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The abuses which marred the admin- effects of the system of government istration of the Dutch and of the English were felt only by the lower classes, East India Companies present an inter- which were the least able to defend esting difference in their general charac- themselves, or to leave any record of ter. The Dutch, up to the time when their treatment. their Company was abolished, had never The gradual improvement of adminisexhibited any high qualities of colonial trative methods in the British and Dutch statesmanship; and the officials of Neth- dependencies in Asia is due to a number erlands-India occupied themselves chiefly of causes. The growth of popular interwith such matters of trade policy as est in colonial affairs which has followed appealed to the imagination of the di- the universal spread of newspapers and rectors in Holland. The result is that magazines among the public, the eagerthere is little record of action in the ness with which, under our modernized higher field of colonial government, but form of party government, the Opposia vast literature of commercial transac- tion seizes upon any colonial topic which tions. In this, material evidence is not can be turned to political account, the lacking of serious evils in the local increase of colonial travel and the augadministration, and of severe oppression mentation of colonial trade which have of the lower classes by the native rulers, taken place as a result of improved who exacted from the people the amount means of communication, the ability of of forced labor necessary to secure the instant protest and publicity at the seat trade products required by the Dutch. of government which the submarine cable What oppression there was, what injus- has placed at the disposal of every tice befell

, what suffering was endured, colonial malcontent/these factors have concerned a people who, for the purposes gone far towards removing all serious of historical record, were inarticulate ; abuses in the government of those tropiand thus in the early accounts of Neth- cal dependencies which lie on or near erlands-India there is no Warren Has- the ordinary routes of commerce. But tings trial, and no detailed revelations behind these elements of reform lies the under the searchlight of European in- mental development of the age, which has vestigation.

endowed us with such a keen sensitiveIn British India the circumstances ness to injustice or harshness of any were utterly different. Here the record kind that no evil which is great enough contains comparatively little about the to reach the public, through any one of Cor any's shopkeeping, but is filled the numerous channels which are open with the narrative of great and stirring to any one who has a tale to tell, can events. The abuses of the Company's long remain unchecked. rule in British India seldom touched the The United States and France emcommon people; they affected the affairs barked upon their careers in southeastof the most powerful native princes ; ern Asia at the time when the principle and each grievance, real or imaginary, of a just and tolerant rule over dependwas magnified a thousandfold before it ent races had already been accepted and reached Europe, because the aggrieved applied by England and Holland. The person had the power, as well as the French in Indo-China have based their desire, to make himself heard. It is very administration upon the utilization of the easy, therefore, to fall into the com- native system of village government, mon error of believing that the Dutch and although the improvements in the East India Company was more humane mechanism of the higher control, which in its relations with the natives than its have been described in a previous artiEnglish rival; but it must be remem- cle, are of very recent origin, there bered that the evils of administration in existed from the very first a certain symBritish India, falling as they did chiefly pathy with native ideas which can be on the upper classes, left the natives at traced in the record of administration, large better off in many respects than even when it shows most clearly a lack they had been under their own rulers; of wise adjustment to local conditions. whereas in Netherlands-India the worst In the final arrangements for the political


control of Indo-China the French were which leaves them a mastery of their fortunate in this, that they combined internal affairs as complete as that which with a democratic sentiment, no less real is enjoyed by the component parts of than that of the United States, past ex- the United States. But if the political perience of a democratic régime in the destiny of non-tropical colonies is clearly tropics—the useful heritage of their West indicated by the experience of the great Indian adventures—and they were thus self-governing States of the British Emsaved from the disappointments and pire, that of tropical dependencies is not

