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for them ; but, on examining more closely, we find that this impression is erroneous. The Goths, who conquered the Heruli, a race which preceded them in Italy, had only 50,000 men to oppose to Belisarius. They were finally reduced to 7000, who capitulated and were sent to Constantinople. The Lombards, who possessed nearly half of Italy, and gave their name to a part of it, remained there ; but, according to Botha, they did not exceed 100,000 armed men. The Normans, who conquered Naples and almost the whole of the south of Italy, were but a handful of men ; and the Franks under Clovis, who possessed themselves of Gaul and gave their name to that country, were far from numerous.

Still later, William the Norman conquered England with 60,000 men. These were memorable conquests, which totally changed the face of affairs in these countries, but which cannot have produced any considerable changes in the types of the conquered races; and such is the bistory of most conquests, in which a nation does not fall upon a nation, but a small portion of one people subjugates the entire country of another.

In some cases, indeed, where a country has been exposed to successive invasions from the same race, the latter has established itself in such numbers as to continue to perpetuate itself in its new abode. It was thus the Saxons obtained possession of England, and retained, from their numbers, their own characters, without, however, exterminating the previous inhabitants.

We have consulted natural and civil history, and both agree in the conclusion that the direct descendants of almost all the great nations of antiquity must still exist. Now, as we have seen that physical characters are transmitted without much change, we may expect to find the types of these nations at the present day.

The proper plan is obvious. We must observe whether, in those nations which we study, there be one or more distinct types, and we must then trace these types to their origin.

The characters which most strongly distinguish a type, are certainly those drawn from the proportions of the head and of the features, since these are the characters by which we recognise the individual. Thus the representation of a man by means of a bust, will always give a much clearer idea of his individual character than any description which it is possible to give. The description would apply to the race, but would never serve to distinguish the individual. The modifications relative to complexion, stature, and colour of hair, are considered important but secondary, because they are more apt to be changed by external circumstances.

Having formed an idea of the type, it must, if correct, occur in a large number of individuals. If not, we can have no confidence in it. It will be seen immediately how well these conditions have been fulfilled, in the observations of Dr Edwards, which form the second part of his work. To the consideration of this we now proceed.

In travelling through France, Italy, and a part of Switzerland, Dr E. had scarcely reached the frontiers of Burgundy, when he began to observe a union of features which constituted

a a particular type. This became more marked and frequent as he penetrated into the country, especially from Auxerre to Châlons. He arrived in this latter town on a market day, and immediately repaired to the market to study the faces of the peasantry from the surrounding country. He was astonished to find a great many of them totally different from those he had first observed, and forming a strong contrast to them. During the rest of his journey in Burgundy, the first type occurred frequently, and continued in the Lyonnais, in Dauphiné, and in Savoy, as far as Mont Cenis. There were in this large district many shades of colour; but, with the exception of the group at Châlons, only one well marked type of head and face. Both types shall be afterwards described.

In Florence, Dr E. took the opportunity afforded by the Ducal Gallery to study the Roman type in the busts of the emperors; among which, especially those of the earlier emperors, he found a type so well marked, that it is difficult to forget or to mistake it. In this type, the vertical diameter is short, and consequently the face broad. As the coronal region is flat, and the lower edge of the jaw nearly horizontal, the head seen from before has a square aspect. This form is so essential, that if the head be lengthened, preserving the other features, it ceases to be characteristic, even supposing it to be the exact portrait of an ancient Roman. The lateral parts of the head above the ears are arched, the forehead low, the nose truly aquiline, that is, the curve commences near the root and stops before reaching the point, so that the base of the nose is horizontal. The front of the chin is rounded. This type is well seen in Augustus, Pompey, Tiberius, Germanicus, Claudius, Nero, Titus, &c.

As Dr E. travelled towards Rome, expecting to find the Roman type in that city, the resemblance to it must have been very striking to attract his attention among the peasantry of Monte Gualandro, where he entered the Papal territory ; and he saw the same character in a great many individuals on the road at Perugia, Spoleto, &c., till he arrived in Rome, where it exists in all classes of society. His companiotis observed it as well as himself. Dr E. does not say how far this type extends to the southward; it is not seen at Naples, but to the north of Rome it is found not only towards Perugia, but in the direction of Sienna, and even beyond Viterbo. This type is characteristic of these districts; and it is remarkable that it is seen in the soldiers and others on ancient bas-reliefs, as well as in the emperors; and as Rome was founded by a small band, it was probably even then the type of the surrounding country. According to Niebuhr, the Sabines and other enemies of the Romans were of the same race as their conquerors. This race appears to have extended formerly, as now, into Tuscany.

But another type was found along with it in this latter country by Dr E.; and one which had long attracted his attention. All the busts and pictures of Dante agree in giving that poet a very marked physiognomy. He had a long had, not broad; the forehead was high and well developed, the nose curved so that the point of it drooped, the wings of the nose raised, and the chin prominent.

Dr E. saw at Radicofani people who possessed this type, and one of whom was the image of Dante. He had also ob served it in the busts of many of the Medici, and other distinguished men of the Republic of Florence; and even traced it in some Etruscan bas-reliefs. He continued to observe it at Bologna, Ferrara, Padua, and the intermediate towns. It was very frequent at Venice. When examining at this last place the picture of a saint painted by one of the Venetian school, the cicerone desired him to observe how much it resembled Dante. In the Ducal Palace he observed that a great majority of the Doges, whose portraits he saw, had the same character.

