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but such as will merit candid and serious consideration.” The first article consists of preliminary observations intended to remove hostile prejudices; and in the second is given the history of Phrenology, down to the departure of Gall and Spurzheim from Vienna in 1805. The editor of the Edinburgh Chronicle, in order to meet the request of his Melrose correspondent, has copied the former of these articles, slightly abridged, into his paper of 31st January, and promises to quote the others as they make their appearance. “To such of our readers,” he observes, “as still labour under the erroneous impression that Phrenology is a tissue of unfounded and absurd doctrines, we may mention, that it is taught as the true physiology of the brain, and the science of mind, by professors in the London University, in the University of Dublin, in the Andersonian University in Glasgow, and by eminent private' lecturers in Edinburgh—that its general principles are now admitted to be true, even by professors of the old school, who continue to deny its details, but at first ridiculed it entirely – that at a late meeting of the Royal Medical Society of this city, (the most important of the juvenile societies connected with medicine,) at which it formed the subject of the evening's discussion, the essayist, and all the speakers except one, declared in favour of its truththat the spirited editors of Chambers's Information for the People,' in a recent number of that work on Moral Philosophy, gave phrenology the preference, for clearness and usefulness, over all former systems of mental philosophy—and that, at the present time, Mr Combe is lecturing in the Waterloo Rooms twice a-week, to an audience of 250 of the citizens of Edinburgh, of all ages and pursuits. These facts, we hope, will be accepted as an apology for our complying with the request alluded to, by presenting some account of the subject in our columns."

ParENOLOGICAL Society.—The following office bearers were elected on 27th November 1834:-George Combe, President ; John Anderson, jun., Arthur Trevelyan, Sir G. S. Mackenzie, Bart., and Dr Francis Farquharson, VicePresidents; John F. Macfarlan, Lindsay Mackersy, Charles Macaren, H. T. M. Witham, Dr John Scott, and P. Deseret, Councillors; Dr William Gre. gory, Secretary ; Robert Cox, Conservator of Museum; D. Campbell, Clerk. Several donations have been lately received :—Skull found under the foundation of the old steeple of Montrose, presented by Dr William Gregory; cast of skull of the Dugong or Indian mermaid, presented by Mr Anthony O'Neill; and three Hindoo skulls—two found on the banks of the Hoogley, and one from Pullicate on the Coromandel coast, presented by John Chisholm, Esq., surgeon, London.

Glasgow.-On Monday 5th January, a phrenological soirée was held in the Andersonian University. There was a good attendance of ladies and gentlemen, but little or no discussion took place, as Professor Hunter and the other phrenologists had almost undisputed possession of the field. Dr Lawrie was the only opponent that presented himself, and even he admitted the claim of Phrenology to be ranked as “ a science.” At the following soirée, Dr Hunter introduced some remarks on national character, illustrated by a selection of casts.

DUNFERMLINE.—Mr W. A. F. Browne having undertaken, at the conclusion of his course of Lectures on Phrenology in Dunfermline last year, to give there an annual lecture on the science, delivered that for 1835, on 10th February, at a quarter past 8 o'clock P. M., in the Maygate Chapel. The subject which he treated was National Character, and the audience amounted to about two hundred and fifty individuals, each of whom paid sixpence. The delivery of an annual lecture in other provincial towns would be attended with much benefit.

DUNDEE._On the forenoon of Sunday 11th January, a lecture on the con. nexion between Phrenology and Christianity was delivered in the Thistle Hall, Union Street, by the Rev. H. Clarke. This lecture gave so much sa. tisfaction, that, as we learn, the Dundee Mechanics' Phrenological Society intend to print it. Mr Clarke has delivered several additional lectures on Phrenology.

GREENOCK.—– The Phrenological Society of this town has lately procured an extensive collection of casts, and is proceeding with great vigour in the study of Phrenology. We beg to be favoured with occasional accounts of the progress of this and other societies.

