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productive of diseased affections of the mind, that concession involves the admission that the whole mind is dependent upon the whole brain. If that be admitted, in what consists the iniquity of making a particular part of the one dependent on a particular part of the other ? If the whole of our corporeal acts are dependent upon the action of the whole of our muscles, where is the crying lack of logie in referring a particular act to the exertion of a particular muscle ?
“ It is farther objected, that this doctrine tends to fatality. What is fatality? A deprivation of wilt. A rejection of free agency: An absolute necessity of the performance of acts. What is taught by this science First, That certain intellectual powers, sentiments, and propensities, are incorporated in our nature : and, Second, That each of these possesses for itself a local habitation and a name.
Is the existence of these powers, sentiments, and propensities denied ? I shall hazard the as• sumption, that their existence will not be controverted: but
their existence being once admitted, whence can result the evil of their distinct and separate locations in different parts of what is conceded to be their general home? Their separate location gives them no new existence, clothes them with no new energy, invests them with no new power, nor imposes upon them any new or additional necessity of acting. It is in the fact of the existence of strong propensities, that the tendency to fatalism, if any there be, is to be sought and found, and not in the mode of explaining it. Until, therefore, it can be shewn that phrenology creates the fact, let it not be charged with the injurious consequences flowing from it, if there be any. But there are none.' It would be as unjust to require of a being possessing these strong constitutional tendencies, the same correct course of conduct that would flow from a high moral development, as it would be to require of man, constituted as he is, that he should visit the depths of the ocean with the fish, or penetrate the mid-heavens with the eagle. Man is answerable only for the proper exercise of the faculties he possesses. Hence differ
. ent degrees of accountability result from different combinations of faculties. It may require as strong an effort in one to prevent the murder of a man, as in another to avoid the killing of a fly. "To whom much is given from him much will be required. A less happily constituted organization will be subjected to a less' rigid account. This mode of explanation accords to no one the plea of complete exemption from accountability ; because no one, on this side of idiocy, is entirely destitute of any one faculty or organ, and the possession of all is coupled with an accountability for the proper exercise of all, according to the different degrees of strength. It is in this way only, that the free and moral agency of man is reconcilable with
VOL. IX.-NO, XLIV.
the justice and benevolence of Deity. It is, however, in defence. only of things as they exist, of the general economy of the universe, of the justice and benevolence of Deity, and not of Phrenology, that this or any other explanation of this nature can be demanded.
“ So far as regards materialism and fatality, this science leaves mind precisely as it found it. It creates nothing new; it adds nothing to the old. Any objections, therefore, grounded upon these supposed evil tendencies, are valid only against things and phenomena as they now exist, and ever have existed."-P. 40– 43, 102–3.
Mr Dean explains in the following manner the mode in which the combative and destructive propensities are made predomi. nant by intoxication. Whatever may be thought of the soundness of his theory, it has at least, if we mistake not, the merit of originality.
* The effect of introducing stimulus, in the shape of ardent spirits, or in any other shape, into the system, is to mortgage future energies to supply present exigencies ; or, in still terser terms, it is the making a present use of future resources. In the same proportion, therefore, in which the energies of the future are applied to the purposes of the present, will that future, when arrived at, be found deficient in its supply of energy. Hence a state of intoxication ends in the profoundest sleep, arising from the exhaustion of every, mental and corporeal function. The living system must cease to act, except for the mere purpose of living, because that future has arrived which had already parted with its energies. From this general view, let the science explain the phenomena actually exhibited.
“ The stimulus introduced creates an excited action in every organ of the brain, and hence every faculty feels its power, and is disposed to exercise it. A larger quantity of cerebral matter is allotted to the sentiments and propensities than to the perceptive and reflective powers. From the portion allotted to the propensities, the nerves take their departure. The action of the propensities, particularly of Destructiveness and Combativeness, is ordinarily under the influence of the reflective powers. The stimulating material, through the medium of the nerves, or the circulation, or both, excites to increased action the large quantity of cerebral matter allotted to the propensities, particularly to those of Combativeness and Destructiveness. Those propensities are, therefore, clamorous for the exercise of their functions. But the organs of the reflective faculties are also stimulated to excess of action, and hence enabled, for a time, to exert a controlling influence. The introduction of additional stimulus renders the propensities still stronger and more clamorous for exercise ; and the reflective powers, in order to restrain them, are driven to a preternatural energy of action. The heavy drafts they are compelled to make for this and other purposes, soon exhaust their resources ; and, upon the exhaustion of those resources, they must necessarily cease from their labours. Reason strikes its flag. The directing power is removed. The propensities, unrestrained by it, instantaneously rush into a state of unmitigated action, and the inevitable results you will find recorded in the annals of drunkenness, and on the catalogue of crime." P. 89, 90.