, vexations which would have followed less surely revealed by the history of the any attempt to establish a Western form government of tropical countries by white of government on the banks of the rulers. In the whole range of British Mekong

imperial experience there cannot be No consideration of the American found an instance of any territory, in occupation of the Philippine Islands which white men cannot effect a percan lead to anything but confusion and manent settlement on a large scale, misunderstanding unless at the outset where there has not been established emphasis is laid on the fact that none and maintained a strictly dependent of the countries which have been the form of government; and even in those subject of our inquiry is in any sense a tropical dependencies which enjoy a true colony, and that the whole signifi- rudimentary system of representation we cance of our data rests on the circum- find that the final word in all matters is stance that there can never exist in any spoken by the Colonial Office. The part of the Far Eastern tropics a popu- colonial history of France also affords lation which is not, for all practical pur- an excellent example of the evolution of poses, completely tropical in its general dependent governments, and it discloses character. We have been dealing, then, a complete change of political practice not with colonies but with dependencies; as a result of actual experiment. The and the vital importance of this dis- older dependencies of France (Martitinction becomes more apparent when nique, Guadeloupe, and Réunion), which we consider, on the one hand, the gen- received their constitutions in the middle eral trend of development in each class of the nineteenth century, at a time when of territory, and, on the other hand, the the democratic enthusiasm of the French fallacies which have arisen in recent people was still in its first vigor, were discussions of American expansion from endowed with representative institutions, the confusion of ideas due to an insuffi- and a vote was given to practically every cient appreciation of the difference be- negro. Between this act and the growth tween the two kinds of subordinate of the new colonial empire of France countries. The War of American Inde- there intervened a period of thirty years, pendence was due to causes which had during which an opportunity was afforded their origin in the inability or in the of observing the operation of the liberal unwillingness of the British Government constitutions of the old dependencies. to realize the difference between a col- Every writer whose opinions have ony and a dependency; and the most fallen under my notice has placed himimportant part of that war, as far as the self on record in condemnation of the use British Empire was concerned, was the to which the natives of the tropical defirm and final establishment of that dif- pendencies of France have put the power ference in the public mind.

intrusted to them for the management of The nineteenth century witnessed the their affairs. The history of those French full expression of the new idea in the dependencies which were granted popular growth of British colonial policy. Can- government fifty years ago has been one ada, Australia, New Zealand, South of disorder, injustice, brutality, incomAfrica, in a word, all the subordinate petence, and dishonesty. These facts provinces of the British Empire in which became matters of common knowledge white men are able to establish a per- in France; and in the new French demanent home, have been granted re- pendencies not a single constitution has sponsible self-government in a form been established which grants any effect

ive control of affairs to the people of ister the government as to avoid serious the country.

complications with foreign Powers as a In the tropical dependencies of Hol- result of the disorder which is the invariland, Germany, and Portugal the gov- able accompaniment of purely native rule.

. ernment is entirely under the control of As far as I am able to judge from a officials of the sovereign State.

perusal of the general current literature Even when we turn to the oversea of the day relative to the question of possessions of the United States we find American oversea expansion, the appeal that, as a matter of fact, despite a great to past experience as a guide to present deal of talk about self-government and action is regarded as doctrinaire and not a little complacent oratory in regard wide of the mark. Although no attempt to the wide liberality of American policy is made to controvert the overwhelming as compared with that of the European mass of facts which go to place the PhilPowers, neither Porto Rico nor the Phil- ippine Islands in exactly the same cateippine Archipelago has yet been granted gory as all other tropical dependencies; a constitution differing in any material although the United States has had political feature from that of a British some experience within its own borders tropical colony.

of the political capacities of a tropical Finally, at the time this article goes to race which is for many reasons more the printer, the United States has found favorably situated than are the Filipinos it necessary to assume control of the for the enjoyment of popular self-govfinancial affairs of Santo Domingo (one ment; although South and Central Amerof the so-called Republics which reared ica, where the mass of the voters are themselves on the ruins of the Spanish greatly superior to what will constitute Empire in America), which has gone the same class in the Philippines, are from bad to worse during two generations speaking witnesses of the incapacity of of self-government.

tropical peoples for independent selfThe literature which treats of the government, the American people seem recent expansion of the United States prepared to accept hope rather than has already assumed the proportions of experience as the basis of their policy. a library; but it is not necessary to We are assured that in a few years the make a very extended excursion into Philippine Islands will be enjoying comthis field of study in order to discover plete internal self-government under a that a great number of writers have system of popular elections, and that drawn their arguments in favor of the the next generation is to witness a Filiestablishment of popular self-government pino nation working out its own salvation in the Philippines from a mistaken refer- as an independent State. As an ideal ence to the experience of the British this leaves nothing to be desired ; as a non-tropical colonies or of non-tropical practical question of what is possible Japan.

