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just cited in italics, where both “ laws are spoken of as equally inherent in Paul's nature; and that the Apostles, in speaking of the spirit ” in opposition to “ the flesh," allude to the moral and religious sentiments of the human mind, as contradistinguished from the animal propensities. The works of the flesh above described by St Paul, are, without exception, abuses of one or several of the faculties. He describes also “ the fruit of the spirit,” which is “ love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance;" and every one of these, it will be observed, is a legitimate action of the moral sentiments and intellect.
He says, most truly, that “ against such there is no law." Certainly none-because the moral sentiments are the ruling powers, and their dictates, when enlightened by intellect, are supreme.
Similar views are eloquently expounded by Mr Clarke in the Lectures of which the title is copied at the commencement of the present article. We are happy to see Phrenology finding its way into the pulpit, and cannot entertain a doubt that, were clergymen in general to call in the aid of physical science and philosophy to illustrate and support the truths of religion, they would soon perceive a decided augmentation of the interest excited and instruction communicated by their discourses.
Mr Clarke has prefixed to his Lectures a Table of the Phrenological Organs, divided into three columns; the first containing the names and uses of the organs—the second, their abuses -and the third, the effects of their deficiency. And he adds the remark, that “ if the first column be read from top to bottom through the whole Table, it will be seen that the uses of the organs are all good-highly important—absolutely necessary : but if the second column be read in the same manner, it will be perceived that the abuses of the organs produce all the crimes known among men ; while reading the third column wholly by itself will show that deficient organs, even those that may be most awfully misapplied, are by no means to be desired. The deficiency would not be an improvement....... By looking at the uses and abuses of Veneration, Hope, and Wonder, it will be found that they may either exalt to high-toned religion, or debase to grovelling superstition-belief in prodigies, magic, ghosts, and all kinds of absurdities; and even Conscientiousness may, when joined with these in its abused state, aid the delusion and swell the evils. The abuses of the organs only are sins ; and from these sins the majority of human miseries flow. To use the organs aright is of course to avoid transgression and to escape suffering; and this again is to be virtuous and happy."
In the first lecture, Mr Clarke shews that Christ and his Apostles teach that man has animal propensities, from which
chiefly sin has its origin; that these are alluded to as powers in themselves both necessary and good; that, according to the Christian Scriptures, they may be kept within the limits of virtue and religion ; that man is to be rendered religious, not by their destruction, but by directing them aright; and that human nature is by no means the mass of unmingled degradation which it is so frequently represented to be.
“ Both Christianity and Phrenology," says he, “ forbid us to view man's nature as a mixture of brute and demon. are become half brute half demon are said to be without natural affection,' and to be given up to vile affections. “As they did not like to retain God in their knowledge, God gave them over to a reprobate mind, to do those things which are not convenient ; being filled with all unrighteousness. They are . men of corrupt minds. They are in an unnatural state. They are degraded, debased, and gone out of the way.' But while we may point to them as melancholy proofs of what human beings may become, we must not point to them as evidences of what human nature in its essence and constitution is. We might as justly adduce Socrates, Newton, and Howard, as proofs that ihe nature of every man is wise, and good, and great, as hold up Nero, King Henry the Eighth, and Judge Jeffreys, as evidences that the nature of every man is base, cruel, and depraved.
To place the crimes of men to the account of an uncontrollably sinful nature, is to exculpate them from blame. It is more: it is asserting that man is unimprovable. It is condemning all plans and attempts which aim at exalting the human mind. It is pronouncing all human means unavailing to elevate the human character. It is representing a human being as too worthless, despicable, and vile, to be the object of virtuous affection. Let man be the loathsome reptile that he is sometimes supposed, and he is unworthy of regard, undeserving of respect, and utterly destitute of any claims upon the laws of benevolence and truth. Then, duty to each other men cannot owe. Beings who were compounded of only brute propensities and demon hate, worked up to a nature radically and universally depraved, must invariably act as demon-brutes. But is this the case ? Are our social, scientific, charitable, and religious institutions, proofs that we are demon-brutes ? Whenever a man sincerely laments that the human race is nothing but beast and demon, his own lament demonstrates that his views are false. He is not himself a demon-beast ; for, if he were, no such lamentation could escape him.
“ Does the tiger lament his own fierceness, or the serpent mourn over his degradation and poison ? And as impossible would it be for man—for any man—to sigh for human nature, if the nature of every human being were brutified and demon
ized. The good man's sighs over sin prove that he is not all sin. Man has indeed an animal nature, but he has also an intellectual nature. When the former absorbs the latter when the mind, or soul, is swallowed up in mere sense then truly man becomes an awful offender. His enormities are terrible. He would then disgrace the beasts, and perhaps even dishonour demons. But, when the aniinal part of man is purified by man's moral sentiments and absorbed by his intellectual faculties, then is it manifest that there is a noble spirit in man, and the inspiration of the Almighty giveth him understanding.': His deeds then are wrouglit in the love of God and man.' " He then evinceth the same mind which was also in Christ :' and then he gives forth evidence that God hath made him but a little lower than the angels, and hath crowned him with glory and honour.'»
