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Here, then, is a people, existing with the same type in every variety of climate, and for ages. We could not desire a better experiment to ascertain the effect of climate. Even supposing that other nations might not so powerfully resist its influence, we must admit that such is the tendency of nature, and that, if no other cause were in operation, races of men would preserve the characteristic features of their ancestors, during a long course of ages, in every climate.

Next, as to THE MIXTURE OF RACES. This cause, to which all modern nations have been more or less subjected, seems likely to effect more important changes. If the mixture of races were unlimited, perhaps it might confound all; but it has evident limits. The differences of caste and rank, originating often in difference of race, oppose to it a barrier which is now and then overleaped, notwithstanding the force of laws and prejudices, but which long restrains the mass. Let us, however, suppose all artificial restrictions removed, and observe the result.

First, we must consider the relative number of the two races. Supposing a very great disproportion, the type of the smaller number will finally disappear. If a Negro and a white produce a mulatto, this mulatto with a white produces an individual nearer to the white; and after five and sometimes even four crossings with white blood, the black taint can no longer be perceived. The same is observed in domesticated animals. This conclusion, at first, appears unfavourable to the search after ancient races among modern nations; and it would be so in the case of such races as had formed but a minute fraction of the mass; but where the mass has been great and preponderating, this principle shews, on the contrary, that the type of the race must still exist. If, then, where no restrictions as to mixture of races exist, the least numerous, if the disproportion be great, finally disappears, still less will the type of the more numerous be altered, if, as in most cases occurs, such restrictions do exist.

Let us now take the other extreme case, namely, where the two races are equal in number. What is required, that both should disappear, and form only one intermediate type?

Each individual of the one race must unite with an individual of the other, or at least each race must have nearly an equal share in the amalgamation of physical characters. Such are the conditions absolutely necessary; and if their occurrence be not impossible, it is, at least, in the highest degree improbable.

When animals of different species are crossed, they produce an animal of an intermediate type, or a mule; but when different varieties of the same species are mixed, the result is often quite different. M. Coladon of Geneva made a very striking experiment, which bears strongly on this point. He procured a great number of white mice, as well as of common brown mice, :

studied their habits, and found means to cause them to breed. In his experiments he always put together mice of different colours, expecting a mixed race; but this did not occur in one instance. All the young mice were either white or brown, but each type was produced always in a state of purity.

Even in the case of varieties of the same species, we have an intermediate type or mule, but this is when the varieties differ most from each other: when, as in the case of the mice, they approach very nearly, mules are not produced. In both cases we see one common principle, namely, that the mother often produces a being of a type different from her own,-less so, however, in the latter case. The same principle is seen even in the same variety; for here also the mother, in producing a male, gives birth to a being whose type differs, and in some cases differs very much, from her own.

Now, the same is observed in man. The varieties which differ most strongly, such as the Negro and white, when crossed,. produce mules; and when varieties more nearly resembling each other are crossed, the descendants sometimes resemble one parent, sometimes the other, sometimes both. This is the cause of the great variety observable in modern nations; among which, however, we can always observe specimens of the pure types which have entered into their composition. Thus, even if two races having considerable resemblance to each other, and in equal numbers, were to mix without limitation, the original types would still frequently occur in their descendants.

Another cause which prevents the disappearance of the original. types, where there has been no great disproportion of numbers, is the geographical distribution of the races. They cannot be so thoroughly mixed that the one or the other shall not predominate in some district, where, of course, the type of the race so predominating must exist.

A type may occasionally disappear by extermination. Thus the Guanches, savages who inhabited the Canary Isles, have disappeared; but their number was small, and they were confined to small islands. The Caribs, likewise, for the same reason, have almost disappeared from the Caribbee Islands, although they are said still to exist on the continent. But it is impossible to extirpate a numerous nation, more especially when they have attained a certain degree of civilization. In that case, it becomes the interest of the conquerors to preserve the conquered people as slaves, and not to destroy them; and we have no example in history of a whole people sacrificing themselves rather than submit to such slavery. On the other hand, we must suppose an incredible rage and cruelty on the part of the conquerors, if a whole people is to be exterminated. When it was proposed to Genghis Khan, by some of his counsellors, to extirpate the Chi

nese whom he had conquered in the north of China, as being useless to the conquerors, one of his ministers, Yeliu-thou-tsai, made the emperor observe, that in advancing towards the south, his armies would be in want of many things which it would be easy to procure by imposing on the conquered people contributions, not oppressive, of money and provisions.-How then could it be said that such a people was useless to the state? This reasoning prevailed, although the cruelty of the Mongols was atrocious; and such reasons will always oppose the extermination of populous nations, possessed of some civilization.

A nation, that is, a numerous people, may be dispossessed of a large territory. This, however, has rarely happened, and only in the case of savages. It has occurred in America, but not in Hindostan. Where industry exists, the chiefs cannot induce a nation to emigrate in a body; and if conquered by a new tribe, the latter expels a portion to obtain room, if nomadic, but preserves the rest, as slaves, as auxiliaries, or as tributaries. These conclusions are confirmed by history; and M. Abel Remusat has even been able, by comparing language with history, to discover nearly all the nomadic tribes of Asia in their primitive seats, notwithstanding the numerous revolutions and conquests which have occurred in that quarter of the globe.

