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wind, with cloud, and a three days' rain. for luxuriance and gorgeous bloom, and The temperature, without the slightest the flowers came up to his expectation. warning, tumbled forty degrees in a Roses bloomed the whole year through ; single night. The congealed Spectator bignonias and scarlet poinsettias were warmly demanded fire.

But there was common in all the gardens. As for no fire in the hotel, nor even so much , heliotrope, the Spectator knew one paras a chimney. In the little detached ticular plant which attained to the kitchen there was a cook-stove in which dignity of a bush, growing full four feet smoldered a few embers of wood, but high and spreading a prodigal profusion even here no chimney, only a comfort- of deep purple blooms. Yet the Specless stovepipe. Moreover, the big black

tator was peevishly discontented with cook made the Spectator thoroughly Brazilian gardens. The Portuguese garaware that his room was better than his dener, since in Rio grass costs a king's company. The other guests, swathed to ransom, surrounds his roses with a the eyebrows in vast shawls, sat hud- glaring carpet of white sea-sand; envidled up in speechless misery, and waited ous ants snip and carve away at the for the cold snap to be over. The glowing petals, and weeds, growing with Spectator, being shawlless, retired to the truly tropical luxuriance, create a lavish cold comfort of his bed. Such was his but picturesque disorder. Worst of introduction to the delights of the trop all, Brazilian taste demands that the ics!

flower-gardens be studded generously

with low posts bearing globes of cheap Of course time brought him juster red and blue glass! The Spectator wisi

will impressions. There came days of per- put up cheerfully with the unprodigal petual sunshine, days and weeks with

bloom of the green north. out a cloud, when the air was so clear that the Spectator could almost count the grass-blades on the distant islands

And now it is time to speak of that in the harbor. There were no shadows

fortune the Spectator went out to amass. on the mountain-sides, no half-tones in

Alas! that was the fondest of his illuthe landscape ; and when at last the

sions and the soonest dashed. The great hot sun dipped below the horizon, princely salary, out of which he hoped night dropped like a curtain, black and

to save a goodly nest-egg of capital

what of that? sudden. It was very contrary of him, no

It went to buy him illdoubt, but no sooner had the Spectator fitting English shoes at ruinous prices; grown accustomed to this perfect weather it went for whisk-brooms at three milreis than he began to wish it imperfect. He (about a dollar and a half) apiece, for called the broad sunshine garish, and potatoes from Portugal, for apples from longed in an ecstasy of homesickness

New York at two dollars the dozen, the for the soft gray shadows stealing over

same being speckled with decay and a Berkshire hillside, for the witchery of strongly flavored of bilge-water. In twilight, for the patter of rain on the short, it went for the bread-and-butter roof. Again, when tropical fruits became things of life, for which he paid at the his daily portion, he wearied of their price of luxuries. That was one side of strangeness and their bland insipidity. Brazil with half-formed plans for intro

the shield. The Spectator had gone to He would have given all the mangoes ducing the Brazilians to American conand alligator-pears, nay, even the creamy pineapples and superb oranges, for the veniences. A year's stay convinced him

that the Brazilian is in love with inconprivilege of setting his teeth in a tart and juicy northern apple.

venience, that his business methods are not as our business methods, and that

the American who wants to keep his With the plant life of Rio it was much temper had better not try to hurry the the same. The Spectator was prepared South,

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Reduction of Representation in the South'

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By John B. Knox

President of the Late Constitutional Convention of Alabama INCE the late Presidential election First, as to the Fourteenth Amend

the Southern people have been ment. Mr. Blaine, in discussing this

favored by the Northern press with question, expresses the view that the a great deal of advice, accompanied in adoption of the Fifteenth Amendment almost every instance with assurances seriously modified the effect and potency of a deep interest in our welfare. It has of the second section of the Fourteenth been something like forty years since Amendment—the only section of the the Civil War ended. If it is ever to Fourteenth Amendment which relates to appear at all, it is time that some spirit the reduction of representation. Under of magnanimity towards the people of that section a State could exclude the the South should begin to assert itself negro, qua negro, from the right of sufin the North. In the face of these frage, if willing to accept the penalty of kindly expressions and perhaps well- the proportional loss of representation meant advice comes the proposition of in Congress which the exclusion of the Senator Platt, of New York, to reduce colored population from the basis of

