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in Domini, the central figure in “The Among the novels from American Garden of Allah” (Stokes). Mr. Hichens hands best worthy of attention must be has taken a great stride forward in this placed Mrs. L. H. Hammond's “ The unusual story—unusual first in its back- Master-Word” (Macmillan), a study of ground, for never before, in English at the relation of the races in the South, at least, have the scenery, the atmosphere, once frank and idealistic. A woman and the loneliness of the desert been discovers that her husband is the father brought before the eye and the imagina- of a mulatto child, and at his death, tion with such splendid skill, so that the after a terrible struggle with herself, story takes on a kind of epical quality takes the child into her keeping and from the breadth and splendor of the educatęs her; not along the lines on background against which it moves; which she educates her own daughter, unusual in the second place because the but in order to give her the best chance plot, although in a way a very simple of free development. The tragedy of the one, is not only baffling but is practically victim of the mixed race is uncompronovel; unusual in the third place be- misingly faced and solved-first, by a cause rarely has a woman of such ele- clear recognition of the facts in the case, mentary force of character been depicted without any evasion from philanthropic with such freedom, such delicacy, and motives or sentimental feeling, and then such purity. The book is a study of by the application of the Master-Word, really noble human passion which has the motive of supreme love. The story its roots in love, as such passion always is unusual in its nobility of spirit and its must have, and which passes through a sanity. great experience into spiritual affection. Mrs. Shafer's “Beyond Chance of

Mr. Phillpotts's “The Secret Woman" Change ” (Macmillan) presents no prob(Macmillan) is also a study of passion, lems and involves no tragedy, but is a but of a far different order. It is a delightful transcription of life in a little story of terrible frankness, dealing with community in the Central West before out evasion with the elemental forces of the fever and rush of recent years set the human tragedy, but without morbid in; full of the peace of landscapes the interest or curiosity, and binding the charm of which most Americans do not penalty to the sin. Like all Mr. Phill- yet understand; of the quiet and leisure potts's stories, it sketches with beautiful of the older time; of the native humor, feeling and skill the background of Dev- kindliness, and courtesy of the older onshire. In this, as in all other stories Americans, with glimpses of childhood from the same hand, the scenery of that which are immensely refreshing and conenchanting country is constantly before soling. the eye, and the whole story is a tran- Those who have assumed that Ameriscription of the life of a little section of can humor, while not exhausted, has Devonshire. The reader passes into the developed every possible variety of form, next county and finds himself looking have yet to make the acquaintance of at the sea from the hillsides of Corn- “ The Fugitive Blacksmith” (The Cenwall in Mr. Quiller-Couch's “The Shin- tury Company), a kind of modern Araing Ferry” (Scribners), a novel which bian Nights, the story of an original does not lack its element of tragedy character in the old Southwest, told in a born of the old attraction of the man succession of chapters recited in a sandand the woman, in which the highest house in Memphis to a delightful Irishpoetry and the deepest tragedy have had man, in the company of a group of tramps, their roots since time began; but it the whole suffused with humor and not abounds in quaint humor; it has the lacking in pathos, and wholly original. smell of the sea; it contains charming The list might be somewhat extended, descriptions of children; and that qual- but these stories may be taken as examity of the old Duchy which Mr. Quiller- ples of the admirable work now being Couch loves so well and understands so done in fiction by hand, in contradisthoroughly penetrates the story from tinction from the work done by machinbeginning to end.


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Morality, Half and Whole professor in a New England college, laid

it down, some twenty-five years ago, as On the platform of the National Con- the accepted doctrine that “the ground gregational Council in 1904 a speaker on which men trade is self-interest,” and of high repute as a statistician affirmed, went on to say that “no other motive “Our National vice is stealing"-refer- is appropriate.” This theory is still ring to the well-known facts of political too influential in the commercial, induscorruption, frenzied finance, and extor- trial, and political world. What Martionate monopoly. Side by side with ley's ghost in Dickens's Christmas tale such an utterance stand the facts "that discovered in the unseen world, and nearly one-third of the population is in came back to tell his skinflint partner, church membership, over one-half of it Scrooge, “ Mankind was my business, adherents of churches, and that for forty the common welfare was my business," years the National coinage has been is plain to any one who sees the fact stamped with the religious profession, that all legitimate business is simply the In God We Trust. The glaring anomaly supply of services for the satisfaction of cries aloud for explanation, and for end- other men's needs. There are highing. The situation reminds one of minded men, a small but growing numJuvenal's account of conditions in the ber, who adopt this view, and conduct time of the Cæsars :

their business in the spirit of the Golden

Rule as a ministry of social benefits. “Virtue is complimented and chilled."