SOUTHAMPTON.-Mr J. R. Stebbing lectured on Phrenology here in November last. He was attacked by a correspondent of the Hampshire Advertiser, on the subject of dreaming, &c.; but in a subsequent number of that paper was defended by a third party, and also by himself. The opponent, as usual, evinced the utmost ignorance of the science.

UNITED STATES.–From the second number of the Annals of Phrenology, we learn that the Boston Phrenological Society held regular meetings last summer, which were attended with unabated interest. A remittance of L.100 was made to London in order to purchase casts. A course of public lectures, commencing on 3d October, at seven o'clock P. M., has been delivered at the Masonic Temple, under the direction of the Society. A social Phrenological Society, composed of ladies and gentlemen, has been formed at Hingham. " Its members are of the most respectable families in the town, and their display of ability, and zeal in the study of the science, is highly creditable." -At Nantucket a similar society has been organised. “ Its members are able and active. Mr Dunkin has just closed a course of lectures on Phrenology at this place. It was exceedingly popular.”—At Brunswick, Maine, “ a Society has been formed, in which the best students of the College take an active part. Its success is certain.”—At Andover, Amherst, and Hanover, N. H.,

Phrenological Clubs have been formed by the students, and the science receives no small share of their attention." _Societies have arisen also in South Reading, Leicester, Worcester, Hanover, Mass., Providence, R. I., and Hartford, Con.—The Boston Medical Magazine defends Phrenology in an unqualified manner; and the reprints of Mr Combe's System and Elements of Phrenology, &c., and of Dr Conibe's Observations on Mental Derangement, have met with a very rapid sale. In short, the prospect from the other side of the Atlantic is cheering beyond expectation.

Dr Caldwell's excellent Trealise on Physical Education, published at Boston several months ago, has been received, and will be noticed. We have been gratified by receiving a copy of a useful little volume of 192 pages, entitled * Illustrations of Phrenology ; being a Selection of Articles from the Edinburgh Phrenological Journal, and the Transactions of the Edinburgh Phrenological Sciety. With twenty-six wood.cuts. Edited by George H. Cal. vert. With an Introduction by the Editor. Baltimore, 1832." The editor's introduction is very well compiled, but his alteration of the numbering of the organs seems to us uncalled for, and tending to produce confusion. The remaining contents of the volume are the cases of Gottfried, Williams, Bishop, Burk, Hare, Pope Alexander VI, Melancthon, King Robert Bruce, and the Rev. Mr M.; with reports of Dr Gall's visit to the prisons of Berlin and Spandau, Mr Combe's visit to Dublin, and Mr Deville's examination of heads of convicts on board the ship England in 1826. The idea of the volume is excellent; and the wood-cuts, though in general coarsely executed, add much to its value. Such a book is well fitted to rouse the attention of the indif. ferent, and to lengthen the visage of the scoffer.

Paris.- The January number of the Journal of the Paris Phrenological Society has just been received. It is now increased to the octavo size, and contains much interesting and original matter.

QUICK AT MEALS, Quick At Work.-In a notice of the last number of this Journal, in the Lancet of 27th December 1834, some degree of misapprehension is fallen into, regarding what is said on p. 117, in an editorial note at the end of Mr Noble's Essay on the Temperaments. We there observed, that, “ cæteris paribus, temperament seems to affect equally every part of the body; so that if the muscles be naturally active and energetic, we may ex. pect also activity and energy of the brain.” This principle, we added, is virtually recognized by William Cobbeti, in a passage quoted, where he in.

forms lovers, that a girl who walks and speaks quickly and distinctly, and plies the teeth rapidly in eating, may, with considerable safety, be presumed to have an active and industrious mind. “ Quick at meals, quick at work,” says Cobbett, “ is a saying as old as the hills in this the most industrious na. tion upon earth; and never was there a truer saying. Get to see her at work upon a mutton-chof, or a bit of bread and cheese ; and if she deal quickly with these, you have a pretty good security for that activity, that stirring industry, without which a wife is a burden instead of a help.” On this the remark was added,“ We are disposed to think that Cobbett's advice will prove sound in all cases where the nervous and muscular systems are equally developed, equally healthy, and equally accustomed to exercise.”

