
solar system of action. A congregation Any system of education, no matter moves about within the limitations of how complete and exhaustive its curric- its orbit, and feels the compelling and ulum, that tends to destroy individual impelling power of the one from whom ity is a failure. Lectures on preaching it has its light and heat. We do not may do much to give direction to the believe that we unduly exalt the preachmechanical processes of sermon work; er's place nor his power in this loftiest they can make neither the preacher nor of occupations. The bane of the Church the sermon. If the student of the art of to-day is a personality-less pulpit, where public expression feels that he is imbib- virility has given place to effeminacy, ing too freely of the pervasive style and and the utterance of consecrated compersonality of some notable speaker or mon sense been dispossessed by platipreacher, he needs an inoculation that tudes. will render him immune from that most No preacher, no matter what his gifts deplorable of all ills—imitation. Person- may be, should aim to be less a man ality, individuality, that distinct some- than was his Master, whose pulpit thing with which the Almighty distin- methods, if we may thus describe them, guishes each human product, is its were invested with such a peculiarly chiefest charm and virtue. Dr. Cuyler, personal quality that they brought from in an address, recited the incident of a his accusers' lips, “Never man spake Scotch woman who was asked as to like this man." The world has not tired what she thought of her preacher of preaching, nor has the pulpit lost its “ What do I think of him ?" she re- place. sponded. “I would rather see him walk Men are drawn to-day, as they have from the church door to the pulpit than ever been, by the influence of the pulto hear any other man preach. This pit that, in its expression and example, was the kind of man that Cowper de- betrays the superb qualities and genius
of the Man Christ Jesus. “Manhood is
“Manhood is faultless diction and splendid rhetoric? above all riches and overtops all titles,” Will well-rounded phrases and strik ng and the magnetic influence towards which metaphors arrest the tired mind of the the needle of public favor ever turns, and world's worker and send him forth reby whose supreme power it is governed, freshed and stimulated ? Will a sermon is the consecrated man.
wrought out of the class-room, the prodJesus Christ came to be the world's uct of musty folios, furnish an incentive Man; not as an ascetic, not even like to nobler living to the man whose vigorsome John, whose habit and whose life ous action strains both brain and muscle ? compelled him to the desert. His was A pulpit thus equipped, with its twentythe ruddy life of manhood, a man of minute, platitudinous, skeleton-like kind blood, whose corpuscles were not starved of a message, furnishes an inspiration to by hard and brutish means. He loved slumber, and serves as a sedative to the full, free air, and walked as man, man's moral nature. An active, busy, unfettered and unbound; the people intense world demands like qualities in heard him gladly. Why? Because he its preacher. I repeat, there has been lived their life and gave a luster to the no great preacher who has given men dullest thing that lives. His was reality an inspiration to live who has not infused —they had been fed on shams; his was into his every utterance something of truth—they had been nurtured on false- his own manhood. We talk about the hood ; his was a worship true—theirs waning interest in the Gospel story, the was a fabric of devotions honeycombed waning interest in the Church. It was with vice and reeking with formalism, waning in Florence when the master of For cant, he gave the wholesome truth ; St. Mark's was heard challenging a for fancy, fact; for a garment that hid State for its sins. It was waning in an open sore, a healed and healthful England when Wicliffe and Ridley and body. His was the gospel of true man- Latimer and Wesley called it from its hood and noble womanhood. For nine- lethargy. It was waning in the coloteen centuries the world of honest men nies when Edwards and Whitefield (of have loved his person and revered his whom Hume said he would travel twenty message ; it reveres them still, but it will miles to hear him preach) stirred it from have them in their pristine beauty and its torpor. What is the cry of the land purity. Give us men, red-blooded men; to-day, the cry of merchant and peaswho have looked into the face of the ant, of scholar and student, of operator Perfect Man; whose presence on the and operative? For the voice of the streets or in the pulpit tells but one prophet. For Elijahs to speak to licenunending message—“I have been with tious Ahabs, Nathaniels to speak to conChrist, and have learned of him.” science-slumbering Davids, Samuels to
Said one of the foremost men in pub- challenge selfish Sauls. Prophets, aye, lic life to me not long since : “ Men go prophets; whose manhood is unchalto church to get a new inspiration to lenged, whose virtue is above suspicion, live." A superb definition of its place whose messages are born of life's expeand function ; but how shall this inspira- riences, who speak the language of the tion to live be furnished ? Can it be market-place, who tell men what they accomplished through an essay, with its long to hear—the story of the Master life.