and what is impossible it lacks only a If Canada and Australia are capable single hope of success which can be of self-government, why, we are asked, founded on any human experience of may not the Philippines look forward to which the history of the tropics bears a time when they too shall enjoy com- record. The experiment in the meantime plete control of their internal affairs ? is being undertaken at the expense and To this query the facts which I have at the risk of the Filipino people ; and presented above should furnish a con- it should not be overlooked that what vincing reply. The reason why no such for the United States is little more than future is possible for the Philippines is a matter of interesting observation is that universal experience has shown that for the Philippine Islands an affair of the inhabitants of a tropical country, the most vital importance. where the native character has not been In conclusion, I may say that I should radically affected by the admixture of be very well pleased if I could be as European blood, are not capable and certain, after fifteen years of study in cannot be

nade capable of maintaining the tropics, that my views on colonial a political system which can so admin- government are right as a great many people who have never been in the of The Outlook the best results of my tropics are certain that they are wrong. observations; and I am not conscious

I have endeavored, in the course of of having written from preconceived the series of articles which is now brought prejudice or with the smallest personal to a conclusion, to present to the readers bias.

Library of History


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A Wo important historical works, volume the judgments of such authorities widely contrasted in their mode for Greece as Curtius, Grote, and Ma

of presenting the story of human haffy, or of Niebuhr, Merivale, and life, have recently appeared—the “Cam Mommsen for Rome. In still another bridge Modern History,” and the “His- way than this the “ Historians History' torians' History of the World.” The draws from the modern specialist as former is the latest development of the well as from the early writer. Its conmodern type.

The readers of The tinuous documentary web of more than Outlook are acquainted with its peculiar- two thousand writers, ancient and modity of portioning the various chapters— ern, is fringed by chapters in which the of United States History, for instance, large and general aspects of this or that among a dozen or more specialists, sev- period are critically reviewed by eminent erally limited to a small part of the field. Scholars. The “Principles of Law in The latter, on the other hand, is a mod- Islam,” the “Intellectual Development ern improvement of the ancient mode of of Russia,” a “ Characterization of the writing history seen in the Old Testa- Tudor and Stuart Periods,” the “ Politiment. The documentary theory worked cal Evolution of France since 1815," out by the higher criticism in its exhibi- the “ Essentials of American Diplotion of the separate writings woven to macy,” are specimens of this important gether into a single book, such as Gen- series of special articles. Akin to these esis, has made this type of historical in importance are the great public docucomposition widely known.

However ments that mark turning-points in nauncritically the final editor, or editors, tional history, or stadia in human progwove together those strands of earlier ress; for instance, the more important narrative regardless of discrepancies, the international treaties, as that of Vienna vigor and freshness that constitute their in 1815, which closed the Napoleonic perennial charm were preserved as they wars, the recently discovered code of could not otherwise have been.

