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having a book in his band; which exciting her attention, as soon as he was able to speak she taught him to read, by pointing to each word as it occurred in the book, and pronouncing it to him; and this she did without teaching him to spell, or even letting him first learn the alphabet or single letters. His easy acquirement of English and Welsh having attracted observation, a gentleman supplied him with a Latin book, to which he applied with similar success ; and he was afterwards taught Greek and Hebrew in the same way by another gentleman. He can now read all these languages with nearly equal facility, whichever way the book may be turned ; and, though his pronunciation is not very distinct, and he is quite unacquainted with the meaning of the words, he contrives to execute his task not only without hesitation, but even with rapidity. His mother has taught him to repeat some little prayers and hymns; and she distinctly states that his verbal memory is not superior to that of other boys of his own age, though in other respects he is decidedly in advance of them. In disposition the boy is resolute and determined, and in character he combines boldness with caution: he is fond of truth, and particularly fearful of being ill advised: he is candid, kind hearted, and benevolent; not to be compelled by force, yet easily led by affection. His principal fault is passion; but he is very open to the conviction of error, especially when gentleness and reasoning are employed to produce the effect.

In general appearance, the boy is of large growth and healthy aspect. His temperament is sanguine, and there is a rest less activity of mind and body. His manners are engaging, and his look intelligent. The three great divisions of the brain are in pretty equal proportion.



1. Amativeness, large,

18 2. Philoprogenit. very large, 3. Inhabitiveness, large,

19 4. Adhesiveness, rather large, 17 5. Combativeness, rather large, 17 6. Destructiveness, very large, 20 7. Secretiveness, very large, 20 8. Acquisitiveness, very large, 20 9. Constructiveness, very large, 21 10. Self-Esteem, very large, 20 11. Love of Approbation, large, 18 12. Cautiousness, very large,

21 13. Benevolence, very large, 20 14. Ve ieration, large,

19 15. Firmness, very large,

20 16. Conscientiousness, very large, 21 17. Hope, large,

19 18. Wonder, large,


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In comparing the leading features of this boy's character with his cerebral development, we perceive at once the relation they bear to each other with respect to the propensities and moral sentiments. He evidently belongs to that class of persons in whom the ultimate direction of the character depends more on the circumstances in which the individual is placed, than upon any preponderating influence in his own natural dispositions. By the judicious exercise of authority on the part of an intelligent parent, the inferior faculties have hitherto been restrained within proper bounds, and have evidenced themselves only by that rest. less activity and indisposition for repose already alluded to; and by occasionally displays of passion, of the guill of which he has afterwards been easily made sensible.

In looking at the intellectual region, our attention is attracted to the extraordinary size of the three organs situated in the middle line of the forehead. In the unusual development of these, but especially of the lowest, with a moderate endowment of Language, we shall find the elements of the talent which renders this boy so remarkable. From observing the last named organ to be but moderately developed in a boy so quick in the acquirement of language, some have been disposed to draw inferences unfavourable to Phrenology; a little consideration, however, will show that this is one of many instances in which apparent exceptions to its rules have subsequently served to confirm the principles on which the science is established. If we attend to the manifestations of his power, and analyze the nature of the mental exercise, I think we shall be brought to ad. mit that the faculty of Language takes a part of but secondary importance in the process. At his age, the ideas or mental conceptions excited by their appropriate signs, as he meets with them in the book, must be very few, even in the English and Welsh, and in the others he is unacquainted with them all. Yet he reads each language with equal facility, and is quite indifferent as to the position in which the book is placed.

It appears to me, that in the act of reading the boy recognises each word as a single object, which he individualises from the rest as a distinct and separate existence. To one who understands its meaning, every word is the arbitrary sign of some specific idea, and therefore requires the exercise of the organ of Language to receive and retain it as such. To William Manuel the words are not arbitrary signs, but simple objects of existence; in fact, the sign itself becomes to him the thing signified: the mental action thus far is contined to the organ of Individuality, and those about the brow, and the exercise of that of Language is limited to the extent of associating a particular sound with each word, as he has been taught and accustomed to apply it. He is assisted by pointing to the words with his

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finger, when reading, and proceeds from line to line without any alteration in his tone or cadence. When he meets with any word that is too long to be taken in as an individual, he divides it without any hesitation into two; if the word, for instance, in the Greek is Wolpuenaue Bava, he will individualize the rage as a single word, and pronounce it as such, and then the latter half in like manner making a pause between the two, as distinct and long as between any other two words in his reading.

