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Chart., 1 Joh. n. 14.]

Johannes, Dei gratia, &c., justiciariis, &c. Sciatis nos suscepisse in manum, custodiam, et protectionem nostram, abbatem et monachos et fratres de Fontibus, terras, homines, res, redditus et possessiones eorum;' et ideo vobis mandamus et firmiter præcipimus quatenus eos et omnia sua custodiatis, manuteneatis, protegatis, et defendatis, sicut nostra dominica, et non inferatis eis, vel ab aliquo inferri permittatis, injuriam, gravamen, aut molestiam; et si eis in aliquo forisfactum fuerit, id eis sine dilatione emendari faciatis. Prohibemus etiam ne ponantur in placito de aliquo tenementorum suorum, nisi coram nobis vel capitali justiciario nostro; et sint quieti de tolneo et omni consuetudine de omnibus rebus quæ ad proprios usus suos pertinent, sicut cartæ Henrici regis, patris nostri, quas inde habent, testantur. Prohibemus etiam, super forisfacturam nostram, ne capiatis, nec aliquos capere permittatis, eorum oves, pro aliqua forisfactura, dummodo alia averia habuerint per quæ possint justiciari. Data, &c., xvj die Septembris, &c.



Edwardus, Dei gratia, rex Angliæ, &c. Sciatis nos concessisse, et hac carta nostra confirmasse, dilectis nobis in Christo abbati et conventui de Fontibus, quod ipsi et successores sui, imperpetuum, habeant liberam warennam' in omnibus dominicis terris suis de Morker, Somerwith, Aldeburgh, Sleningford, et Sutton, in comitatu Eboracensi, dumtamen terræ illæ non sint infra metas foresta nostræ. Ita quod nullus intret terras illas ad fugandum in eis, vel ad aliquid capiendum quod ad warennam pertineat, sine licentia et voluntate ipsorum abbatis et conventus, vel successorum suorum, super forisfacturam nostram decem librarum.? Quare volumus, &c. Hiis testibus, venerabilibus patribus R. Bathon' et Well’et W. Norwic. episcopis; Henrico de Lacy, comite Lincolniæ, Johanne de Vescy, Roberto Tibbotot, Hugone filio Octonis, Roberto filio Johannis, Ricardo de bosco, Petro de Huntynfelde, et aliis. Data per manum nostram, apud Dunelm’, decimo octavo die Septembris, anno regni nostri octavo.3

tione reddatur. Hiis testibus, Hugone episcopo Dunelmensi, Godefrido episcopo Winton, Hugone episcopo Coventr., Willielmo cancellario nostro, electo Elyens., Ricardo Thesaurario nostro, electo Lundoniæ. Apud Westmonasterium, primo anno Regni nostri, xvj die mensis Novembris.Charte Antiquæ in Canc., rotul. T.

In the Pipe Roll, 3 Richard I., will be found, under the heads of several counties, very interesting and suggestive lists of the debtors of this Aaron the Jew of Lincoln, with the sums owing by each. Among those of high station in Yorkshire were Eustace de Vescy, Adam de Brus, Hugh and John de Builli, William Fossard, Berta countess of Brittany, Nigel Fossard, Jordan Foliot and Roger de Coisneres.

(1) Compare the sequel, as narrated by the Chronicler of Fountains: “Nec pepercit Fonta- . nensi ecclesiæ, licet multa et magna ab ea donaria accepisset, sed mille et ducentas marcas argenti cum importuna celeritate solvendas ab ea extorsit; etiam reliquas domus nostri ordinis sub potestate sua adeo vehementer oppressit, ut, distractis ovibus et armentis, etiam vasa sacra divinis usibus consecrata et vestimenta sacerdotalia vendere cogerentur." - Volume i. p. 126.

King John's successor-Henry III.-does not appear to have confirmed any of the Privileges of the House, and the only grants which I find the monks to have obtained from him are an Inspeximus of a charter of Richard de Percy, of the Vill of Litton and Littondale in Craven, dated at Westminster, 5th August, 1239 (Rot. Chart., 23 Hen. III., m. 2); and the confirmation of a messuage at Boston in Lincolnshire, dated Nov. 6, 1248.-Rot. Chart., 33 Hen. III., p. 1. m. 7.

