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nism was decidedly not popular. Yet we in his efforts to attain the Presidency, may believe that it was an honest oppor- admit the sincerity of his immortal “I tunism, and, despite all he said and did would rather be right than President.”

I

Nineteenth-Century Germany

T

HE third volume of Mr. Bige- in marked contrast with the sketches

low's History of the German and estimates of Frederick William III.,

Struggle for Liberty takes the Frederick William IV., and of Metternarrator from 1815, after Waterloo, to nich. Concerning the two monarchs 1848—two dates of great meaning for Mr. Bigelow's criticism is unsparing: every German. Mr. Bigelow describes

We have to tell of a nation writhing in how Germany gloried in Napoleon's de- torment under the short-sighted administrafeat, sank into apathy under the police tion of two Prussian kings whom the Geradministration of the Holy Alliance, and

man school-boy of to-day is educated to re

gard as illustrious, but whom we cannot but finally, to avenge_outraged manhood, think enemies of Germany. inaugurated the Revolution of 1848. Though in the period covered by the does, according to Mr. Bigelow, because

The German school-boy thinks as he present volume there is no such succession of stirring events as characterized Germany, past or present, with that

a man may not speak of the rulers of the preceding volume, every student will

freedom which he would use in discussagree that the years between 1815 and 1848 marked a no less impressive period ing any other subject. of German history. The real leaders of

In England the historical writer is free to this period were not a king and a prime France there is no dynastic influence to

publish the truth about his royal house. In minister, but a professor and a turnvater.

appease. The American historian is still In 1819 Turnvater Jahn, though so more free. But in Germany, while the utmonarchical that he would not allow

most independence is tolerated, nay, encourhis soldiers to sing Schiller's “ Freies aged, in the fields of science, speculative

philosophy, and even theology, the moment Leben,' was carried off to a dungeon, that the professor impinges upon the art of while Professor Arndt, of Bonn, author governing or the merits of those occupying of a great German national song, found a throne, he feels himself on dangerous his house broken open,

his
papers seized,

ground. and himself haled off to be for twenty

It has been said that there is not a years under police surveillance. As Mr. single German history of the nineteenth Bigelow says:

century which is reasonably free of bias The list of eminent, respectable, and most

or of a bigoted loyalty. If any history loyal monarchical Germans who were seized, written in German impresses us sent to prison, or exiled would include names of which any healthy society would be tion, however, it is that of Dr. Streck

having a tendency in the liberal lirecproud. . . America is grateful that among those was the distinguished publicist Francis

fuss. Himself a hero of the Revolution Lieber. who took refuge in the United of 1848, he has known well how to comStates and is gratefully, remembered by bine the strong, pungent, sturdy fiber students for his « Civil Liberty and Govern

of a typical German nature with the ment.'

skill of a born teller of stories, whether The succession of biographical sketches their period lies in one century or anand estimates of such patriots as Blum, other. But especially does he show his Jahn, Fritz Reuter, and others, stands story-teller's power when he describes i History of the German Struggle for Liberty. By

the events of the middle years of the Poultney Bigelow. Illustrated with Portraits. Three volumes. Vol. III., 1815-48. Harper & Brothers, New

last century, in which he bore his York.

protester's part. In the Streckfuss hisFünf Hundert Jahre Berliner Geschichte. Von Adolph Streckfuss: Zwei Bände. Verlag von Albert tory, as in Mr. Bigelow's, we have a Goldschmidt, Berlin.

welcome background of various deThe Correspondence of William I. and Bismarck. With Other Letters from and to Prince Bismarck scriptions against which the great poTranslated by J. A. Ford. Two volumes. Frederick

litical and court figures of Germany A. Stokes Company, New York.

as

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are projected; in Mr. Bigelow's case, day, after I alone had protested, in a some critics even opine that the pages long speech, in the interests of the agridevoted to Tocqueville and Mazzini cultural portion of the country, against and Kossuth are rather beside the mark Hansemann's extravagance in favor of in the narration of purely German his- industry.” tory. our opinion, however, the This correspondence is but another knowledge of certain great contemporary evidence that the work of 1848 was only personalities in the political life of other half done. Even in 1852 Otto von countries brings out in sharper contrast Manteuffel wrote to Bismarck: “I regard and distinction those figures which oc- a constitutional system, where majorities cupy the middle of the German stage. have the dominion, as anything but The histories of Mr. Bigelow and Dr. Protestant.” Indeed, these “other letStreckfuss have another quality in com- ters” from and to Prince Bismarck, which mon—that of telling us a great deal accompany the royal correspondence, about prominent people in their private are of greater interest, because the letters