In treating of the organ of Colouring, the author notices, that it is largely developed in the Oriental nations, such as the Persians and Chinese. “ This fact,” says he, 66 has been observed, but it has not that I am aware of, been further remarked, that it is in the east that Nature has bestowed her strength, and beauty, and variety of colours. The tint of its sky—the hue of its landscape-the beauty of its bird and its blossom-even the gay attire of the insect that sports away life in the beams of its summer sun,-all announce, in language too clear for contradiction, that Nature has selected the land of the east to leave there the loveliest hues of her pencil. Is the striking coincidence between the full development of this faculty in the east, and the ample bestowment of that with which it is in relation there, one of those stray events that has accidentally wandered from the fountain of light, and found its way to this earth uncalled for and uncaused, or it is one of those beauteous harmonies, arising from the mutual adaptation of things, that, together with every other of the same kind, was originally cast in the grand scheme of creation ?" -P. 165-6. We do not know that sufficient observations have been made to prove that a large development of the organ of Colouring prevails among the inhabitants of climates where
vegetation displays much gorgeousness and beauty of colour. The supposition, however, has much probability, and is supported by the converse fact, noticed in our eighth volume, p. 68, that in the skulls of the Esquimaux, who see almost nothing but the sky, and snow, and ice, the organ is manifestly deficient. The subject is curious, and merits farther investigation.
Mr Dean is, for the most part, correct in his statements of phrenological doctrines ; but it is necessary to point out several passages in which we conceive he has fallen into error.
Speaking of the faculty of Weight, he says, “ This faculty, like all the others, is weak in infancy; hence the inability of the infant to walk, or to preserve a perfectly erect attitude. In advanced life also, when age has seared the faculties, this is a sufferer in common with others, and, from its weakness, gives rise to the uncertain totter of the feeble frame.”—P. 159. Are not these effects to be ascribed rather to muscular debility than to impairment of the organ of Weight ? At all events, the former
, is undoubtedly one cause.
He says, that " where Destructiveness is coupled with Benevolence, its active manifestations are neutralized, so far as regards living beings.”—P. 94. This is an inaccurate statement. Benevolence never neutralizes Destructiveness, but only restrains and directs it. Nay, it even has occasionally the effect of rousing Destructiveness to action against living beings. When the benevolent man sees a villain maltreating the destitute and help less, he instantly experiences a strong inelination to “ break the jaws of the wicked" --an inclination which arises from De- . structiveness alone. An example will be found at the 68th page of this volume of our Journal..
Mr Dean's mode of comparing the development of the reflective organs with that of the perceptive, is somewhat objectionable. He imagines a plane, passing through the pupil of the eye and the axis or line connecting the two openings of the ear, to be intersected by another plane“ passing from the surface of the reflecting faculties," or, as we should have said, organs. The angle formed at the point of intersection of the two planes will indicate, he says, “ the comparative development of those two classes of faculties. The larger the angle, the more will the reflecting faculties preponderate over the perceptive and knowing. The more acute the angle, the greater the comparative strength of the perceptive and knowing over those of the reflecting P. 219. Now, this way of measuring applies only to the organs in the middle line of the forehead, and is moreover defective inasmuch as it overlooks the relative breadth of the superior and inferior regions.
With respect to the temperaments, Mr Dean falls into the old error of ascribing to them the determination of character. This blunder is certainly not a little surprising in a writer so well acquainted with Phrenology as Mr Dean. 6. The individual pos
. sessing the sanguine temperament,” says he, “ is ever of a disposition the most happy. Gay, lively, and mirthful, he possesses much buoyancy of temper, and an elasticity of spirit, that reverses may bend but cannot break. He is ever a welcome companion, and enlivens the circle in which he moves. He is inclined to the softer passions; and the net woven by love finds him an easy victim. He is well calculated to tumble about on the rough side of the world, without being subdued and overcome by its asperities.”—P. 229. Again, “ If the sanguine temperament inclines to love, the bilious inclines not less to ambition. Venus cannot find in the bilious temperament an Adonis, but ambition has found a Napoleon. It is the individuals of this temperament that overcome opposition by patient endurance, and determined perseverance. They are characterized by inflexibility
of purpose, unyielding tenacity of opinions, and steady, uniform, determined adherence in the use of means once employed. A wrong treasured up by them breathes in the atmosphere of vengeance until it can wreak the ruin it meditates. It is the indi. vidual possessing this temperament that stamps a people with the impress of his own mind, and then leaves a name behind him to float down to after ages."-P. 230. Now, it is shewn by daily experience, that there is no fixed and constant proportion between temperaments and particular dispositions. The activity and energy of the mind are materially affected by temperament; but every particular bias of disposition or talent is determined by the form of the brain. There are melancholy and frigid people of the sanguine temperament, and fickle and placable of the bilious. Mr Dean knows all this so well, that we are tempted to suspect that the sentences just quoted have been thrust into the volume hy some officious friend.
From the present work, and what Mr Dean has formerly written on Phrenology, we derive the confident expectation that he will prove an able, useful, eloquent, unflinching and effective advocate of our science in the United States.
SUGGESTIONS FOR FACILITATING AND EXTENDING THE
STUDY OF MENTAL DERANGEMENT, AND IMPROVING
The treatment of the insane is a branch of medical science which has hitherto been very inadequately studied and taught in the universities and schools of the United Kingdom ; and, as a natural consequence, it has in practice been usually followed by a signal want of success. There is reason to hope, that before the lapse of many years, the subject may attract that degree of attention to which its undeniable importance renders it entitled ; and with the view of in some measure promoting, by agitation, the change so much to be desired, I am induced to submit to the medical profession—its younger members in particular—a few hints on the study of mental derangement, and on some improvements of which the treatment of the insane appears to be susceptible.
First, I would recommend that the Lunatic Asylums for the poor should be thrown open, under judicious restrictions, for the attendance of a limited class of students. The city of Dublin is provided with two large and well conducted esta