10 b.



Edwardus, Dei gratia, &c., ut supra proxima. Sciatis nos concessisse, et hac carta nostra confirmasse, dilecto nobis in Christo abbati de Fontibus, quod ipse et successores sui, imperpetuum, habeant liberam warennam in omnibus dominicis terris suis de Balderby, Marton-super-moram, Thorp-sub-bosco, 4 Kylnesey-inCraven, Bordelay-in-Craven, et Bradlay, in comitatu Ébor., dumtamen terræ illæ non sint infra metas forestæ nostræ. Ita quod

(1) “There be both beasts and fowls of the warren. Beasts-as hares, conies, and roes, called in records capreoli.-Hill. 13 Edw. III., coram Rege in Thesaur. Fowls of two sorts, viz., terrestres and aquatiles. Terrestres of two sorts—silvestres and campestres. Campestres—as partridge, quail, rail, &c. Silvestres—as phesant, woodcock, &c. Aquatiles—as mallard, hern, &c.”-1. Inst., § 378.

(2) The penalty belonged to the king, but the plaintiff could recover damages. Stephen de Pencester impleads John de Swanton and eleven other persons for chasing hares and conies in his free-warren at Tonstall in Kent. They agree with him for one hundred shillings, and pay to the king 101.-Coram Rege, Hill. 15 Edw. I., rot. 31. In a case where the abbot of Peterborough impleaded Richard de Milton for chasing hares within his warren in that place, it was found by a jury that the defendant had taken two hares, and the damage was valued at sixpence. “Consideratum est quod prædictus abbas recuperet dictum dampnum versus prædictum Ricardum; et dominus rex habeat decem librarum de forisfactura, &c., secundum statutum."-Coram Rege, Trinit., 33 Edw. I., rot. 25.

It was enacted by the statute, De Malefactoribus, 21 Edw. I., that if any warrener find any trespassers wandering within his Liberty, intending to do damage therein, after hue and cry made to stand to the peace, but do continue their malice, and, disobeying the king's peace, do flee, or defend themselves with force and arms; although such warreners or any other coming in their company, and aiding them in the king's peace, do kill any offender or offenders being so found, either in arresting or taking them or any of them, they shall not be troubled upon the same before the king, nor shall lose for so doing either life or limb, or suffer any other punishment.

(3) Enrolled, Rot. Chart., 8 Edw. I., n. 27.

(4) Free-warren in Thorp-underwood, near Green Hamerton, was granted previously to the abbot by King John.-Rot. Chart., 2 John, p. 1. m. 8.

nullus intret, &c., ut supra. His testibus, venerabilibus patribus R. Bathon' et Well', et A. Dunelm' episcopis; Johanne de Warenna, comite Surr', Humfrido de Boun comite Herford & Essex, Roger de Brabaszon, Waltero de Bellocampo, Ricardo de Brideshall, Ricardo de bosco, et aliis. Data per manum nostram, apud Berwik-super-Twedam, xvi die Octobris, anno regni nostri vices

Fol. 11.

imo. 1


REGIS RICARDI PRIMI. ] [Ex Rotul. Pat. 35 Edw. I., m. 16.]

Rex, omnibus ad quos, &c., salutem. Inspeximus cartam celebris memoriæ Ricardi quondam regis Angliæ, progenitoris nostri, in hæc verba;

Ricardus, Dei gratia, rex Angliæ, dux Normanniæ, Aquitaniæ, et comes Andegaviæ, archiepiscopis, &c., (ut antea. No. viii. p. 8.) Data apud Rupem Andeliaci, per manum magistri Rocel', tunc agentis vicem cancellarii, ix die Novembris, anno decimo regni nostri.

Quam quidem cartam, propter rupturam sigilli eidem cartæ appositi, de verbo ad verbum duximus per præsentes exemplificandam. In cujus, &c. Teste rege apud Karliolum, duodecimo die Aprilis.


REGIS RICARDI PRIMI].—[Ex Rotul. Chart., 5 Edw. II., n. 21, per Inspex.]

Edwardus, Dei gratia, rex Angliæ, &c., salutem. Inspeximus cartam celebris memoriæ domini Ricardi quondam regis Angliæ, progenitoris nostri, in hæc verba.