, as well as in their public life.

are more spontaneous. The first show the people in great part without their the condition of the court; these reveal cumbersome court clothes ; they move, the conditions of the people. And what speak, and act as do ordinary human a host of notable letter-writers cross beings of our own day; and, according the stage! First of all the Emperor, to both historians, they certainly had not with his Chancellor, of course, then the only ordinary but very extraordinary Crown Prince, the Hohenlohes, Manhuman frailties. We know of no more teuffels, Bülows, Gortschakoff, Andrassy, direct and personal account of the his- Schleinitz, Roon, Motley, Virchow, and tory of Berlin for half a millennium—and

many others. that was often the history of Germany, Out of all this correspondence the than may be found in Dr. Streckfuss's real Bismarck appears almost a different admirable but, alas ! too closely printed Bismarck than we have known from his pages.

If in matter the anecdotal “Reflections and Reminiscences,” forges to the fore, the author's manner or his “Love Letters," or from the varifits it; his style is vigorous and some- ous biographies of him—Mr. Lowe's, Mr. times almost unconventional. It is al- Headlam’s, Mr. Stearns's, Mr. Jacks's, ways entertaining, and delights us by its M. Andler's, Herr Busch's. We here remoteness from any dry-as-dust “his- see Bismarck the letter-writer. We here torical manner.” His book deserves see Bismarck the diplomat. Of course translation. It would certainly further some of the letters show traces of edita better understanding in this country, ing, and this is avowedly a selected cornot only of German history, but also of respondence, selected first of all by the German character. As before hinted, writer himself, who, we know, chose from the work is especially strong in its the piles of his correspondence only description of the period between the those letters which were intended to be battle of Waterloo and the German printed after his death. The work is Revolution of 1848.

In that year a

thus confessedly fragmentary and of unloyal, thrifty, peaceful, and monarchically even value. We could dispense with cerinclined people drove the Prince of tain notes of congratulation and thanks Prussia, later Emperor William I. of for the privilege of reading certain letGermany, out of the country.

ters omitted which the internal evidence It is interesting to know that in 1848 of the rest of the book shows would have the contrast between German agriculture been extremely instructive and possibly and industry, now so acute, had already racy reading. Why should the book's begun. In April of that year, as we learn title, then, be “ The Correspondence," from this admirable translation of “The etc.? But enough remains to show to Correspondence of William the First us not only the policy of an empireand Bismarck," the Iron Chancellor maker, but the character of that empirewrote concerning the Landtag that “the maker. Bismarck was bound to make final sitting was held day before yester- the empire even if he had to do some

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incidental wrong to others. We discern mitted to have his way. As early as in the grim founder of German unity a 1863 this was evident, and for the next man bound to break down all opposition, quarter of a century it made its appeara man who could be unscrupulous in ance at fairly regular and frequent intermethod if necessary, a man who could vals. Of course the excuse of ill health descend to bitternesses and littlenesses was worked for all it was worth. On the in railing at his enemies, a man who other hand, the Emperor is shown to be was not above certain small and mean often complaining because his independjealousies of his co-laborers.

ent Chancellor had left him in the dark These volumes are another proof of about certain important matters. Under the fact that Bismarck's influence with circumstances like these, in order to the old Kaiser was largely due to that carry his point, Bismarck had to show club which the Chancellor held over the not only an Italian hand but sometimes King by threatening to retire if not per- his own stout German fist.

of the Week

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283 pages.

This report of current literature is supplemented by fuller reviews of such books as in the judgment of the editors are of special importance to our readers. Any of these books will be sent by the publishers of The Outlook, postpaid, to any address on receipt of the published price, with postage added when the price is marked "net." Beautiful Possibility (A). By Edith Fergu- One is rejoiced to open at least one book of son Black

The Union Press, Philadelphia. this kind 'which uses legible type. 5x774 in. 330 pages. 90c., net. (Postage, 10c.) Directory of Institutions and Societies Deal

Harmony of the Gospels for Historical

Study (A). By William Arnold Stevens and ing with Tuberculosis in the United States

Ernest Dewitt Burton. (Third Edition, Revised.) and Canada (A). Illustrated. Compiled by Lil

Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. 6% X8% in. ian Brandt. Published by the Committee on the Prevention of Tuberculosis of the Charity Organization Society of the City of New York, New Before the appearance of the present edition York. 6x974 in. 263 pages.

this “Harmony” had been recognized as a Early Eastern Christianity: St. Margaret's

standard work, and has been commended as Lectures, 1904, on the Syriac-Speaking Church. such by The Outlook. Its plan attempts no By F. Crawford Burkitt. E. P. Dutton & Co., reconstruction of the order of events in the New York. 5x8% in. 228 pages. $2.