By Julia Neely Finch
There is a lull ; a deep indrawing of the breath;
Beyond the dusk of death.
Ruskin as Seen in His
in His Letters'
OT since Francis Darwin supple- and had built up a unique theory of art.
mented the record of the life The storm and stress of the twenty-year
and work of his father by the conflict in which he had been engaged, publication of “More Letters of Charles and of his domestic troubles, had serried Darwin ” has there appeared an episto him deeply, but had left him with the lary collection of the importance of the enthusiasm, the whimsical gayety, the Ruskin correspondence which, after serial kindliness that had held his friends close issue in the “ Atlantic Monthly,” has to his side in the battles of the critics. now been assembled in book form. Be- “ His reputation sat lightly on him,” ginning where the “Præterita ” ends, writes Professor Norton in recording his
“ and continuing to near the end of the impressions of their first meeting; "his life of the great idealist, the letters that manners were marked by absence of all John Ruskin wrote to Charles Eliot pretension, and by a sweet gentleness Norton in their forty years of unbroken and exceptional consideration for the friendship may in a sense be considered feelings of others. The tone of dogmaa sequel to the autobiography in which tism and of arbitrary assertion too often he allowed'us to follow the main influ- manifest in his writing was entirely ences that went to form his character absent from his talk. ... I have not a and mold his view of the world. Un- memory of these days in which I recall bosoming himself to Professor Norton him except as one of the pleasantest, as to hardly another friend, no series of gentlest, and kindest of men.” But Ruskin letters extends over so long a even in the heyday of his glory Professor period and none serves so well as an Norton could plainly see that Ruskin index to the complexities of his nature, was traveling through life alone. Always to the forces that hurried him forward he was a solitary, cut off from true comto the darkness of his old age. This radeship by his genius and his spiritual despite the fact that the recipient of his and intellectual aloofness. When at confidences has properly seen fit to with- St. Martin the acquaintanceship ripened hold much that he deems sacred to into friendship, we find him lamenting Ruskin and to himself. Read with an in “ Præterita :” “He might have done eye single to the revelation of personality, anything with me but for the unhappy there is hardly a letter here included difference in our innate and unchangethat does not yield something of value, able political faiths.” As we follow and the effect of the whole is to give us these letters and observe the sad dissithe conviction that we may now approach pation of energy, the restlessness, the closer to the real Ruskin than has hith- waywardness and willfulness of this erto been possible even with the assist- giant of intellect, we the more clearly ance of his ablest interpreters.
appreciate the havoc wrought by the The friendship began at the zenith of barriers which Ruskin erected between Ruskin's fame. By 1855, when Profes- himself and those who loved him best. sor Norton made his acquaintance, Rus- The Carlylean “ Ay de mi” takes fuller kin, through his determined champion- meaning in the poignant regrets of Rusship, first of Turner and then of the kin's years of ill health and unhappiPre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, had not ness. Well might he have cried, not, only won recognition for the painters for “Save me from my friends,” but, “ My whom he fought, but had established friends, save me from myself !” And himself as the leading art critic of Eng- never more earnestly than at the moment land, the foremost exponent of painting when he and Charles Eliot Norton and architecture. He had brought into cemented their friendship at the Hôtel being a literature distinctively his own, du Mont Blanc.
then reached * Letters of John Ruskin to Charles Eliot, Norton. heights of distinction, he was about to 2 vols. , & Co., Boston