The second lecture is devoted to the moral sentiments, regarding which the teachings of Phrenology and Christianity are thus compared. “ The one teaches that there are certain natural moral sentiments, which are elementary constituents of the human mind; the other appeals to these sentiments as to things which actually exist in man. By one it is asserted that these sentiments, rightly directed, will lead to the discharge of individual, reiative, and religious duties; by the other it is affirmed that man must employ those powers to do as he would be done unto,to serve his God, and to work out his salvation. One system teaches that human beings are constituted moral agents'; the other treats them as such. Every page of man's history proves his possession of those moral powers. Every page of the New Testament addresses itself to them. Too often have they been most wofully neglected, misapplied, enfeebled, and debased. But was there ever upon earth a people devoid of the sentiments of right and wrong, honour and dishonour? Did ever a people exist who evinced no sentiments of wonder and veneration towards things stupendous and a power superbuman? The religion of the most superstitious is evidence of some natural powers in man which prompt to the adoration of superior objects; the grossest idolatry must be the effect of some mental cause. What is it? From the animal propensities alone it could not possibly proceed. Were man reduced to the condition of the ourang-outang, he would not then be a worshipper of even an idol. Paganism, under its most disgusting forms, still points up to mental powers which in their nature must be good and noble, and in their designed use most salutary. The worshippers of Boodh in India, of Foe in China, and of Lama in Thibet, evince the very same mental sentiments as those which are manifested by the worshippers of the only true God. Only change the object of worship and the truth of this position will be demonstrated. The inhabitants of India, China, and Thibet, might worship the Christian's God without undergoing a change of nature; and any people might exchange an inferior code of morals and religion for one that was better, without exchanging a single power of the mind for some other.”
Mr Clarke has included among the moral sentiments SelfEsteem, Love of Approbation, and Cautiousness; because, says he " they have in their uses a decided moral tendency.” SelfEsteem he regards as “ the basis of all true honour, dignity, and moral greatness," and as “ that which exalts the mind above meanness, servility, and baseness.” We suspect that few of our readers will here concur with Mr Clarke ; for humility, which is the only result of deficient Self-Esteem, is neither inconsistent with “ true honour, dignity, and moral greatness," nor necessarily accompanied by “ meanness, servility, and baseness.” When directed by higher faculties, Self-Esteem, Love of Approbation, and Cautiousness, have doubtless, like every other mental power, “a moral tendency;" but still, in themselves, they have no tincture of morality. Indeed, we have long been much inclined to the opinion that the received list of " moral sentiments” is far too extensive ; and that Benevolence, Veneration, and Conscientiousness, are the only affective faculties which exercise a disinterested control over the animal powers. So far as we are able to perceive, neither Hope, nor Wonder, nor Wit, nor Firmness, nor Imitation, exercises any such control; and even Ideality can hardly be looked upon as a barrier in the way of selfish indulgence, at the expense or to the annoyance or disregard of other men. Every one of the six faculties last named, may be so harmoniously leagued with the propensities, as to start no objection whatever to the performance of the most immoral acts.
In the third and concluding lecture, Mr Clarke treats of the human intellect, and the necessity of cultivating and enlightening it before Christianity can be fully realized. “ As the intellectual faculties,” says he, “ are the only media of access to the moral sentiments, and the moral sentiments are the only instruments by which the animal propensities can be duly restrained and beneficially directed, virtue, piety, and true religion, must be in proportion to the strength, activity, and harmonious co-operation of the intellect and moral powers. It has been said, that ignorance is the motber of devotion. But of what devotion? Can ignorance produce the devotion of the wrapt-ennobled soul? Can it send forth the devotion of Christ ? -No. The devotion of ignorance is low, grovelling, superstitious; it is mere fear, tinctured deeply with the dark colouring which the animal nature has given it. It is false devotion. That which is true is ever brightened highly by the glowing tints that the combined energies of the intellect and moral powers have impressed upon it. There is no beauty in the devotion which is
the offspring of ignorance; its parentage is base; the issue is of but little worth ; too often has it proved worse than worthless. It has led men to fanaticism and persecution to the commission of the most atrocious crimes, and the infliction upon theniselves and others of the direst miseries. It has given the name religion to that which was positive madness. But such insanity was never produced by hearing the Word and understanding it, and receiving the good seed into the good ground of the mind. Thirty, sixty, or a hundred fold of bigotry, anger, wrath, and malice, are the very counterpart of those fruits of love, and joy, and peace, that the religion of Jesus is designed to produce; and, by their fruits shall ye know them. If a man have not the spirit of Christ, he is none of his.? But, to know what that spirit was, requires the exercise of both the perceiving and reflecting powers. The fundamental command, * Learn of me, cannot be obeyed without a vigorous use of the intellectual faculties; but, the more carefully these are trained, and the more assiduz ously the moral sentiments are at the same time cultivated, the higher must the individual ascend in excellence, true religion, and positive enjoyment."
These lectures evince in their author a refined and cultivated understanding, great purity of moral and religious feeling, and an ardent desire of the improvement and instruction of mankind. We trust that their circulation will be extensive, and are sure that they will meet with a favourable reception from every enlightened Christian, whatever opinion he may entertain with respect to Phrenology.
CHARACTER AND CEREBRAL DEVELOPMENT OF WILLIAM
MANUEL, A PRECOCIOUS CHILD.
William MANUEL, the subject of the present sketch, was born in Flintshire, in March 1830. He is the object of public curiosity, on account of his being able to read five languages, though he is but four and a half years old: they are English, Welsh, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew. His father is a leadminer, of a dull and heavy aspect, and slothful in disposition ; but his mother is of an active temperament, and appears to be possessed of more than common shrewdness and sagacity. They have five children, of whom this is the third ; and the whole are healthy and intelligent.
His mother affirms that he was always a boy of very quick observation. When only ten months old, he was very fond of