Ricardus, Dei gratia, rex Angliæ, &c., salutem. Præcipimus quod monachi et fratres Abbatiæ nostræ de Fontibus, et equi et homines, et omnes res eorum sint quieti de theloneo, et

(1) Enrolled, Rot. Chart. 20 Edw. I., n. 6.

(2) Vide page 10, note 1 of this volume. The king's chancellor, William de Hamelton, who had been at the Parliament at Carlisle with abbot Bishopton, in the early part of this year, died at Fountains, a few days after this charter was sealed. Vide vol. i. p. 188. Besides these charters, king Edward I. inspected and confirmed to Fountains, on the 18th of March, 1300, the confirmatory grant of Isabella de Fortibus, Countess of Albemarle and Devon and Lady of the Isle, of the vill of Stainburn, a moiety of the vill of Rigton, and a toft and an oxgang of land at Huby in Wharfdale.--Rot. Pat. 28 Edw. I., n. 24.-Abbrev. Rotul. Orig., vol. i. p. 110.

(3) The Statute of Carlisle, 35 Edw. I., is entered in the Register of Privileges of Fountains,

passagio, et stallagio, et pedagio, &c.—[Ut supra, No. ix. p. 11]. Teste, comite Willielmo de Mandevilla, xv° (sic) die Septembris, apud Gaitington.

Quam quidam cartam, propter rupturam sigilli eidem cartæ appositi, de verbo ad verbum duximus per præsentes exemplificandam. In cujus rei testimonium, has literas nostras fieri fecimus patentes. Teste me ipso apud Karliolum, duodecimo die Aprilis, anno regni nostri tricesimo quinto.



Edwardus, Dei gratia, rex Angliæ, dominus Hiberniæ, et dux Aquitaniæ, omnibus ad quos præsentes literæ pervenerint, salutem. Sciatis quod, pro remissione quam dilecti nobis in Christo, abbas et conventus de Fontibus, nobis fecerunt, de quater viginti et sexdecim libris et viginti et uno denariis, in quibus eis pro bladis et aliis diversis victualibus,' ab ipsis ad opus nostrum emptis,

fol. 13 6., but unaccompanied by a mandate to the abbot, similar to the exemplar writ issued to the abbot of Waverley, directing him to cause it to be publicly read, twice in the year, in a full chapter of his house.--See the statute and writ, Rot. Parl., vol. i. p. 217.

(1) Among the Miscellaneous Rolls in Chancery is one-No. 168—which contains a curious account of the sums of money owing by king Edward II. to the Yorkshire monasteries, for cattle and corn supplied by them, in aid of the military expedition against the Scots, in the year 1310. It is entitled “ Debita quæ debentur Viris Religiosis in comitatu Ebor., pro bladis, bobus, vaccis, et multonibus, domino Regi nunc mutuatis, anno regni sui quarto. De quibus promisit litteras suas obligatorias de solutione eisdem Religiosis facienda, ad festum Purificationis beatæ Mariæ proximo futurum, sicut patet per litteras suas de privato Sigillo quas dicti Religiosi habent de promisso." The debt to the abbot of St. Mary's, York, was entered first, but the sum is now illegible. Then that due “Abbati de Fontibus, pro xx quarteriis frumenti, prec. quarterii xs. Eidem abbati, pro xx quarteriis brasei ordii, prec. quart. vijs. Eidem abbati, pro xx quarteriis avenarum, prec. quart. ijs. Eidem abbati, pro xiiij bobus, xvi vaccis, prec. capitis xjs. Eidem abbati, pro c multonibus, prec. capitis xvijd. Summa denariorum xlvijli. xs.After this follow statements of a like nature with reference to the monasteries of Drax, Nostell, Rievaux, Byland, Kirkstall, Sawley, Pontefract, Jervaux, Selby, Newbrough, Coverham, Watton, Guisbrough, Wartre, Bridlington, Meux, Kirkham, Malton, Bolton, Whitby, and another place the name of which is illegible. The general prices were, for wheat, ten shillings per quarter; barley malt, eight shillings per quarter; beans and peas, six shillings per quarter; oxen, eight shillings a head; sheep, eighteenpence a head. The best oxen seem to have been furnished from the pastures of Fountains, Selby, and Jervaux, as they are valued at eleven shillings each. The worst sheep apparently were sent from Guisbrough, and were estimated to be worth only sixteenpence each. The beans and peas from Meux were of inferior quality and charged a shilling a quarter less than the rest.