, the South's representation in Congress. apportionment would entail. He says: I suppose, of course, that his bill will be

When, therefore, the Nation, by subcouched in general terms, and nominally sequent change in its Constitution, deapply to all the States, but we will not clared that the State shall not exclude be misled in interpreting the real object the negro from the right of suffrage, it of the measure.

neutralized and surrendered the continThis measure, no doubt, is framed, gent right before held, to exclude him under the provisions of the Fourteenth from the basis of apportionment. ConAmendment, as a punishment to those gress is thus plainly deprived by the Southern States which have undertaken Fifteenth Amendment of certain powers suffrage reform. Most enlightened peo- over representation in the South, which ple in the North now admit that the it previously possessed under the proadoption of the Fifteenth Amendment, visions of the Fourteenth Amendment. and the reconstruction measures coinci- Before the adoption of the Fifteenth dent thereto, whereby our former slaves Amendment, if a State should exclude were invested with the right of suffrage the negro from suffrage, the next step and placed in the control of the Govern- would be for Congress to exclude the ments of all the Southern States, was a negro from the basis of apportionment. mistake, and yet many of them do not After the adoption of the Fifteenth hesitate to condemn in unmeasured terms Amendment, if a State should exclude the efforts of these States to relieve. the negro from suffrage, the next step themselves, so far as they may in view would be for the Supreme Court to of the limitations of the Federal Consti- declare that the act was unconstitutional, tution, of the great disaster which this and, therefore, null and void. The essenmistake inflicted upon them.

tial and inestimable value of the FourBut, without regard to the partisan teenth Amendment still remains in the and implacable spirit which inspires this three other sections, and pre-eminently measure, the inquiry is pertinent as to in the first section." whether the Southern States which it I know of no Southern State which is proposed to punish have, in the new has prescribed as a condition to suffrage Constitutions which they have adopted, any other than an educational or propviolatedeither the Fourteenth or Fifteenth erty qualification, and am unable to Amendments of the Federal Constitution. understand how any well-trained lawyer

can reach the conclusion that a consti1 Editorial comment will be found elsewhere.- THE EDITORS.

tutional provision-whether adopted by

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a State in the South or in the North ment. This Amendment, as has more prescribing an educational or property than once been declared by the Supreme qualification can be considered as an Court of the United States, does not abridgment of the privilege of suffrage confer the right to vote, but protects the within the meaning of the Fourteenth negro from being discriminated against Amendment. Judge Cooley, in his work on account of his race, color, or previous entitled “The General Principles of condition of servitude. Constitutional Law in the United States At the formation of the Federal Govof America," in discussing the Four- ernment there was a party, headed by teenth Amendment, says:

Edmund Randolph, which favored mak“To require the payment of capitation ing the qualifications of citizenship. the tax is no denial of suffrage; it is de- same in all the States; but Benjamin manding only the preliminary perform- Franklin and others opposed it, on the ance of public duty, and may be classed, ground that it was a subject on which as may also presence at the polls, with the people were jealous, and it would registration, or the observance of any not be well to excite their opposition by other preliminary to insure fairness and depriving some of them of the right to protect against fraud. Nor can it be vote as to Federal officers, when the said that to require ability to read is any same citizen might have the right to denial of suffrage. To refuse to receive vote for State officers. It was, thereone's vote because he was born in some fore, determined, after full discussion, particular country rather than elsewhere, to leave the question of fixing the qualor because of his color, or because of ifications of voters to the States respecany natural quality, or peculiarity, which tively, and the following provision was it would be impossible for him to over- adopted and has remained unchanged come, is plainly a denial of suffrage. as a part of the Federal Constitution : But ability to read is something within The House of Represảntatives shall be the power of every man; it is not diffi- composed of members chosen every second cult to attain it, and it is no hardship to

