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In the section on Self-Esteem, the following words occur : “ This cerebral organ is situated above the organ of Adhesiveness, and was supposed to give nobleness to thought, and consequently to infuse a kind of dignity into all our actions,” (p. 43). Its real situation is above the organ of Concentrativeness, that over Adhesiveness being the organ of Love of Approbation. By whom has Self-Esteem been “ supposed to give nobleness to thought ?" Certainly not by Gall or Spurzheim.
Speaking of Love of Approħation, Mr Levison says, “When this feeling is comparatively small, an individual is indifferent whether he has the good or the bad opinion of his associates ; and such a person will be negligent, uncourteous, and selfish, (p. 46). But these results by no means necessarily follow. There is a courtesy of Benevolence as well as of Love of Approbation; and selfishness may exist either with or without a strong endowment of the latter sentiment, which simply operates as a check upon its outward manifestation. Persons ignorant of phrenology would naturally infer from Mr Levison's statement, that a small organ of Love of Approbation indicates selfishness, and a large one disinterestedness. The reverse of this is often seen.
“ The organ of Conscientiousness," we are told, “is situated on each side of Firmness, and the two sentiments taken together may be compared to censors appointed by the Creator, to guard us against acting from the mere impulse of our lower feelings; or they may be regarded as a moral balance, by which we should weigh all our motives, so that we may not infringe upon the rights of others, or gratify personal desires by compromising our dignity as moral and intelligent beings,” (p. 56). Firmness has nothing whatever to do with the weighing of motives in a moral balance. It is only a tendency to persist in such conduct, and such opinions and purposes, as the other faculties - moral or otherwise—may determine.
“ These (the reflective) faculties," says Mr Levison, “ are perfectly developed about the age of puberty, and indicate the greatest energy between thirty and forty,” (p. 95). Nothing is more rare than their perfect development about the age of puberty. Perfection of development, and possession of the greatest energy, are co-existent, the latter being the necessary result of the former.
According to Mr Levison, had man been destitute of Locality,“ his thoughts would have had nothing of regularity, but would have been like the fleeting and evanescent forms of ing clouds; and it would have been impossible for him to conceive the natural or accidental relations existing between the different objects of the universe on which he moves and dwells." “ It is that power of the mind which informs us of the relation
of one object to another," (p. 84). The word relation is here most inaccurately used instead of relative position; and as to regularity and stability of the thoughts, we are puzzled to discover how these are influenced by a faculty whose entire function is to observe, remember, and judge of the physical position of objects. We know individuals who, with deficient Locality, are remarkable for thoughts the very opposite of irregular and evanescent,
Mr Levisou says of Eventuality, that." when an object is spoken of, or presented to us, whether in a tangible form or merely orally, in an instant this highly valuable faculty recalls all circumstances connected with it,” (p. 88). Surely it is not intended that these concluding words should receive a literal interpretation
“ The organ of Melody is situated in a lateral direction, on each side of Time," (p. 89). Another very careless expression.
Mr Levison entertains unsound and novel opinions respecting the sentiment of Wonder, though he propounds them as established doctrine: He thinks that this faculty gives mankind
an instinctive faith” in the recurrence of natural phenomena of which a regular and unbroken series has for a long time been observed. “ Possessing this sentiment of natural belief,” says he, we are not now under the necessity of recon: vincing ourselves that the operations of nature, which we observe, are uniform and constant: we feel certain that they are s0,” (p. 63). Facts, it humbly appears to us, are wholly at variance with such an idea of the function of the organ of Wonder-an idea in support of which Mr Levison offers not the shadow of an argument. Observation proves, that the larger this organ is, the less confidence have men in the uni. formity and constancy of the operations of nature, and the more are they disposed to expect the supernatural interference of occult beings.
Some very odd statements are made with regard to Imitation. “ When we reflect on the multiplicity of ideas which are acquired by children without any kind of direct tuition, we must conclude that there is an innute faculty of IMITATION” ! (p. 69.) In what part of Dr Spurzheim's works, we again ask, did Mr Levison find that Imitation, or any other affective faculty, acquires ideas? But this is not all: Imitation, he says, besides eonferring the power of imitating or assuming the natural language of the faculties, is the source of natural language itself, and of the power of comprehending it. His words are the following: “ The organ of Imitation is situated on each side of Benevolence, and, from its natural tendency, might be designated the 'mimic power,' as it is this same faculty which gives to children a language of natural expression long before they ac
quire the least knowledge of artificial sounds (verbal language): and, in this manner, they comprehend certain physiognomical signs, even when they do not understand the words which orally represent them; as, for example, the nod of the head, as an affirmative; and the lateral shake, as meaning to express a negative. They also evidently distinguish between the frown of anger and the smile of approbation, as they intuitively shrink back at the exhibition of the former, and are attracted by the pleasing impressions of the latter,” (p. 70). Mr Levison neither gives, nor, we may safely add, is able to give, any good evi. dence of the soundness of these new views as to the source of natural language and power of understanding it.
“ The organ of Form," says Mr Levison, * lies rather upon Individuality, at each side of it,” (p. 80). This is pure nonsense.
At the end of the book there is given an explanation of technical terms; and here, at least, might care and precision have been expected. Even in definitions, however, Mr Levison displays his characteristic vagueness and inaccuracy. We shall extract several of them entire, and leave them, without comment, to the judgment of our well-informed readers.
