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ing each of the tragedies individually, after is the chapter which informs us that origia preliminary inquiry into such questions nality of subject was not considered by germane to all four as Shakespeare's con- Italian artists, that the only originality lay ception of tragedy and the form in which he in treatment, the subject being determined expressed that conception. Into these as by tradition. The most important of all trainto all phases of his task he throws himself ditional subjects was of course the Cruciwith enthusiasm. If he is not always con- fixion, and in representations of this scene vincing, he is always helpful, the sum total our critic puts two questions: (1) Was the of his efforts being to produce a work which artist intending to depict a theological aspect is really a welcome and distinctly useful addi- of what he considered the culminating point tion to the already voluminous literature on in the scheme of the universe? or (2) Was he the subject.

trying to draw a dramatic picture of a hisThoughts for the Occasion, Fraternal and

torical event? Just here is where the Tuscan Benevolent. Compiled by Franklin Noble, D.D.

school is peculiarly distinct from the VeneE. B. Treat & Co., New York. 5x774 in. 576 tian. The theological representation was the pages. $2.

favorite among the Tuscan artists—we reTuscan and Venetian Artists (The): Their

member the Crucifixions of Fra Angelico Thought and Work. By Hope Rea. (New and and Perugino, for instance. For the draEnlarged Edition.) Illustrated. E. P. Dutton &

matic representations, on the other hand, we Co., New York. 5x734 in. 182 pages. $1.50, net.

must go to Venice, recalling especially TinMany fairly good illustrations reinforce this

toretto's masterpiece, certainly also one of volume's interesting text, and the text itself the world's masterpieces. Such a little book has received admirable treatment from the of criticism as this is always needed, not only printer. The book may be recommended to

for the unthinking tourist or student, but those whose sympathy has not yet been sometimes also for the thinking. aroused as it should be for the art of Tuscany and Venetia. In Tuscan art the author

Walter Pieterse: A Story of Holland. By takes Fra Angelico as a typical idealist,

Multatuli. Translated by Hubert Evans, Ph.D.

Friderici & Gareis, New York. 495x7% in. 303 Signorelli as a typical realist, in considering the relation between imagination and reality Walter is in a way a Dutch "Sentimental in art. From this it is a natural step to the Tommy,” and the growth of his vivid imagifusion of the two influences as seen in certain nation and literary aspiration among rather aspects of Raphael's work and also in the sordid surroundings and stolid people is told art of Venice. Another chapter has to do with minuteness and perhaps a little overwith the artists considered as story-tellers, elaborated humor. “Multatuli" is not exGiotto, Duccio, Carpaccio, and Raphael hav- actly a Dutch Dickens, but he has some ing special mention. Even more interesting Dickensy qualities.

pages.

Correspondence

Letters addressed to the Editors of The Outlook, to receive any attention whatever, must in all cases be accompanied by the name and address of the writer. Names will not be published if a request to that effect is made by the writer, but no attention, either personal or editorial, can be paid to anonymous communications.

Railway Rates and the Government and, if necessary to such control, Government To the Editors of The Outlook :

ownership. The weakness of Mr. Morton's “Railway

Mr. Morton thinks the political results of Rate" proposition, in his article in The

this would be bad, “the beginning of political Outlook of January 14, lies in his assumption

chaos.” But what about the political chaos that if the right sort of law was passed the

that railroads make? What Judge or Senator railroads would obey it. The trouble isn't

did they not help to elect, or try to defeat? in the laws, but in the roads. They break

Our Kansas Burton would never have reached the laws we do have; why suppose that they

the Senate if the Kansas railroads had not will obey laws we may have?

put him there. We have everything to gain Discriminations have been expressly for

and nothing to lose by changing from railbidden for twenty years; they have never

road control of Government to Government ceased; they are still going on. The stubborn

control of railroads. EDWIN TAYLOR. est unbeliever can see it for himself on any Edwardsville, Kansas. passenger train, except a few limited train's on which passes are not accepted. When

Public Lands and Forests in the Philippines the conductor makes a notation in his book To the Editors of The Outlook : instead of taking up a ticket or cash fare, he Since the government of the Philippines is is discriminating. The conditions are in- in our hands, we have to face problems of tolerable. A “way out” is imperative. The taxation and revenue quite out of our pre only sure way that presents itself is absolute vious experience and differing widely_from control by the United States Government- those we have dealt with at home. Every paper and the well-judged comments of the Are we not all trustees, who have inherited editor, how the petty scoundrels who, by the use of the earth ? and are we not in honor appealing to the small weaknesses and often and justice bound to hand over to our suc- sore needs of their victims, would through cessors of the next generation our trust un- the Post-Office enrich themselves at their impaired and if possible improved ?