year by the people of the several States, and require it. On the contrary, the require- qualifications requisite for the electors in

the electors in each State shall have the ment only by indirection compels one to the most numerous branch of the State Legisappropriate a personal benefit he might lature. otherwise neglect. It denies to no man The same rule obtains with reference the suffrage, but the privilege is freely to the selection of Presidential electors, tendered to all, subject only to a condi- the whole question, by the terms of the tion that is beneficial in its performance Constitution and the action of the Conand light in its burden.”

vention, being left to the States, each of There seems to be a misunderstand- which was to “ appoint in such manner ing in the minds of people generally as as the Legislature thereof may direct, a to the basis of representation in Con- number of electors equal to the whole gress. It is not apportioned upon the number of Senators and Representatives number of votes cast, but is based on to which the State may be entitled in the population in the States respectiveiy. Congress." A study of the returns through a series Now, the new Constitutions of the of years would show that it frequently Southern States, and especially the new occurs, both in the North and in the Constitution of the State of Alabama, South, that the absence of a contest with which I am more familiar, do not reduces the number of votes, whereas a discriminate against the negro on acspirited contest brings out a full vote, count of his race, color, or previous conoften showing great disparity in the dition of servitude, within the inhibition same locality under different conditions. of the Fifteenth Amendment. The perThis, in itself, would be sufficient to manent provision now in force is not show how impracticable it would be to materially different from that of the base representation upon the vote as State of Massachusetts, in that it preactually cast.

scribes that every citizen, whether white Second, as to the Fifteenth Amend- or black, who can read or write any clause of the Federal Constitution in the suffrage would exclude more negroes English language is entitled to vote. than white men, in its practical operaThis provision was intended, and has tion the Alabama provision, so far as the the effect, to put the control of the Gov- permanent plan is concerned, and the ernment in the hands of the intelligent exaction of a poll tax as a condition to and virtuous; but it is objected by our suffrage, so operates as to exclude not opponents that we, in the temporary only a large mass of negro voters, but plan, excepted certain classes of our quite a number of white voters who do citizens from the operation of the edu- not feel sufficient interest in their own cational clause embodied in the perma- Government to contribute to the school nent plan. I grant it. In doing so, fund the small amount exacted as a poll what more did we do than did the State tax, and who are so indifferent to their of Massachusetts ? The election law of own interests as that they fail to meet that State, as I understand it, provides the provision of the Constitution which that the voter must be able to read the requires that any voter under the perConstitution of the Commonwealth in manent plan shall be able to read and the English language, and to write his write any clause of the Constitution in name, “except that no person who is the English language, although the free prevented from reading and writing as public schools of the State are open to aforesaid by physical disability, or who had the right to vote on the first day of As stated by Judge Cooley, the right May, in the year 1857, shall, if other- of suffrage is not a natural right, because wise qualified, be deprived of the right it exists, where it is allowed to be exerto vote by reason of not being able to cised, only for the good of the State. read or write."


To say that those whose participation in The truth is that every statesman who the affairs of the State would endanger proposes legislation for the benefit of and imperil the good of the State have, his people must proceed along practical nevertheless, the right to participate, is lines. If his measure is to be submitted not only folly in itself, but it is to set for the ratification of the voters, it would the individual above the State. be supreme folly for him to expect them You will hear it frequently said that to accept and approve a measure which, the provisions of the Southern Constiby its terms, proposes a qualification tutions which protect the right of the which would exclude them. Hence it is worthy and intelligent negro to vote are that every such measure, whether sub- not fairly enforced. We have but one mitted for the ratification of voters in case arising in this State which puts the South or in the North, must contain this question to the test. In the county a saving clause which protects the rights of Limestone in this State a negro who of existing voters, or such a number of had fought in the Union army claimed existing voters as will give reasonable the right to register under what is compromise of its acceptance. Hence the monly designated as the grandfather insertion of the saving clause in the clause in the temporary plan of the new Alabama Constitution which protects the Constitution of Alabama. The right right to vote of all who fought the was denied by the registrars in that battles of the country without regard to county, whereupon he appealed to the the army in which they enlisted, Federal Circuit Court, under a provision of the or Confederate.