By this it was meant, that in cases where vivacity of the muscular system is evinced by habitual quickness of gait, speech, and movement of the jaws in chewing, the brain also will usually be found active; and that Cobbett's ad. vice, that these symptoms of muscular agility ought to be noted by lovers wishing to ascertain whether a girl is likely to be active-minded and industrious, will generally prove sound. The writer in the Lancet, however, understands Cobbett and ourselves to recommend the hasty and imperfect mastication of food. “ To our mind,” says he, “the advice deserved some criticism like this.

Nature meant teeth to be used, not food to be bolted. Teeth were designed to save trouble to the stomach,—to save it an effort which sometimes it cannot consummate at all. The young woman who deals very quickly' with her food will soon have a slow digestion, and that will end in disinclination to both mental and muscular activity. “A time to work and a time to chew,' is a better saying than quick at meals, quick at work,'

La proverb which task-nasters may easily make the agent of a gross crime against health. The saying deserves reprobation. We retlect too seldom on the purposes of the teeth." We cordially agree with the Lancet, in thinking that food ought to be thoroughly chewed before being swallowed--and not only so, but that labour of mind and body ought to be refrained from until digestion has made considerable progress. But we do not perceive the slightest incompatibility between a quick and a thorough mastication. It is possible to chew quickly, and yet to “use” the teeth to the fullest extent, so as to avoid * bolting.” The young woman who bolts her food, is, in ordinary cir. cumstances, likely to do so through sheer laziness; and the Lancet is indisputably right in affirming, that the effect of this will be to augment still more her disinclination to both mental and muscuiar activity.

BEECHEY's VOYAGE IN THE BLOSSOM.-Can any of our readers inform us what has become of the skulls brought to England from St Lawrence Island, Beering's Strait, by Mr Collie, surgeon of the Blossom? We understand that they were taken possession of by Government, along with all other specimens of natural history collected during the voyage; but of their subsequent fate we are entirely ignorant. They must be comparatively useless to all but phrenologists, and we know that Mr Collie intended them as a donation for the Phrenological Society. That gentleman also, as Lieut. Beechey mentions in a passage quoted in our 34th number, p. 96, gave in his Journal a description of the heads of several Loo-Chooans, which was too long for insertion in the published narrative of the voyage. We hope that some friend will be able to bring to light both the skulls and the description of the heads. The latter, though too long for Lieut. Beechey, would probably suit our pages.

BRAIN OF THE Bull Dog.- Extract from The Field Book, article Dog.“ The cerebral capacity of the bull dog is sensibly smaller than in any other race, and it is doubtless to the decrease of the encephalon that we must at. tribute its inferiority to all others in every thing relating to intelligence. The bull dog is scarcely capable of any education, and is fitted for nothing but combat and ferocity.”

Mr Loudon makes the following sound remark in his “ Encyclopædia of Cottage, Farm, and Villa Architecture,” published in 1834, p. 1124.

“ Before we recommend any youth to study Architecture as a profession, we

would endeavour to ascertain, upon phrenological principles or from general observation, whether his organization was favourable for that pursuit. One of the grand causes of the slow advancement of all the arts of taste, and of the great prevalence of mediocrity among artists, is the utter neglect of this preliminary measure on the part of their parents or advisers ”

THE LONDON MEDICAL GAZETTE of 7th February contains a most disgraceful and abusive attack on Phrenology, which, for misrepresentation, ignorance, and mala fides, has had no parallel in this country since Dr Gordon's scurrilous production in No. 49 of the Edinburgh Revicu. The Gazette did not reach us till our pages were full, but we may possibly recur to it.

