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was remarkably small and helpless, and that he was three years old before he could be taught to walk. Up to this period he displayed no intellectual faculties, his actions being merely regulated by animal instinct. Afterwards he learned to recognise individuals and to say “mother," a term which he applied also to his father and every member of the family. As he grew up, his favourite habits were to walk into the garden and to amuse himself by digging or scraping holes, either with his hands or more especially with bits of wood. When about seven years old he became very passionate and learnt to swear, which, when enraged, he does freely. The next child to him was also an idiot ; she died about two years ago ; her head was larger, and she displayed more general power, and had the command of a greater number of words. This girl and he were constant companions, and were seldom separate from each other. They always rambled and slept together, and for a short time after her death he looked very solitary, and even now he is more attached to a girl of the same name where he resides than to any other member of the family.

His habits now are to arise from bed when called, having taken no more rest than the others; and as he is incapable of dressing himself, his godmother performs this office for him. He remains at home till breakfast, with which, as well as every other meal, he never appears to be satisfied or to have taken sufficient. After this he rambles with company sometimes miles from home, though generally returning with those who induced him away. During his rambles he is, of course, subjected to the perpetual annoyances of mischievous children, and often of those whose years should render them more humane ; yet he immediately forgets all and is soon happy: He frequently accompanies horses and carts, and can drive with the whip pretty well. His partiality for horses is very striking, and was manifested early in life. A few weeks ago a gentleman was riding on a small pony in the neighbourhood, and as this, from some cause or other, displeased him, he seized hold of the pony's tail and pulled with all his strength ; this with the gentleman's weight were sufficient to stop the pony, at which the gentleman was so enraged that he jumped from the saddle and laid the whip so freely upon the poor boy's shoulders, that his cries were heard at a great distance, and the castigator narrowly escaped being mobbed by the whole neighbourhood. He spends a great portion of his time at a retail beer shop in the neighbourhood; and as he is exceeding. ly fond of drink, and almost all who frequent the place know him and invite him to taste with them, he gets intoxicated sometimes for days together. It requires more than an ordinary quantity of beer to intoxicate him; and when he is taken home in this condition, he appears satisfied all is not right, and that he has merited the scolding which invariably follows from his godmother. When the storm has subsided, and he reads in her countenance returning peace, he usually sets up a loud laugh, and under the excitement of the liquor remains very merry during the remainder of the evening. He is very fond of sweetmeats, and on one occasion when Mr Wilson presented him with some wrapped in a paper, he devoured the paper and contents indiscriminately. Some peas also he eat without shelling them.

The general volume of his head is very small. This will appear from the following note of the dimensions of the cast, (in inches), which we contrast with those of the head of Rammohun Roy.

Rammohun Roy. From Individuality to Philoprogenitiveness, 61

8] Ear to Individuality,

..... Philoprogenitiveness.............. .........Firmness,

64 Destructiveness to Destructiveness,.....

6 Cautivusness to Cautiousness,..

31

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The feebleness of his mind is commensurate with the smallness of his head, So little force of character, indeed, does he possess, that he willingly submits to be governed by a little girl, and to endure the torture of boys to whom he is vastly superior in muscular power. “ Now, what explanation,” asks Mr Wilson," besides the phrenological one, can be given of his imbecility? If the mind can act independently of material organization, why does he not display the powers of human nature equally with those around him? Or, if education do every thing, where is the patron of education who will undertake to bring his mind to the perfection of that of a child a quarter of his age ?"

The organs of the propensities are, on the whole, not largely developed in proportion to the other parts of the brain. Amativeness, Philoprogenitiveness, and Combativeness, are, however, of considerable size; while Destructiveness, Secretiveness, and Cautiousness, are small. With respect to the manifestations of the first of these, Mr Wilson has not been able to ascertain much : “ I have observed, however," he says, " that he is more patient during the time he is teased by females than when teased by men; and he turned with a very expressive smile towards one who placed her arm within his own." Mr Wilson mentions also, that “ he exercises Combativeness rather frequently, imme. diately striking any who offends him ; he is also bold and fearless. I saw him pursue a large dog, and imitate its barking; and when he had provoked its snarl, he appeared highly delighted. He seldom exercises Destructiveness, and his anger is only of momentary duration. Self-esteem and Love of Approbation are seldom displayed. Cautiousness is small, and he can easily be sent into danger. Some mischievous men one day undressed him, and persuaded him to go into the river, although for the first time in his life; he walked in until nearly out of his depth, and was proceeding onward when the sight of his godmother deterred him. Acquisitiveness and Secretiveness are not very marked ; indeed, if any thing be shewn him, he looks attentively at it for a time, but seldom appears desirous of removing it. I placed some pence upon a table and turned away, but he exhibited no desire to take it. When I brought him to the Society, on a former evening, the Members asked him which he would have, a penny or a halfpenny ? he invariably put his finger upon both, and wished for both; he did not seem disposed to seize the money, nor did he shew regret at not receiv

ing it."