In proceeding towards Milan, this type became still more frequent, and was sometimes absolutely caricatured. In one village where he stopped for an hour or two, he saw a number of peasants, and could scarcely take his eyes off them, so great was their similarity to those whom he had seen in the market place at Châlons. Being now in Cisalpine, as he had formerly been in Transalpine Gaul, he naturally concluded that this was a Gaulish type. In crossing the Alps, he met first with a German type, then with the Burgundian, and finally near to and in Geneva, with the type observed at Châlons and in Tuscany. Here, then, was a population composed of two races, each having its own type, and forming a complete contrast to each other.

The one observed in Burgundy, Dauphiny, Savoy, and the Valais, having the head more round than oval, and rounded features, with a middling stature. The other, observed in Tuscany, at Geneva, and at Châlons, having the head long, the forehead broad and high, the curved nose, the prominent chin, and a tall stature. With the Roman type we have nothing to do at present.

M. Thierry, to whom the work of Dr Edwards is addressed, has shewn in his History of the Gauls, that the greater part of Gaul was occupied by two great families, differing in language, habits and social state.

Dr Edwards discovers in the same part of Gaul two predu. minant types, so distinct that it is impossible to confound them. Had there been no foreign intrusion, we could not hesitate to ascribe these types to two Gaulish tribes. But we know that since the period alluded to, different nations have successively conquered the whole or parts of this territory. How, then, are we to distinguish ? On the principle established previously, that the smaller number never imposes its type on the larger. Now we know the extreme disproportion of the conquerors of Gaul to its inhabitants, who have consequently retained their own type.

Of these two families, which are named by M. Thierry Gauls and Kimris (Cimbri), the former should be the more numerous, as he has shewn that they were the ancient inhabitants, who occupied almost the whole of Gaul before the establishment of the Kimris. Hence Dr Edwards concludes that the type first observed by him in Burgundy, which was the most numerous, is that of the Gauls, and the other that of the Kimris; and their geographical distribution corresponds to this view.

The type of the Gauls is as follows:- The head is nearly spherical. The forehead of middling size, somewhat arched, and retreating towards the temples. The eyes are large and open. The nose is nearly straight, and rounded at the point The chin is likewise round; and the stature is middling. In a word, the head is more round than oval, the features rounded, and the stature middling. This type occurs in the east and south-east of France, where M. Thierry, from historical considerations, places the Gauls.

The Kimris, whose type has already been described in speaking of Dante, are placed by M. Thierry chiefly in the north of France, in the Belgium of Cæsar, and in Armorica. Now Dr Edwards in a former journey had observed this type to predominate in the most marked way in the country extending from the mouth of the Somme to that of the Seine, and we have seen that he recognised it at Châlons and in Tuscany. Although occurring in Burgundy, it cannot be the type of the Burgundian conquerors, because it appears in Picardy and Normandy, where the Burgundians never appeared; neither can it be that of the Scandinavian Normans, because it occurs at Macon and Châlons in Burgundy, which the Normans never approached. It must therefore belong to the previous inhabitants, the Cimbri or Kimris.

According to M. Thierry, England was chiefly occupied by the same people who possessed the north of Gaul, viz. the Kimris, and Dr Edwards has recognised the type of this people very abundantly in England. Those who exhibit it he considers as the descendants of the ancient Britons, whose supposed extermination he very properly doubts.

In that part of Switzerland where French is spoken, formerly called Helvetia, Dr Edwards finds both races. The Helveti, according to Thierry, were Gauls, but must have been either then or subsequently mixed with Kimris.

From the earliest period, the north of Italy, between the Alps and Apennines, was inhabited by Gaulish races. Thierry says, that both Gauls and Kimris formed the population of Cisalpine as well as of Transalpine Gaul. We have already seen, that the type of the latter is abundant in the north of Italy; and Dr Edwards also saw the type of the Gauls, though less distinctly and marked, in some parts of that country.

One very curious observation led him to suppose that this type might occur more frequently in those districts which he had not visited in the north of Italy. In a bookseller's shop at Milan, he saw an almanac containing a print, which represented

wo grotesque characters mocking each other. These figures were the most exact caricatures of the Gaul and Kimri types, even to the difference of stature, the Kimri being very tall, and the Gaul of middling size. The painter surely thought neither of natural history nor of antiquity, but he must have drawn from what was before hiin, and furnished a ludicrous contrast. The gigantic Gauls, described by the Roman historians, were obviously Kimris. Dr Edwards has observed, that a tall stature very often accompanies the Kimri type in France, England, Switzerland, Italy, in short, wherever he has seen it. This also accounts for the circumstance, that in France, where the Gaul type predominates, the people are not tall, so that the question is often asked, what has become of those gigantic Gauls, formerly so terrible? They are still to be found even in France wherever the Kimri type prevails, as in Normandy.*

Such are the conclusions of Dr Edwards with regard to these two races. He next examines some of the Sclavonic tribes, which are found in the east of Europe. Having had an opportunity of examining many Austrian troops, he separated the different nations from each other, and studied their physical characters. There were Silesians, Bohemians, Moravians, Poles, and Hungarians. In none of these, however, did he find a characteristic type peculiar to the individual nation. But he soon saw a type which occurred frequently in all of them, and

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See the second article of our 18th number, (vol. v. p. 194), for an account of the comparative degrees of intelligence manifested by the inhabitants of the different departments of France. See also, with respect to the Gauls and Kimris, Malte Brun's System of Geography, Edinburgh edition, vol. vi. p. 77.

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