Constitution authorizing such appeal The charge made against us is that without cost by any person whose right we adopted this constitutional provision is denied. In that court his right was for the purpose of excluding the negro. passed upon by a jury composed entirely The true philosophy of the movement of white men. The court and jury upheld was to establish restricted suffrage, and his right to vote, and this right, upon to place the power of government in an appeal prosecuted by the registrars the hands of the intelligent and virtuous; in the name of the State, was sustained and while any provision for restricted by the Supreme Court of Alabama.


of the age.

Japanese Army

By Major Louis L. Seaman, M.D. CRISIS is at hand for the au- He found various reasons given for A thorities of the United States Japan's uninterrupted series of victories:

to decide, a military question of courage and bravery, perfection of dethe gravest importance; namely, whether tail, a fanatical spirit of patriotism inthe Medical Department of the Ameri- spired by the devoted self-sacrifice of can army shall remain in its present the entire people, being among the theutterly deficient condition owing to lack ories advanced; but, on deeper study, of numbers, organization, and power to he saw that the real reason for Japan's cope with the emergencies certain to achievements lay in her masterly preparise in any great conflict, as was so aration for war, a preparation the like of humiliatingly proved in our late war which has never been recorded in his. with Spain, or whether it shall be re- tory. Japan is making war on strictly organized upon a basis in keeping with scientific principles; she is making it a

a the most advanced thought and science national business. She is not experi

menting with conditions that arose after In considering this subject, Congress the clash of arms, and already she has cannot do better than take a wholesome taught other nations profound and conlesson from the example Japan is now vincing lessons in many fields, the most giving to the world, for I unhesitatingly impressive of which is that the normal assert that we are as far behind the Jap- condition of the soldier is health, and anese in matters of military medical or- that those who die in war should die ganization and sanitation as were the from wounds received on the firing line disciples of Confucius in the days of and not from preventable disease in Kublai Khan.

quarters. The writer recently returned from the Ten years ago, at the conclusion of scene of conflict now raging in the her war with China, Japan found herself Orient. He was led thither after a per- in possession of Port Arthur and the sonal experience in Porto Rico and Cuba Liaotung peninsula. This territory was in the Spanish-American war in 1898 permanently ceded to her by the terms and the war in the Philippines in 1899– of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, signed in 1900. In these countries he had seen 1895. Later she was ousted from it by two great armies largely invalided and the concert of Russia, Germany, and decimated through the effects of a France, England weakly acquiescing. wretchedly inappropriate commissariat, Unable to cope with these allied powers, while the great causes of mortality which ostensibly and hypocritically stood were ferments, toxins, and microbes for the “territorial integrity of China," rather than bullets. The death-rate but really for their own cunningly laid among the men from these preventable plans to plunder China themselves, she causes was so appalling that he desired was forced to relinquish the fruits of her to see the results of a war in which the victory and to accept instead a small effects of powder and shell played at monetary indemnity and the island of least an incidental part in the tragedy, Formosa. and in which soldiers qualified for some- Right there modern statesmanship thing besides admission to hospital sprang into full existence in Japan. wards.

Robbed of her legitimate conquest, a He was astounded, as was the rest of great light dawned upon her. Her the world, at the marvelous success of statesmen foresaw that not only would the Japanese, and set about to study the China be despoiled by the other nations, methods by which they had attained it. but that her own independence was

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