Hammurabi, B.c. 2300, the Capitulary of This ancient plan, corrected by the Charlemagne, A.D. 802, The Truce of critical editing that the modern spirit God, 1085, Magna Charta, the English requires, not only bringing together the Bill of Rights, the Constitution of the best material extant, but presenting it German Empire, the Constitution of in the very form given by its writers, has Japan. It is worth much to have such evident attractiveness. There is a flavor papers at hand in a single work. in the story of Greece as told by He- The recent completion of this encyrodotus and Thucydides, or of Rome in clopædic History by the appearance of the words of Livy and Tacitus, that is its twenty-fourth volume requires a no lost in the modern digests of these mas- tice of it supplementary to that in The ters. Then, if one would follow the Outlook June 25, 1904, upon its small ancient historian with the critical inter- first installment. Amid twenty fresh volpretation that the modern has reached, umes one naturally examines the nearest. it is much to have at hand in the same Nearly six volumes are occupied with can readers. The earliest data appear authorities, of presenting the divergent in the words of the pioneers themselves, views to the reader's judgment, is illusand in their own curious spelling. The trated by the juxtaposition of the differbeginnings of the Virginia colony are ent estimates of the Constitution made related by Captain John Smith in his by Professors Hart and von Holst. account of the landing at Jamestown, Relating to the war of 1812–15 several and by President Wingfield in the nar- extracts are drawn from the writings of rative of his colony's early privations. Mr. Roosevelt, and Professor Hart deThe beginnings of the Plymouth Colony scribes the formidable secession moveare related in extracts from Governor ment in New England, fortunately nipped Bradford's “ Plimoth Plantation,” the by the return of peace. And so the hisprecious MS. recently restored to the tory runs on through the succeeding State of Massachusetts by the Bishop of decades to the close of the Civil War, London. Then the great historians en- embodying many reprints from copyter with Bancroft in Catholic Maryland righted works on points of special imporand Puritan Massachusetts. Few Amer- tance, such as the Constitution of the ican families possess the complete works Confederacy, or the battle of Gettysburg, of our four or five greatest national his- and concluding with an original chapter torians. Not many indulge themselves on the period from 1865 to the election in more than a single volume of their of last November. country's story. It is a distinct satis- Aside from such minor slips as may faction to find so many of the choice naturally occur amid a host of details, pages of Bancroft and Parkman, McMas- two serious points of criticism require ter and Fiske, Schouler, and others of mention. The war with Mexico was conequal note, brought together in one book. demned at the time by many good citiHere are Parkman's brilliant narratives zens. Eight States of the twenty-five of the defeat of Braddock near where then in the Union had protested against Pittsburg now stands, and of the destruc- the annexation of Texas as certain to tion of the French power on this conti- provoke it. Enlightened public sentinent by Wolfe at Quebec. Here are ment now regards it as a blot on our Bancroft's famous story of the embattled National record. Not only is the confarmers of Lexington, and Creasy's ac- temporary opposition to it glossed over, count of the overthrow of Burgoyne at but a somewhat apologetic tone is Saratoga as one of "the fifteen decisive adopted. As to the slavery question, battles of the world.” The record of the and its part in bringing on the Civil Revolution is condensed into about fifty War, there should have been some hint pages, yet makes room for Charles Fran- of the turnabout made from the time cis Adams's sharp critique, and a rebut when anti-slavery societies flourished tal of it, on the generalship of Washing- and manumissions were frequent in the ton, and is supplemented by a states- slaveholding States to the time when, manlike view of the struggle in a paper a generation later, slavery became, as

the history of English-speaking peoples, * The Historians History of the World. A Comprehensive Narrative of the Rise and Development of and nearly the whole of one volume with Nations as Recorded by over Two Thousand of the the history of the United States. Here Great Writers of All Ages. Edited, with the Assistance of a Distinguished Board of Advisers and Con- the general description above given betributors, by Henry Smith Williams, LL.D. In 25 vols. The Outlook Co., 225 Fourth Avenue, New York. comes especially appreciable by Ameri

“Some Important Aspects of the Alexander Stephens confessed, the corAmerican Revolution" by Professor ner-stone of the Confederacy. Some McLaughlin, of the Carnegie Institution. account of this regressive movement is In the list of authorities quoted on the required for an understanding of the Revolutionary War one misses the brill- strange plunge made in 1861. In lack iant and impartial work of Sir George of this, the reader may suppose that Trevelyan.

Southern sentiment toward slavery had The subsequent domestic struggle for undergone no change, and that the slaveNational unity, and the struggle with holding interest remained the same under England for the freedom on the ocean Jefferson Davis as under Thomas Jefferthat had been won on the continent, are son. All that appears of this is the appropriately grouped in a chapter on statement that the seceding States were “ The Establishment of the Union.” marked by an arrested development.” Here the rule, followed throughout the

, wed throughout the But this was the direct product of the work, in cases of a disagreement of change of heart regarding slavery, which


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