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right-thinking American knows that we have as I find many readers do, at the close of the to consider first in governing Filipinos what number, and read first the last article in the is best for them, not what will enrich a few Correspondence Department, “A CompariAmericans. There is an active party in this son of Postal Rates,” by my friend Mr. country desirous of securing concessions of Cowles, Secretary of the Postal Progress land under the plea of “developing the League. Then, turning back, the sharp title country," but really with the view of putting "Swindling Through the Post-Office," caught money in their own pockets. Nearly all the my eye. I found, I need not say, this conunoccupied lands and all the forests are to- tribution of Mr. Lawrence, Assistant Attorday Government property.

ney of the Post-Office Department, extremely We must remember that the Filipinos are interesting But the reading of these two very poor and that the islands cannot bear things together in that way, I must tell you, any great amount of taxation. Another fact though late in the evening, near the small to be kept in mind is that direct taxes hours of the day succeeding, caused a fercollected through native tax-gatherers are ment in my thoughts. Really there was always oppressive, owing to the dishonesty something in the mixture which then seemed of these petty officials. We are therefore to work toward an explosion, and has been obliged, as far as possible, to collect all so working ever since. needed revenue by means which do not call Just at this moment I have read also your for the employment of native tax-gatherers. editorial article, “Postal Fraud Laws." In view of these facts, would it not be the Well

, the ferment goes on, and it may be best thing for the Philippines and the Fili- helpful, not to me only, but to others, to let pinos if this great amount of public lands in it pop a little—in a thoroughly restrained, the islands should be kept unsold ? but let, amiable sort of fashion. It may conduce to only to actual occupiers, on improving leases general well-being to do so innocent, so for thirty years, renewable then to the hold- "childlike and bland” a thing as that-all ers at revised rates settled by the Govern- that appears readily available to a mere citment, all improvements being allowed for. izen, however warm, even hot, his interest in

This plan would secure a perpetual income matters of public concern. What I aim to to the Government without directly taxing do in this note is simply to call the attention the people. And it has this great advantage of readers of The Outlook to what one must that as the population increases and the be fairly blind not to be able to read between prosperity of the islands augments, the the lines here, as these three articles named Government revenue will grow steadily. (January 14) are brought close together. What John Stuart Mill called the “unearned The significance of what is so indicated one increment of the land” would accrue to the can scarcely fail in perceiving to be very Government and not to the few lucky indi- great, of the highest moment (I say this ferviduals who might be enriched if they were mentingly) to all our countrymen. It does the absolute possessors of the soil. More- not minister to our wholesome pride to know over, it may well be contended that inasmuch how widespread is the eagerness of the as the existing generation of men have only American people to gamble, how ready they a life interest in this planet, they should not are to fall into the trap of lottery schemers, be allowed to obtain the ownership, and thus and all that; and it is also a profound satisthe control of its wealth after they have faction to know, through Mr. Lawrence's passed away.

expense, are circumvented in their tricks, Almost everything we have comes from despite their amazing cunning. the labors of our predecessors; should we But while it is interesting and instructive not, therefore, try to provide for those who to read of that, yet, after all, do we there follow us? Especially is this true in regard read the whole of the postal fraud business, to the forests. Only in America are men or anything like the worst of it? Great as allowed to destroy them. For the Philippines that may be in the aggregate, still, not only we have a chance by wise legislation to pre- in that way but in every other way, is there serve and improve the forests, keeping up not something appallingly more fraudulent the supply and growth of the trees; granting besetting the entire postal service of the permits for tree-cutting only when those land ? Some may be ready to say, “ Let asking for this privilege are prepared to the "suckers' be caught” (vide Mr. Lawplant four trees for each one cut down, as rence's paper), who yet are more ready to is the law in Germany, which we should do ask, even explosively, “Why should we all well to establish in the Philippines.

be caught, not merely weaklings tricked by OGDEN E. EDWARDS. sharpers, but the whole people who use the

mails? Why, as the Postal Progress League Postal Service Inequities

is ready to show, should it, for example, cost To the Editors of The Outlook :

in the United States to carry letters and I read with unusually keen interest three sealed packets, merchandise parcels, and things in your pages of last week. I began, even foreign parcels to the outside world, so