But the anti-social view of business as Morality, indeed, is in as high general the pursuit merely of private interests repute as ever, but too commonly it is a still dominates the general mind. Were partial morality seen in those who a young man at the entrance of a busi

ness career to confide to any captain of Compound for sins they are inclined to By damning those they have no mind to."

industry that his choice of an occupation

had been motived by a view to the This semi-morality, consisting in correct largest benefit that his services could private habits, and in keeping on the bring to the community—the motive safe side of the civil and criminal law, universally required of one who proposes coupled with the unreal and merely con- to become a teacher of morality and ventional morality that cares little for religion_his steel would be thought too moral ideals and moral progress, creates soft for its work. He would be reminded the present need of a moral revival for that that is philanthropy, but men go into social salvation.

business for what they can get out of it. Practical morality may be defined as So it has come to pass, since competition the art of living together in a communal was found to result in the rival mowers life. Morality is essentially social, a mowing off one another's legs, that comunifying influence, but not such is the bination has been substituted, so that half morality described in Clough's sar- producers can now “hold

“ hold up" consumcastic version of the Sixth, Eighth, and ers—for instance, telephone-users and Tenth Commandments, as observed in beef-eaters—fixing price by power to put trade:

on what the market will bear. Intake of “Thou shalt not kill, but needst not strive individual gain, not output of social Officiously to keep alive.

benefit, is the grand and general desiderThou shalt not steal: an empty feat,

atum, and moral demands are deemed When it's so lucrative to cheat.

satisfied if the intake is not of a generally Thou shalt not covet; but tradition Approves all forms of competition.”

stigmatized kind, as that of the wolf or “ Business is business,” to be sure,

python. Workmen care for quantity of but what is the current conception of wages more than quality of work; corpo

ration managers for enlarged dividends business? A widely used text-book on

more than improved public service ; political economy by a Christian man, small office-holders for salary more than “Introduction to Political Economy," by A. L.

public interests. Social benefit is indeed Perry, page 44, edition of 1877.

inseparable from individual activity, but


66 The

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it figures, so far as thought about, only cheapened by forcing children into the among incidentals. Only a minority, premature labor that stunts body and among whom are medical men, army and mind. The charity that mitigates social navy men, clergymen, and professed phi- wrongs is weakly substituted for the lanthropists, exemplify the social spirit justice that should prevent them. of thorough morality as distinct from its heresy of Cain ” involves the churchman half-way substitute.

together with the infidel. “I am hoping Here is the very tap-root of social dis- for war with Spain,” said a New York cord, decay, and danger, the semi-morality churchman; “ it will be a good thing for of the self-regarding virtues, incapable, my Southern railway interests.” “I apart from the other-regarding virtues, of don't mean to attend the Christian Enmeeting the demand either of democracy deavor meetings any more," said a young or of religion. Its essential virulence New York churchwoman; “ East Side breaks out in the exorbitant practices girls come there, and I can't recognize that have drawn from eminent ethical them on the street." thinkers the declaration that the most Thus short and scant în normal hudangerous class is not composed of manity is the half-morality of self-intervulgar criminals, but of socially respect- ested virtue accounted respectable in able, unscrupulous exploiters.