Among other signs of the times, we notice, that, in the account of Dr Gall just published in the new edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, his history and discoveries are calmly narrated in accordance with the statements of the phrenologists themselves; contrary to the custom hitherto prevalent on such occasions, of misrepresenting and distorting facts. It ought to be remarked also, that the writer preserves the strictest neutrality, declaring neither for nor against the phrenologists; a circumstance which, if taken in connexion with the fact that the editor of the Encyclopædia Britannica is also editor of the Edinburgh Review, must be held as symptomatic of a considerable in-. crease of respect for Phrenology. The article alluded to, however, contains a few trifling inaccuracies. Thus, Dr Gall's christian name is said to be John Joseph instead of Frencis Joseph, an error copied from a French biographical sketch. Again, it is erroneously stated, that of his Anatomie et Physiologie du Système Verveux, fc, only a volume and a half appeared; whereas the work was completed in four volumes. “The most elaborate of his productions, how. ever," we are told, “is Organologie, ou Exposition des Instincts, Penchans, fc., et du Siège de leurs Orvanes, which was completed in 1825. His Histoire des Fonctions du Cerveau had appeared in 1822, in two vols. 8vo." The fact is, that the Organologie is merely a portion of his work Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau, which, in its turn, is but a reprint, with very few additions, of the physiological portion of the Anatomie ei Physiologie du Système Nerveux.

Marquis Moscati._Our readers may recollect, that we took occasion a few numbers back (vol. viii. p. 227), to defend Dr Spurzheim and Phrenology from the misrepresentations of their soi-disant friend the Marquis Moscati. At the time of our notice, we knew him only as the author of the misrepre. sentations which we exposed. The history of his conversion to Phrenology, which appeared in some of the newspapers shortly afterwards, and was greedily read by many, served only to confirm, by its inconsistencies, the suspicions of gross inaccuracy which his first paper excited in our minds; and at last, about a month ago, the Marquis, as the prosecutor of the Times newspaper, made an appearance in court, which, however characterized by cleverness and saroir faire, has at once and for ever extinguished any little claim which he may have formerly possessed to the attention or favour of the British public.

Mr Combe has completed a second edition of his work on the Constitution of Man, considerably enlarged and improved. It will be published on 1st April. Three new chapters have been added, and many new illustrations introduced into the former text.

Among several articles very reluctantly postponed till next Number, and mostly in types, are a Reply by Mr Carmichael to Mr Macnish's objections to his theory of sleep; a Review of Mr Dean's Lectures on Phrenology; and a very interesting communication, by Dr Barlow of Bath, about the child William Manuel, mentioned at the end of our last Number. If Dr Barlow could, in the mean time, procure a cast of the boy's head, or an accurate note of its dimensions, he would add much to the favour already conferred in transmitting the history and cerebral development of the child, and also increase not a little the value of his highly esteemed communication.

Edinburgh, 1st March 1835.

THE

PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL.

No. XLIV.

ARTICLE I.

OBSERVATIONS ON RELIGIOUS FANATICISM ; illustrated by a

Comparison of the Belief and Conduct of noted Religious Enthusiasts with those of Patients in the Montrose Lunatic Asylum. By W. A. F. BROWNE, Esq., Medical Superintendent of that Institution,

The healthy exercise of the sentiment of Veneration enters so intimately into many of the amenities of social life, and constitutes so important a part in religious creeds and religious observances, that it has become a habit, a fashion, a point of orthodoxy, to regard some of its most erratic and extravagant manifestations as akin to virtue, if not as virtue itself. That sentiment, from which spring filial obedience, patriotic subordination, and the humility of the sincere worshipper, is held to be of too sacred a nature to be susceptible of excess, and of too beneficial a tendency to be susceptible of over-cultivation. It at first appears monstrous and absurd to affirm that the utility of such a feeling may be defeated, and the peace and harmony of society disturbed or endangered, by its predominance in the mental economy. Yet the paradox whích seems to be conveyed in the proposition, that the ends and purposes of veneration, in common with those of all other feelings, may be nullified by its exercise and encouragement, is not only reconcilable with history, but is itself a historical truth. The fire which warms, may and must consume us if too largely and liberally fed ; and the feeling which is the torch to guide us heavenward may dazzle and dim the inward eye by its intensity, until the path to be pursued or the power to pursue it is lost. We do not here speak of the aggregate sentiment of religion : the rational and practical character by which it is distinguished affords an unexceptionable guarantee

VOL. IX.NO. XLIV.

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