“ Colour (organ of).-Perception of harmony or relation of colours."
“ Constructiveness. Instinct of contrivance." “ Destructiveness.-Carnivorous instinct."
Form.- Perception of symmetry and proportion."
Hope.-- A sentiment which urges the mind to regard a future state."
“ Imitation (organ of).-Source of expression and natural language."
" Marvellousness.- Instinctive credulity."
“ Secretiveness.-Instinct of cunning and evasion : also element in prudence."
“ Self-Esteem.--In its good sense, the instinct of self-preservation, but generally used with a reference to its various abuses."
“ Size (organ of).-Perception of distance and perspective."
We now take leave of Mr Levison, by expressing our regret that he should have done himself the injustice of sending into the world a book sullied by so many imperfections, and of which we have been compelled to speak in terms the reverse of those which we should otherwise have gladly employed. We beg to assure him, that notwithstanding what has lately, and on the present occasion, appeared in our pages, we shall ever be ready to speak with favour of whatever future productions of his pen may seem to us worthy of commendation.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL.
SIR, -As the subject of dreaming is rather a curious one in the philosophy of the human mind, and phrenology is the only system which affords a rational explanation of the nature and origin of dreams, the following narrative may prove not uninteresting to your readers, as an example of considerable activity of some of the intellectual faculties co-existing with the complete inactivity, or sleep, of most of the propensities and sentiments. The whole occurrences were as distinctly impressed on me as if I had been entirely awake.
In the dream referred to, I was standing in St Paul's Churchyard, when a funeral procession, consisting of a magnificent hearse, drawn by six horses, preceded by a great number of mutes, and followed by an immense train of carriages, slowly approached from Ludgate Hill, and made its way towards the entrance on the north side of the Cathedral. A dense crowd was looking on, and I was given to understand that the deceased was a man universally known, and distinguished for the services which he had rendered to his country and the lustre he had shed upon the age in which he lived; but I could not discover his name. On arriving within a short distance of the gate, the procession stopped, and presently Lord Nelson stepped forward from beside me, dressed in his admiral's uniform, and, with a respectful inclination of his head, as a mark of profound respect for the character of the deceased, stated to him that he had left his own tomb, and come to do him the honours of the funeral-vault, and receive him amongst the other great men already buried there. The recently deceased, who, strangely enough, was not in his coffin, but stood near us, received this piece of attention courteously and graciously, and signified how much he was pleased to put himself under his Lordship's guidance in this hitherto untried scene.
After a short pause, Lord Nelson, perceiving the crowd looking eagerly on for the completion of the ceremony, remarked to his guest, that he must now take his place in his coffin, and be carried forward in the splendid official hearse prepared for the
occasion. His Lordship then ordered the richly ornamented coffin to be brought forward, and said, that as he was now accustomed to the thing, he would shew his friend how to place himself, which he accordingly did by laying himself in it at full length, and carefully pulling a folded covering over his body. He then got out, and the deceased placed himself exactly as
directed, on which his Lordship made a signal to lift the coffin into the hearse and move on. This was done accordingly, and we then mingled with the crowd, and proceeded on foot to the door of the Cathedral—I walking familiarly alongside of his Lordship, without ever wondering how I had become acquainted with him, or perceiving any thing extraordinary in the fact of a man who had been dead for many years, rising from his grave, still dead, and, in the character of a dead man, doing the funeral honours to another dead man. I never for a moment imagined that Nelson was alive ; but, on the contrary, was conscious that a long interval had elapsed since his death, and saw distinctly the glazed eye and cold dull features so characteristic of death: and yet so completely were the feelings asleep, that I felt neither wonder, nor awe, nor incongruity, but every thing seemed perfectly natural and as it ought to be; and indeed I was more at ease with him than I probably would have been had I met him in society as a living man.
We entered the church together, and Nelson, with respectful care, was ready to direct every movement, so as to make the situation of his guest as little uncomfortable as possible. He descended with him into the vault,--saw his coffin properly placed,—took his leave,--and then adding that he must now resume his place in his own coffin, was going away, but immediately turned round and said, “ By the bye, as I am here at any rate, would it not be as well to take a look of my head before I go?" I answered eagerly, “ that I thought it would, as this was an opportunity which might not occur again, and ought by no means to be lost.” We thereupon proceeded to the re. cess of a window for the sake of a better light; and as he stood before me with his sunk and glazed eye, dull leaden features, and armless sleeve, I thought how very like he was to his por
I traits, and to the wax-figure in Westminster Abbey! At this time, too, it struck me as extraordinary, that he who had been so long dead should be aware how much interest phrenology was exciting now, when, at the time of his death, it had scarcely been heard of; but this was the only thing approaching to wonder or perception of incongruity of which I was conscious during the whole time.
On looking attentively at the forehead, I was struck with the breadth and fulness just above the root of the nose, where Individuality lies; and remarked to him that his power of observing what was passing around him must have been peculiarly acute and rapid, and that I could now see many uses in his profession to which it was applicable, although I had never before thought that it was so necessary. He requested to know exactly what was comprehended under the term Individuality; and after listening to the explanation, replied, “ It is quite