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many times more than it costs in Great Brit- substantially what it is now; so that she has ain, Germany, and other countries? Why, had a fair opportunity to institute reforms again, should the free delivery rate on a letter and give improved educational opportunities eight ounces in weight be to-day sixteen to the natives for at least fifty-five years. times as great in republican New York as it The contrast is obvious: the President's is in imperial Berlin ?" A host of like ques. proclamation declaring that peace prevailed tions shoot out. A burden is laid upon the in the Christianized parts of the Philippines whole American people in its mail service was promulgated two years ago last July; (so it appears), compared with which that so that our opportunity has been limited to laid upon themselves by the crowds ready to less than three years, as against fifty-five at "take a chance," greedy to get something least for the British in India—not to insist on for nothing, though it were multiplied over the fact, at the moment, that in many parts and over, were yet a trifle, a mere bagatelle. of that great domain the opportunity had Why is this? It is a thing to be thought existed for many years before that. Though over, and more than mere thought should be the Americans are hazarding more, in a libgiven it

WILLIAM J. SKILLMAN. eral extension of political rights in the East, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

than the British have ever ventured to accord

in India, there is, nevertheless, a closer analSchools in the Far East

ogy between Philippine conditions and East To the Editors of The Outlook :

Indian than between the former and those of In his valuable paper, published in your the British possessions named by Mr. Ireland. issue of December 31, on "American Admin- There is a semblance of local self-governistration in the Philippine Islands,” Mr. Ire- ment in India, in connection with certain land discusses the establishing of common municipalities. Mr. Ireland's view concernschools there, and the results of what we have ing the policy of according self-government done on educational lines in those new pos- to tropical peoples suggests a remark of Sir sessions. Entertaining the belief that his dis- Henry Maine's made in a speech in the cussion, however painstaking, is in some Council of the Governor-General on March respects misleading, I submit the following: 11, 1868, expressing surprise that the natives

He asserts that so far from the extent of of India should be prepared for municipal educational work in the Philippines being government at all; but he did not strongly extraordinary or unique, as Mr. Taft leaves controvert those members of the Council his readers to infer, there are several British who claimed to have more intimate knowlcolonies in which the proportion of school edge of the subject. As a matter of fact, enrollment to the total population is higher local self-government has been accorded, in than it is in the Philippines.” He says about some degree: it is said that in most of the 2.3 per cent. of the total population of the districts in British India local district boards islands are attending school, while the per- exist, partly representative, for managing centage of attendance in certain specified local interests; hence the analogy is not very British colonies ranges from seven per cent. remote between Indian and Philippine conin Barbados to two per cent. in British ditions in this respect. In 1901–2 the numGuiana. Without discussing what, at the ber of such boards is said to have been 764— present rate of progress in the Philippines, approximating very closely to the number the percentage is likely to be after a period of municipalities stated by President Schurof control as prolonged as that of the British man to have existed in the Philippines (see on the islands and the mainland of the East, his speech delivered early in 1902). There and without now speculating on the results of would, therefore, seem to be strong ground certain divergences in the systems of adminis- for comparing East Indian and Philippine tration, I venture to raise the question here conditions on educational matters, if comwhether certain of Mr. Ireland's inferences parison is to be made at all with any British do not require qualification.

possession. The massacre of the English at Amboyna And the material for such a comparison by the Dutch in 1623 drove the remaining must have been as easily accessible to Mr. British settlers in the Spice Islands to the Ireland as were the data concerning conIndian mainland, where they founded Mad- ditions in any of the countries he referred to. ras, and also founded factories at and near Educational conditions in India have been Bombay, on the opposite (western) coast, officially declared very recently. A governthough Bombay was not ceded to the English mental document of March last, a copy of by the Portuguese, as part of the dowry of which, printed in Calcutta, lies before me as Catharine of Braganza, queen of Charles II., I write this, gives the total number of pupils until 1661, and was not actually delivered in the 105,306 colleges and schools for public over until 1665. Since that time the exten- instruction in India as 3,887,493 ; and it is sion of British sway in India has gone on, estimated that those in private institutions with varying rapidity, down to 1849, when that do not conform to departmental standthe Punjab, at the extreme northwest, was ards bring the total up to about 4,500,000; annexed, and 1886, when Upper Burma, in while the attendant annual expenses are the extreme northeast, was brougl under stated to be £1,300,000-approximately $6,the same rule; since which time acquisitions 500,000 (pupils and expenditure in the Nahave practically ceased. Excluding Upper tive States excluded). The population, not Burma, her territory, since 1849, has been including that of the Native States, was in 1902 about 232,000,000—29 times the popula- and 1850. Much has since been done in the tion of the Philippines ; so that the percent- construction of what are called in India age of school attendance to population in “ metaled” roads—that is, macadamizedIndia was approximately 1.9 per cent., as though the great rainfall in certain parts, as against the 2.3 per cent. with which Mr. Ire- up toward Darjeeling, as well as in some land credits the Philippines; and our expend- parts of the Philippines, renders it difficult iture of $3,000,000 on less than 8,000,000 pop- to keep the highways in repair. Mr. Ireland ulation, six-thirteenths as much as that of comments on a certain lack of enterprise, as India on a population twenty-nine times as he thinks, in road-construction in the Philipnumerous—twelve to thirteen times as much pines; but, as in the case of education, only per capita. So possibly the extent of our a beginning has been possible during the less educational work in the Philippines may be than three years since a condition of peace quite as “extraordinary and unique,” 'not- in certain parts has been declared. withstanding Mr. Ireland, as Mr. Taft New York