society, and permitted to suffice for good Contributory to this paralysis of the standing even in churches. To religionsocial conscience is the current political ists of this character an ancient parallel fallacy that misplaces the social basis on is on record in the Old Testament—the the rights of man. However justifiable heathen colonists in the Holy Land, who in a transient emergency the Declara- “ feared Jehovah and served other gods.” tion of rights with which our National Back to Christ” has become the existence began, the kingdom of heaven, watchword of the social theology that the only stable social order, begins with seeks to get below divisive dogmas to a declaration not of rights but of duties. unifying faith. “ Back to Christ” must We are born, not into rights, but into be the watchword of the social morality duties, on whose fulfillment all rights are that is complete enough to undertake morally conditioned-duty to nourish what Horace Bushnell declared to be the social life that nourishes our life, “the great problem—to Christianize the to subordinate private to public interest, money-power of the world.” The world's to seek first of all the common good in mistake has not been in desiring free which our own is involved. Whatever competition, but in choosing the compelegal rights may be claimed by repudi- tition that divides men instead of that ators of this congenital duty are termina- which unites; competition in getting ble by the power that created them; instead of the competition in giving they are not moral rights at all. As which Christ inculcates; competition for Dr. Gladden has said, and as Wickliffe goods to be unequally apportioned beheld, there is no moral right to anything tween the weak and the strong, instead that its possessor uses immorally. Ac- of competition for the good will and ceptance of the non-ethical doctrine that grateful esteem to be poor in which is makes duty a corollary to primary rights, shame and sin. Neither has democinstead of making rights a corollary to racy erred in protesting to princes, “We primary duty, has debased morality and are as good as you ;' but it errs in omitdefiled religion. This, together with the ting to confess to its lowly servitors, ethical fallacy that the self-regarding vir- “ You are as good as we.” And Christ tues per se constitute morality, neutral- corrects its neglect by his saying that he izes the spirit of Christianity, just as who would be the greatest must be the cold iron imprisons fiery oxygen in the servant of all. rust resulting from their combination. It is but a partial preaching of salvaAnd so the Christian conscience is be- tion through Christ that fails to emphanumbed. Revenue for church and uni- size the saving principles which he emversity is drawn from human rookeries bodied in these precepts, incarnated in prolific in disease and vice, Wares are his example, and glorified by his faithfulness to them, even to the Cross. How plicity to the modern complexity of life; ineffective is such preaching the attitude from the old concentration of thought of the masses plainly shows. The work and interest to the modern dispersion of of the New Evangelism is to preach the thought and interest. To the earliest seekwhole Gospel, to utter the ancient call, ers after God that pursuit was not only “Come to Jesus," as a call to his enthu- supreme in interest and observation, but siasm for humanity, to his discipleship there was very little to withdraw attenin service at the divine altar of human tion from it, to break in upon the concenneeds. Only thus will the needed re-tration of the spirit. Occupations and vival of religion that many long for put interests were few ; life ran deeply, but it an end to the reproach of the modern ran through narrow channels. To-day, Church, that it tolerates a type of Chris- for the best men and women, there is an tianity which, being but incompletely immense range of interests, a vast dismoral, is partly anti-Christian,


persion of energy, a wide area of sympathies. The religious life can no longer

be expressed in meditation alone. A A Lenten Meditation

thousand works of necessity and mercy

break in upon the calm of the Sabbath The background of the Lenten season day, a thousand calls for help assail the is a desert or wilderness, with two fig- ears and reach the heart of those who ures only to fill the wide and lonely are most eager to live in the presence of space—the figure of Christ, and the the Infinite ; while to those whose affecfigure of Satan, the incarnation or per- tions have never been fixed on these sonification of evil. Great experiences, things all life throbs with vitality exsuch as that through which Christ pressed in other activities, concentrated

C passed on the way to a clear under- in other interests. Whether men will or standing of his own personality and not, the world of to-day is crowded with his mission, come to men only in soli- significant and important works, and tude. No man comes face to face with even the best are distracted by the numGod or with himself in a tumult. There ber of objects which claim their interest. must always be in all these great expe- It is not so easy to live in the constant riences a certain detachment, a solitude thought of the presence of the Infinite of the spirit if not of the body; for to-day as it was a thousand or even three such experiences involve concentration, hundred years ago. This does not mean the absence of the tide of externalities that the world has gone backward, that which sweeps a man out of himself; a religion is less potent, or that men are dying down of the immense tumult of the less holy; it does mean that there is a world which distracts the mind; the fading new temptation to forgetfulness, that to out of sight of the vast variety of interests all men and women come inevitable disand objects which disperse attention. It tractions, and that it requires a more is significant that the great religions which definite habit of mind and a stronger have inspired and comforted men have will to carry the consciousness of God been born in solitude and are associated about in the streets of great cities, in the with lonely places; Christianity, Buddh- tumult of modern life, than it did in the ism, and Mohammedanism are of the cities in which Christianity was first desert. The temptation of Christ, the preached and the lonely and solitary crucial experience of Buddha through places in which many of its miracles which he passed to the discovery of the

were wrought at the beginning. The ultimate truth, the realization of his very landscape which is the background mission by Mohammed, are associated of the Lenten season suggests the soliwith solitude and silence.

tude and isolation in which alone the There has come perhaps no greater highest knowledge comes, and suggests change in the religious life of the Christian also the great perils in the life of the world than the transition from the old sim- Christian of to-day.

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A snapshot of General Nogi taken during the great festival of victory after the sur-
render of Port Arthur. He was watching a rocket in the air when the picture was taken

Froin stereograph, copyright, 1905, by Underwood & Underwood, New York



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