Such of the perceptive organs as have their place imme. diately over the eyes, are well developed; but on proceeding upwards to the intellectual region, we find there a lamentable and almost total deficiency. “If he receives a penny," says .

” Mr Wilson, “ his Locality guides him to the place where to spend it, because he has observed this first done by others who accompanied him; his Individuality informs him which is the article he wants in exchange, and he invariably chooses the largest piece, in preference : that consumed, he moves away: another object attracts his attention, and he surveys it a moment with every appearance of curious delight; he passes on, alternately no

VOL, IX.NO. XLII.

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ticing and wandering (Individuality and Locality), until either the sting of hunger or the friendly hand of his attendant draws him home. Although he knows few things by name, yet if you direct his eye to an object and bid him reach it to you, he will do it. His Form is rather large, and he recollects individuals

He knew the cast-maker and myself the second time he saw us. His Language is moderate; yet I am persuaded, that, with proper instruction, he might have had a more extensive vocabulary. His attendants have never succeeded in teaching him to button or unbutton his own clothes. He shews a great desire to imitate, and the artist succeeded in taking the cast by inducing him to imitate the position shown to him." It is not mentioned whether he is a good mimic. The size of the organ of Imitation is not such as to make us anticipate this.

After stating that Dr Spurzheim strongly condemned marriage betwixt relations as likely to lead to mental imbecilities in the offspring, and remarking that the parents of this boy were cousins, Mr Wilson concluded by observing, that " phrenologists always have insisted upon the necessity of acting in obedience to the natural laws in marriages; and if these laws had been observed by the parents of him

whose case I have laid before you, there would, at least, have been two of these unfortunate individuals less upon record, and I should have been spared the necessity of troubling you with a short comment upon the character of one this evening."

We shall fiuish the present article by quoting a short passage from Dr Spurzheim's work on Insanity. “ We are very well aware," says he, “ that a great number of facts, repeated under various circumstances, are necessary before we can draw a general conclusion ; but with respect to idiotism from birth, we have made such a number of observations in various countries, that we have no hesitation in affirming that a too small brain is unfit for the manifestation of the mind. I beg to remark, that I do not say that idiotism is the attribute of a too small brain only ; idiotism may be the result of different causes, one of which is a too small brain. We are convinced from observation, that the laws of nature are constant; and if we continually observe that the same phenomenon takes place under the same circumstances, we consider our conclusion as certain, till experience shews the contrary. No one, then, has the right to maintain that an inference is too hastily drawn because he has not made a sufficient number of observations. It is his duty to shew facts which prove the contrary, if he intend to deny the inference.”

ARTICLE VI.

JOURNAL DE LA SOCIÉTÉ PARÉNOLOGIQUE DE PARIS.

Tome Il. No. V.

We are somewhat in arrear with our notices of the French Phrenological Journal, partly from the later numbers not having been received till some months after they were due, and partly from the urgent demands recently made upon our space. It is with pleasure that we now resume consideration of the labours of our Parisian brethren, and congratulate the conductors of the Journal on the regular advance which its contents are making in value and interest. In the introductory notice to this number, it is stated that the causes which prevented the regular appearance of the Journal during the disastrous year 1832 (when cholera raged in Paris), being now removed, the conductors have taken the most efficacious measures to cancel the arrears. “ We have," they say, “ immense materials in hand, and, by active communications with the principal foreign Phrenological Societies, shall enrich ourselves with the fruits of their discoveries and labours."

Upon the 22d of August, the anniversary of Dr Gall's death, the Phrenological Society of Paris holds an annual meeting, at which are reported the transactions of the previous year, the losses sustained, the acquisitions made, the state of Phrenology at the time, and the evidence afforded by lately received busts in confirmation of the principles of the science. To these annual meetings the public are invited, and on each occasion a large assembly has come forward. Last year, the Hall of St John was early filled by a numerous auditory ; among whom were the Prefect of the Seine,-several members of the Institute and Royal Academy of Medicine,--several Professors of the Ecole de Médecine, French and foreign savans, advocates, and magistrates, and also a great number of ladies. The business was commenced by a discourse from the president, Professor Bouillaud ; after which, a summary of the proceedings of the Society during the year 1832-3, by Dr Casimir Broussais, the secretary, was read. Both of these are printed in the Journal, and contain many interesting details.

In Professor Bouillaud's discourse, we find some very pertipent general observations on the principles of Phrenology, its practical utility, and the treatment which Gall received from his contemporaries, particularly Napoleon and Cuvier. opposition of these two great men,” he says, “ backed as it was

“ The

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