Gospels, but rather to discover and use this It is far Eastern Christianity with which

as the basis for such final arrangement as these lectures are concerned, not that of the Greek and other Eastern Churches within

Biblical criticism may ultimately determine. the ancient Roman world. Its chief seat Historical Geography of Bible Lands. By was Edessa, in the Euphrates valley, the

John B. Calkin, M.A. The Westminster Press,

Philadelphia. 6x974 in. 196 pages. ancient “Ur of the Chaldees,” the fatherland of Abraham. Here was a chief seat of

History of Carleton College (The): Its Ori

gin and Growth, Environment and Builders. Oriental learning, and a seminary which in

By the Rev. Delavan L. Leonard, D.D. The the fourth and fifth centuries supplied Mes- Fleming H. Revell Co., New York. '5x8 in. 421 opotamia and Persia with Christian pastors. pages. Here, perhaps, in the fourth century, origi- History of Civilization, which Includes a nated the apocryphal letter to Jesus of Ab- History of Life and also a History of Ideas

(The). By Julian Laughlin. Illustrated. Pubgarus, King of Edessa. Into this unfamiliar

lished by the Author, St. Louis, Mo. 634X92 in. field these lectures conduct the reader, through an interesting account of the Bible, Holy Roman Empire (The). By James the theology, and the internal life of a long- Bryce, D.C.L. (A New Edition, Enlarged and extinct but once flourishing and distinctively Revised Throughout.) The Macmillan Co., New characterized Church.

York. 5%2x8 in. 575 pages. $1.50, net.

Reserved for later notice. French Home Cooking Adapted to the Use of American Households. By Bertha Julienne

Home Ideals. By Wayland Hoyt, D.D., Low. McClure, Phillips & Co., New York. 474x8

LL.D. Griffith & Rowland Press, Philadelphia. in. 332 pages.

47 X792 in. 115 pages. Glossary of Words, Phrases, Names, and

These short essays on a great and vital subAllusions in the Works of English Authors,

ject are sensible and practical, a good “tract Particularly of Shakespeare and His Contempo

for the times." raries. By Robert Nares, A.M., F.R.S., F.A.S. New Edition, with Considerable Additions both

Home Mechanic (The): A Manual for In

dustrial Schools and Amateurs. of Words and Examples. By J. O. Halliwell,

By John F.R.S., and Thomas Wright, F.S.A. E. P. Dut

Wright. Illustrated. E. P. Dutton & Co., New ton & Co., New York. 512 X 874 in. 981 pages.

York. 5%2X9 in. 345 pages. $2.50, net. $3, net.

An English book, well equipped with dia. A new edition of a valuable reference-book. grams and cuts, and carefully designed to

526 pages.

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teach the use of tools and the construction Millionaire Baby (The). By Anna Katharine of machines.

Green. Illustrated. The Bobbs-Merrill Co., In

dianapolis, Ind. 5x7 in. 358 pages. $1.50.' In the Name of Liberty: A Story of the The abduction of a child is made the center

Terror. By Owen Johnson. The Century Co.,
New York. 5x8 in. 406 pages. $1.50.

around which the author first winds and A rather unusually spirited tale dealing with

then unwinds an intricate mesh of crimes a subject that never loses its fascination as

and clues. As a detective story it is ingena background for passion, tragedy, danger, jous; as fiction in any other sense it is worth

less. and escape—the French Revolution. We have seen a list of one hundred romances Miscellaneous Essays and Addresses. By dealing with this period, and have little doubt Henry Sidgwick. The Macmillan Co., New that the list might be doubled. Mr. Johnson

York. 5%2X9 in. 374 pages. has created two or three flesh-and-blood The many-sided activity of the late professor characters, has put them. into trying crises, of moral philosophy at Cambridge is strikand has made them work out their own ingly represented in this collection of essays moral salvation or ruin as they respond or and addresses. Sixteen in number, they fail to respond to the test. The book has take for theme subjects of an ethical, socio life and energy.