If these views are correct, the strength of the boy's talent lies in bis orgari of Individuality, which is extremely large. The faculty has been exercised more in this way than in any other ; but the boy has a very quick and accurate observation in all things, and nothing in the room escapes his notice. There are numerous facts to prove that a moderate endowment of the faculty of Language, when accompanied with largely developed organs of Comparison, Eventuality, and Individuality, will fit a person for eminence in scholarship, better than a much larger development of the same organ, if the other three are inferior in size. The former combination occurs in this instance; but I conceive that the organs of Comparison and Eventuality take no part in the present limited exercise of this particular power. Such an endowment will certainly afford him great capacity for literary acquirement. Considering, however, the general de velopment of his cerebral organization, I think that if equal scope be afforded for the exercise of all his faculties, the chief tendency of his mind will be in a different direction. With a more than moderate development of the organs of the perceptive faculties in general, he combines an extraordinary develop ment of the organ of Constructiveness; and, with a combination of this kind, I should conceive, that under favourable circumstances he would be less likely to prove remarkable as a linguist, than to distinguish himself in the capacity of a civil engineer, or in some other department of physical science, afford. ing a sufficient field for the exercise of his organ of Constructive

It is gratifying to notice, that the boy is likely within a short time to be placed in a situation favourable for the cultivation of his moral and intellectual faculties, and for the proper restraint of the inferior powers.' Some benevolent individuals having opened a subscription for defraying the expenses of a plan they have in view, have made a proposal to his mother, to which, after some unwillingness, she has at length acceded. It is intended to place him under careful tuition till he is of age to be removed to Christ's Hospital in London ; and it will then be left to time, and the effect of past education, to determine the direction of his future movements.

If there be any thing to make this sketch worthy of a place



in a public journal, it is the circumstance I have just mentioned; for, being acquainted, as we are, with his development when a child, it will be interesting to observe the changes produced on it by time, habit, and education; as well as to watch the influence exerted by his organization upon these. I desire to add, that it is not without some hesitation I have offered any remarks upon this case, as my acquaintance with the boy's development has been derived from a single examination of the living head ; and though I have reason to think it is correct as far as regards the leading features of his cerebral organization, I doubt not there are some errors which a more accurate examination would unfold. Batu, Dec. 18. 1834.


The foregoing interesting communication has been sent us in consequence of a note in our 42d Number, p. 192 of the present volume ; and we return our best thanks to Mr Prince for his attention, and also to Dr Barlow, at whose suggestion the sketch was written. As we possess neither a cast of the head nor a note of its dimensions, it is impossible for us to judge of the accuracy of Mr Prince's statement of the cerebral development. If possible, a cast should be obtained, as it would throw light on some rather obscure points in intellectual philosophy, and serve hereafter as a standard whereby to measure the future changes which the head may undergo.

Mr Prince ascribes the remarkable facility with which the boy reads to the great development of Individuality; but we are decidedly of opinion that Form is the organ chiefly concerned. It is the physical appearance of printed words which he remembers so accurately, and the appropriate articulate sounds are recalled chiefly by association. When forms are not presented to him, there is no great verbal memory. So little did we anticipate a large development of Language, that the note in our 42d Number is entitled simply “ ORGAn of Form;" and the only remark made on the case is, that “ Supposing the brain to be healthy, the manifestations are those of a large organ of Form.” We refrain, however, from offering any farther observations, founded on the development as given by Mr Prince, because he himself is doubtful whether it is correctly stated, as he had only one opportunity of examining the head. We admire the spirited and philosophical philanthropy of the gentlemen at Bath, in so generously rescuing the boy from the dangers of his wandering life, and placing him in a situation so favourable for future improvement. We trust, however, that special care will be taken not to hurry on bis intellectual education so rapidly, as to endanger the health of the brain, and lead to the loss of the talents by




which he is at present distinguished. He appears to be in safe hands.

A printed circular, containing the following additional particulars, was kindly sent us, about three months ago, by Dr Bar

“ It may be proper to inform the friends and patrons of this highly gifted child, that he has been for some time at Merthyr Tydvil, living under the same roof with his parents, and receiving daily tuition from the Rev. J. Jones, from whom several very satisfactory reports have been received of the daily improvement and gradual development of his intellectual faculties.

“ In order to provide for every contingent expense for three years,—including a sum of money already given to the parents to enable them to establish themselves at Merthyr Tydvil,-an annual allowance for the board of their child (as any attempt to separate him, in tender infancy, from his parents, would have been a measure that might very properly be deemed harsh, unfeeling, and unnatural),—and the expenses attending his education,-it is proposed to raise the sum of L. 200. This ainount will not only be sufficient for the important object intended, in the first instance, to be accomplished, but will leave a small surplus to be appropriated for the future benefit of William Manuel.

“ Of this amount, the sum of L. 108 has been already collected, and it is to be hoped that the publicity of this advertisement will re-excite a generous interest in behalf of this highly gifted child, and soon procure, in liberal contributions, what may be necessary to carry fully into effect the earlier stages of his education. At the end of three years the means will be afforded of forming perhaps a more decisive opinion on the quality of his intellectual powers, and the practical application which it may be right that they should subsequently receive.

“ Subscriptions will, as heretofore, be received at any of the Banks in Bath; and also by Mr Musgrave, at the Post Office.”

Farther accounts of William Manuel will always be acceptable--EDITOR.




TO THE EDITOR OF THE PHREXOLOGICAL JOURNAL. SIR-I have been deeply interested by the perusal of Mr Simpson's paper on Force and Resistance, in your last number;

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