As to the influence of CIVILIZATION on physical characters, we know nothing, either one way or the other; but its effect cannot be great, as it is commonly confined to the higher classes, except to a very small extent; and besides, wherever distinct types are seen, they will be found to pervade all classes of society.

Having now considered the chief causes,-climate, mixture of races, and civilization,-that might affect the physical characters of a race, and found that these causes are not capable, in ordinary cases, of annihilating the original type, we are prepared to find among modern nations the types of those tribes which have formerly occupied the soil.

We have seen that, if the accession of new tribes increases the number of types, it does not destroy them. The number increases by those which the new people brings, and by those which it creates by mixture; but the old ones remain, and exist along with the new, except where a particular tribe has been small in number, in which case the type of such a tribe may have disappeared; but it may have also been preserved, for obvious


Of course we will naturally expect to find the descendants of the most numerous nations.

In reading the historical accounts of the destruction of the Roman empire by barbarous tribes, we are apt to imagine that their numbers were immense, and that there was scarcely room

for them; but, on examining more closely, we find that this impression is erroneous. The Goths, who conquered the Heruli, a race which preceded them in Italy, had only 50,000 men to oppose to Belisarius. They were finally reduced to 7000, who capitulated and were sent to Constantinople. The Lombards, who possessed nearly half of Italy, and gave their name to a part of it, remained there; but, according to Botha, they did not exceed 100,000 armed men. The Normans, who conquered Naples and almost the whole of the south of Italy, were but a handful of men; and the Franks under Clovis, who possessed themselves of Gaul and gave their name to that country, were far from numerous.

Still later, William the Norman conquered England with 60,000 men. These were memorable conquests, which totally changed the face of affairs in these countries, but which cannot have produced any considerable changes in the types of the conquered races; and such is the history of most conquests, in which a nation does not fall upon a nation, but a small portion of one people subjugates the entire country of another.

In some cases, indeed, where a country has been exposed to successive invasions from the same race, the latter has established itself in such numbers as to continue to perpetuate itself in its new abode. It was thus the Saxons obtained possession of England, and retained, from their numbers, their own characters, without, however, exterminating the previous inhabitants.

We have consulted natural and civil history, and both agree in the conclusion that the direct descendants of almost all the great nations of antiquity must still exist. Now, as we have seen that physical characters are transmitted without much change, we may expect to find the types of these nations at the present day.

The proper plan is obvious. We must observe whether, in those nations which we study, there be one or more distinct types, and we must then trace these types to their origin.

The characters which most strongly distinguish a type, are certainly those drawn from the proportions of the head and of the features, since these are the characters by which we recognise the individual. Thus the representation of a man by means of a bust, will always give a much clearer idea of his individual character than any description which it is possible to give. The description would apply to the race, but would never serve to distinguish the individual. The modifications relative to complexion, stature, and colour of hair, are considered important but secondary, because they are more apt to be changed by external circumstances.

Having formed an idea of the type, it must, if correct, occur in a large number of individuals. If not, we can have no con

fidence in it. It will be seen immediately how well these conditions have been fulfilled, in the observations of Dr Edwards, which form the second part of his work. To the consideration of this we now proceed.

In travelling through France, Italy, and a part of Switzerland, Dr E. had scarcely reached the frontiers of Burgundy, when he began to observe a union of features which constituted a particular type. This became more marked and frequent as he penetrated into the country, especially from Auxerre to Châlons. He arrived in this latter town on a market day, and immediately repaired to the market to study the faces of the peasantry from the surrounding country. He was astonished to find a great many of them totally different from those he had first observed, and forming a strong contrast to them. During the rest of his journey in Burgundy, the first type occurred frequently, and continued in the Lyonnais, in Dauphiné, and in Savoy, as far as Mont Cenis. There were in this large district many shades of colour; but, with the exception of the group at Châlons, only one well marked type of head and face. Both types shall be afterwards described.

In Florence, Dr E. took the opportunity afforded by the Ducal Gallery to study the Roman type in the busts of the emperors; among which, especially those of the earlier emperors, he found a type so well marked, that it is difficult to forget or to mistake it. In this type, the vertical diameter is short, and consequently the face broad. As the coronal region is flat, and the lower edge of the jaw nearly horizontal, the head seen from before has a square aspect. This form is so essential, that if the head be lengthened, preserving the other features, it ceases to be characteristic, even supposing it to be the exact portrait of an ancient Roman. The lateral parts of the head above the ears are arched, the forehead low, the nose truly aquiline, that is, the curve commences near the root and stops before reaching the point, so that the base of the nose is horizontal. The front of the chin is rounded. This type is well seen in Augustus, Pompey, Tiberius, Germanicus, Claudius, Nero, Titus, &c.

As Dr E. travelled towards Rome, expecting to find the Roman type in that city, the resemblance to it must have been very striking to attract his attention among the peasantry of Monte Gualandro, where he entered the Papal territory; and he saw the same character in a great many individuals on the road at Perugia, Spoleto, &c., till he arrived in Rome, where it exists in all classes of society. His companions observed it as well as himself. Dr E. does not say how far this type extends to the southward; it is not seen at Naples, but to the north of Rome it is found not only towards Perugia, but in the direction of Sienna, and even beyond Viterbo. This type is characteristic of

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