logical, economic, educational, and purely John Bunyan. By W. Hale White. Illus- literary interest, in all of which domains of trated. (Literary Lives.) Charles Scribner's Sons,

thought Henry Sidgwick was well qualified New York. 5x774 in. 222 pages. $1, net. to speak. Probably the essays that will be An interesting and well-written biography,

most warmly welcomed by the many who with so much of quotation from Bunyan as to

cherish his memory are the literary, for it give it some of the characteristics of an auto- was in literary criticism that the characterisbiography. But it lacks background. The tics which stamped him as one of the finest picture of the times is inadequate. Less

thinkers of his generation best found expresspace devoted to an analysis of John Bun- sion. But in all the papers herein included yan's allegories, more to a portraiture of John

these characteristics are palpably apparentBunyan's times, would have made a book both the intellectual sincerity, the open-mindedmore interesting and more valuable. The ness, the faculty of acute analysis, the precisanalysis of Puritanism in the last chapter ion of statement, the discriminating taste may serve as a reply to Matthew Arnold's that were so emphatically his. Undoubtedly analysis, but it is not adequate, and seems the subtlety of his reasoning and his averlike an afterthought to the book. Nor do sion to general statement make some of his we share the pessimism of the last three sen- essays, as his larger writings, rather difficult tences in the book: “We cannot bring our- reading. Nor will the student lack occasion selves into a unity. The time is yet to come

to dissent from opinions expressed. But he when we shall live by a faith which is a har- cannot fail to be stimulated to fresh points mony of all our faculties. A glimpse was of view, cannot fail to find his mental horicaught of such a gospel nineteen centuries zon considerably enlarged. An idea of the ago in Galilee, but it has vanished.” We varied contents of this helpful volume may think, on the contrary, that the religion of be conveyed by a few chapter titles: “Ecce to-day, with all its defects, is much more

Homo” (a criticism of J. R. Seeley's study Christlike in its essential spirit than was that of the life of Jesus), “The Poems and Prose of either Cavaliers or Puritans, of either Laud

Remains of Arthur Hugh Clough,” “Shakeor Bunyan.

speare's Methods,” “Shakespeare and the Romantic Drama,'

19" Bentham and BenthamJournalisten (Die): A Comedy. By Gustav

ism in Politics and Ethics,” “The Scope Freytag. Edited by Leigh R. Gregor, B.A., Ph.D. Ginn & Co., Boston. 4%X634 in. 231 pages. 45c.

and Method of Economic Science,” "The

Economic Lessons of Socialism,” “The Re Letters of William Stubbs, Bishop of Oxford,

lation of Ethics to Sociology," "The Theory 1825-1901. Edited by William Holden Hutton, D.Ď. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. 572X9 in.

of Classical Education.” 428 pages. $4, net. This volume outlines the life as well as con

My Little Book of Prayer. By Muriel

Strode. The Open Court Publishing Co., tains its self-expression in the letters of one cago. 414X6%4 in. 56 pages. who was esteemed by those who best knew

Napoleon Myth (The). Translated by Henry him “a great Bishop,"conspicuous for learn- Ridgely Evans. Illustrated. The Open Court ing, judgment, and kindness, a truly great

Publishing Co., Chicago. 6x972 in. 65 pages. hearted man. More than as a prelate of the Our readers may remember a Russian folkAnglican Church Dr. Stubbs will be known lore story about Napoleon, translated for as a historian. What John Richard Green The Outlook by Mr. George Kennan some was for English history, Williams Stubbs time ago. That was a real Napoleon myth; was for the history of the British Constitu- Pérèz's satire, “The Grand Erratum,” long tion, on which he wrote the work most widely since out of print, in its English form at read. His intercourse with leaders of his least, and here reproduced, was a purely Church and nation is revealed in these let artificial myth, or rather an attempt in fićters, in which his personal characteristics as tion to prove that Napoleon himself was a a Christian pastor, an ecclesiastical states- myth, the argument being that all human man, a scholar, a wit, a friend, combine in the testimony is fallible and (as applied by Dr. portrait of a strong, sincere, and faithful man. Paul Carus in an introduction) that the Bible

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is a mixture of fact and fancy. Whatever of view. Those who wish to understand may be one's views as to this point, all must better the qualities of “Parsifal” as a work of agree that Pérèz leaves the impression of art will doubtless look elsewhere. Those being clever and ingenious rather than that who object to “ Parsifal” altogether, on the of one who presents a logical argument. ground that it is a preachment thinly disNew Second Music Reader. By James M. guised as a work of art, will probably not

McLaughlin and W. W. Gilchrist. (Éducational read this white-bound booklet, but will welMusic Course.) Illustrated. Ginn & Co., Boston. come it as an unconscious witness on their 6x734 in. 122 pages. 30c.

side. Old Florence and Modern Tuscany. By Janet Ross. Illustrated. E. P. Dutton & Co.,

Poems of Algernon Charles Swinburne New York. 5x772 in. 229 pages. $1.50, net.