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GEORGE R. BISHOP. "leaves his readers to infer."

The Secretary of Public Instruction in the Philippines, in his annual report dated No

Possum Trot School-House vember 15 last, says:

By Martha Berry " The number enrolled in proportion to the whole school population is small ; yet

[The Outlook has said before that the pro

nounced movement in the South in behaif when it is considered that an average of less than 700. American teachers has brought of industrial education is one of the most about this result in two years' time, during significant and hopeful things in the remarkpart of which cholera ravaged the islands,

able development of the Southern States. causing the death of more than 150,000 of

Such institutions as Tuskegee, Hampton, the inhabitants, the achievement is not dis

Berea, are widely known all over the United appointing."

States, but there are a number of smaller and Official documents of the East Indian Gov

more modest schools which nevertheless are ernment also show a most commendable and doing a useful work themselves in training anxious solicitude to cope with the serious

individual boys and girls, and are exercising problem of general education in India; the

a profitable influence in their communities, obstacles they encounter; the means they

in the direction of educating the people at are taking to surmount them; and I have large in an appreciation of the dignity and not written the above with any purpose of

honor of labor. Such a school is the Boys' criticising that Government; knowing some

Industrial School of Rome, Georgia, of thing of its efforts, from 'its own official which some account was given in the Annual documents, I am bound to praise, not criti: August. This school was started in a very

Educational Number of The Outlook last cise. In one important respect the conditions have been different from those with

small and modest way by Miss Martha Berry, which we were confronted in the Philippines; of Rome, and has grown and is growing that is, in India there were vernaculars steadily and promisingly.

Miss Berry. is Bengali, Urdu, Hindustani, etc.—each the

a Georgian, and feels that the Georgian common language of millions; and there was

"cracker," so called—a term applied to the a fine vernacular literature, quite sufficient to

white man, woman, boy, and girl of poverty afford inspiration for the study of those

-needs special educational work done for native tongues and to induce the training of

him. The following sketch by Miss Berry the young in them, as the Government of gives a vivid picture of the kind of people India insists on doing in the case of pupils among whom she is working. We have

made who are under the age of thirteen. The ex

some investigation of Miss Berry's istence of so great a work as Elliot's eight work, and commend it at this season of the volumes of translations, “ India as Told by

year to those who wish to share their good

fortune with others less fortunate. The school its own Historians,” will give an idea of this. But in the Philippines there is no native lit

has a board of trustees, and contributions erature of consequence to inspire study or

may be sent to the treasurer of the school, to make it worth while to teach the vernacu

who is Mr. John H. Reynolds, President of

the First National Bank, Rome, Georgia. lars; while as to Spanish, knowledge of it except by a very few was crude and imper

Miss Berry will send to anybody interested fect when we took possession. This condi

a copy of a readable illustrated pamphlet tion would seem to justify our effort to give which describes the development of the

entitled “ A School that Teaches by Doing," instruction in English, especially as the islanders seem eager to learn it; while the

Possum Trot School-House into the Boys' Government of India feel that conditions in

Industrial School of Rome.—THE EDITORS.] that great dependency are such that it is In the midst of the piny woods, away from their duty to supply, to pupils under a cer- railroads and civilization, was an old shell of tain age, instruction in and by means of the a house built long before the war. To get East Indian vernaculars.