(The). In 6 vols. Harper & Bros., New York.

512X872 in. Limited Edition. $10. Mr. Carmichael and Mr. Hewlett have been enlightening us as to Tuscany; now comes

Reserved for later notice. Mrs. Ross in a smaller volume but with Presence of God (The). By Chester Wood. almost equal information, especially as to the The Young Churchman Co., Milwaukee, Wis. Tuscan peasants, among whom she has lived

6x972 in. 62 pages. for over thirty years—that peasant who still Princess in Calico (A). By Edith Ferguson proudly speaks his pure "lingua Toscana' Black. The Union Press, Philadelphia. 472x7 in a “bocca Toscana "—the Tuscan tongue in. 140 pages. 75c., net. as spoken by a Tuscan mouth, no matter Quintin Hogg: A Biography. By Ethel M. what the arrogant Roman south of him may Hogg. Illustrated. (Second Edition.). E. P. have to say as to the authoritative character

Dutton & Co., New York. 5%2X9 in. 419 pages. of the “bocca Romana.” The pride of the

$3, net. Tuscan in his speech seems also reflected in

The life of this British philanthropist is a his opulent manner of life. While the rich,

lesson on the opportunities of useful work fruitful country saves him from beggary, he

for the children of the poor, especially in has a cheerful willingness to work not found

great cities. Mr. Hogg was an early beginfurther south, and he manifests a spontane

ner in this line. Coming from school at ous generosity towards all mankind. The

Eton to the post of errand-boy in a London result is, as Mrs. Ross reminds us, that in

merchant's office, his heart went out at once Tuscany there are no almshouses or poor

to the beggarly street boys. Two of these houses, save in the chief towns, and that

he persuaded to let him teach them to read, most villa proprietors and managers set

with the Bible for text-book, by the light of aside one or two days in the week when

a candle stuck in a bottle. Out of this grew alms are distributed to all who come and

the London Polytechnic, on which Mr. Hogg ask. The ancient system of half and half

ultimately spent half a million dollars. To tenure, the proprietor finding the capital and

this he devoted his life, “the boy's friend,” the peasant the labor, is also described by with a boy's heart to the end—“a life every the author, who does not fail to point out

day of which," says the Duke of Argyli, the strong bond of affection as well as of

can be looked back upon as hearty, manly, interest which unites the peasant families

and useful." In particular, the story of his living from one generation to another on

early days in the City, when he was barely certain great estates to the owners of those

of age, is an extraordinary record of a love estates. She tells us about the vintaging,

for the lowest as devoted as that of a canon

ized saint. the oil-making, the agriculture, and we see again the very methods used to-day which Shakespearean Tragedy: Lectures on HamVirgil described as in use in his day. While we let, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth. By A. C. learn more about modern Tuscany than about

Bradley. The Macmillan Co., New York. 5%2X9

in. 498 pages. $3.25. old Florence—that mediæval town which never loses its fascination-Mrs. Ross's ac

Those acquainted with Dr. Bradley's precount is noteworthy, although for a more

vious work as a commentator will anticipate exhaustive treatment one will turn to the

an intellectual treat from this his latest volvolumes by Mr. Gardner, M. Yriarte, and

ume, and will find themselves in no wise Mrs. Oliphant.

disappointed. The originality, the analytical

ability, the poetic perception of which he On Holy Ground: Bible Stories with Pic- has already shown himself the possessor,

tures of Bible Lands. By William L. Worcester. combine to the attainment of the purpose Illustrated. The J.B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia. 6x972 in. 492 pages.

for which he sets himself to study anew the It may seem a commendable feature of this four tragedies, “Hamlet," " Othello, new series of Bible stories for children that Lear,” and “Macbeth”—that purpose, as each one is introduced by an explanatory expressed in his own words, being “to insummary in larger type. The illustrations crease our understanding and enjoyment of are copious and good.

these works as dramas; to learn to appre

hend the action and some of the personages Parsifal : An Ethical and Spiritual Interpre

of each with a somewhat greater truth and tation. By R. Heber Newton. The Upland Farms Alliance, Oscawana-on-Hudson, New York.

intensity, so that they may assume in our 6x972 in. 66 pages.

imagination a shape a little less unlike the A homily, not a critique. Those who wish shape they wore in the imagination of their to get an ethical and religious interpretation creator.” To the single task of interpretawill find it here well expressed from one point tion he accordingly devotes himself, examin

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