to this house you had to cross a small creek The construction of improved highways in called Possum Trot Creek, and it was said India was begun energetically under Sir that it was so named because the possums James Thomason in the Northwest Provinces, were so plentiful in the neighboring woods. and under the rule of Dalhousie, between 1840 I opened a Sunday-school in this house,

but it really could not be called a house, be- woman who has been with us for thirty cause the roof leaked so that it was almost years, and feels as if we all belong to her. impossible on rainy days to hold any kind of She immediately said that she could not fix school.

any meals for poor white folks, and that they One Sunday at Sunday-school we had a could take themselves to some other place if lesson upon peacemakers and upon forgive they wanted to be fed. Then, looking at me ness. Knowing that the people had a great in the most pitying, way, she said, “ Law, many feuds among themselves, and for little child, honey, I don't know what to make of things would fall out and live for years with- you; seems like I raised you up with the out speaking to their neighbors, I tried to balance to associate with quality and let poor make the lesson as impressive as possible, white folks alone. If you don't look out, and talked with all the enthusiasm that I you'll be a-disgracing of yourself and all the could put into it. The next morning I saw res of our family, which have been notable a poor woman and a little child coming up folks ever since long befo' de war." I did our avenue with a large bundle in her arms. not stop to argue the question with her, but I was rather disturbed to have one of the bided my time, and when she was busy in Sunday-school pupils call when I was so the pantry I immediately filled a plate with busy with my morning's work, but I put bread, potatoes, and some chicken, and everything down to find out what she wanted slipped upstairs with it to my company. and let her go. My first question was, As the afternoon began to lengthen we “What can I do for you, Mrs. Duncan ?" both watched anxiously for the coming of She said, “Wal, I 'lowed that, being as you Virgil. . I was wondering what I could do talked so much and so good about forgive- with this poor young woman, who did not ness, that I'd better forgive Virgil, my know how to do anything, if he should decide husband, and get him to come back and not to come and if he would not take her live with me. Ma 'lowed that if I was going back. to make up with Virgil that I must take Just at sundown I saw Virgil coming. He my things and leave her house and never was a very large, tall man, with rather a stucome back no more; an' so I jes' put on my pid face, but not an unkind one.

As soon as best clothes, and then put all of Mary Jane's I saw him I had Mrs. Duncan pick up the clothes and the rest of mine in that bag baby, grab her sack of clothes, and start to thar, and come along down here to your meet him. She insisted that I should go with house to get you to find Virgil for me." As her, but I told her that I could not; that I looked down into this young, girlish face- all depended upon her now. She met him for she was only seventeen-with pleading about half-way down the lane, and they stood brown eyes and a pathetic droop to her thin and talked for quite a long time. It was stooped shoulders, and realized that she had almost dark now, and once he started off as walked seven miles through the piny woods, if he were going to leave her, and then my lugging her baby and her bag of clothing, to heart sank within me, because I felt that she reach my home, and saw what faith she had would be without a home, and without a husthat I would find her husband for her, and band also. But at last he took his baby in in the meantime care for her and her baby, one arm and the sack in the other, and VirI was rather taken aback, and wondered gil and his wife passed down the lane and how I would manage this problem. Upon out of sight. inquiry I found that her husband was work- The next Sunday, on the way

to Possum ing about ten miles from where we lived, Trot, some one called to me from a small and that I would have to try and get him to cabin on the roadside; and who should come to us by sending a message to him come down to meet me but Virgil and his wife immediately. I was afraid to say that his and the little baby. Virgil looked very wife wanted to see him for fear he would happy with the baby in his arms, and said: not come, so I hired a boy and told him to “Wal, Miss Berry, we-uns jes' fell out 'bout go and find Virgil and tell him that Miss this young un's name. My wife, she wanted Berry wanted to see him on very important to name it Mary Jane, and I wanted to name business as soon as possible, and that she it Sary Jane, and now we jes' calls it plain would pay him if he would come immediately. Jane ; an' if it had not 'a' bin for that thar

In the meantime Mrs. Duncan and her Sunday-school talk you give at old Possum fretful baby had to sit in my room for the Trot School-House, I don't b'lieve me and my remainder of the day. Our house was wife and Jane would ever have come together crowded with company, and our cook was agin in this 'ere world.” very busy preparing an especially nice lunch- Such was the beginning of the Boys' Ineon for the guests. When dinner-time ar- dustrial School, which has now eighty boy rived, I went down and asked her to please scholars on its rolls, while one hundred applilet me have some dinner to carry upstairs to cants have recently been turned away for my uninvited guests. She is an old negro

lack of room.

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