Annexed to the roll is a receipt from Ralph de Dalton, clerk, dated 30th October, 4 Edw. II., 1310, for twenty-four pairs of letters obligatory from the bishop of Worcester, the King's chancellor, to be delivered by him to certain religious men in Yorkshire, “qui diversa genera victualium quæ ad summam quadringentarum quater viginti et unius librarum et septem solidorum per diversas particulas appreciantur, ipsi domino regi mutuaverunt, in subsidium expeditionis guerræ suæ Scotiæ, quorum nomina in quodam rotulo præsenti billæ annexo plenius continentur”; which letters obligatory, the said Ralph promises, according to his bond, to return into Chancery,

tenebamur, ac per finem quadraginta librarum quem fecerunt nobiscum, quas quidem quadraginta libras solverunt in garderoba nostra, concessimus et licentiam dedimus, pro nobis et hæredibus nostris, quantum in nobis est, eisdem abbati et conventui, quod ipsi terras et tenementa ad valorem viginti librarum annuarum, tam de feodo suo proprio quam alieno, exceptis terris et tenementis quæ de nobis tenentur in capite, adquirere possint. Habendum et tenendum sibi et successoribus suis imperpetuum, Statuto de terris et tenementis ad Manum mortuam non ponendis edito, non obstante, dumtamen per inquisitiones inde in forma debita faciendas, et in cancellaria nostra vel hæredum nostrorum rite retornandas, compertum sit quod id fieri poterit absque præjudicio nostro et alterius cujuscunque. In cujus rei testimonium, &c. Teste

wherever it may be, about the feast of the Purification of the Blessed Mary the Virgin next ensuing, or to the sheriff of the county.

As it appears from the Patent roll, 5 Edw. II., part 2, that the heads of several of the chief Yorkshire monasteries obtained licenses of mortmain, in the month of March in that year, in consideration of a fine and remission of the King's debt to them for provisions, it is probable that the privilege was conferred more for the sake of replenishing the King's exhausted exchequer than as an act of grace and favour to the monks, more particularly since, during his sojourn at York at this period, he resorted to the practice of raising money by granting charters which cost him nothing, and perhaps in many instances were not voluntarily sought, to municipal corporations. Thus, among other instances, on the 8th of March, in consideration of one hundred marks, the burgesses of Scarborough obtained from him a confirmation of their charters and a grant of kaiage. On the 12th of March, the burgesses of Ravensrode procured a similar concession on the payment of 501., and five days afterwards, the mayor and citizens of York had occasion to pay a fine of four hundred marks for the confirmation of their charters.

(1) “Abbas et conventus de Fontibus, pro quadraginta libris per quas finem fecerunt cum Rege, et pro remissione quam fecerunt dicto Regi de quaterviginti et sexdecim libris, viginti et uno denariis, in quibus Rex eis tenebatur pro bladis et aliis diversis victualibus, &c., habent licentiam adquirere, sibi et domui suæ, terras et tenementa ad valentiam viginti librarum annuarum, et confirmationem cartarum suarum."- Originalia de anno 5 Edw. II., rotul. 22. The charters alluded to were, no doubt, those dated on the 24th of February, which follow in the text.

The acquittance for this fine is enrolled on Rot. Pat., 5 Edw. II., m. 1. Rex, omnibus ad quos &c. salutem. Sciatis quod dilectus nobis in Christo, Abbas de Fontibus, solvit nobis in Gardaroba nostra, vicesimo tertio die Februarii anno regni nostri quinto, apud Eboracum, dilecto clerico nostro Ingelardo de Warle, custodi ejusdem garderobæ, quadraginta libr., per quem finem fecit

endi, sibi et domui suæ prædictæ, terras et tenementa ad valorem viginti librarum annuarum, tam de feodo suo proprio quam alieno, de quibus quidem quadraginta libr., præfatum abbatem et successores suos, tenore præsentium, quietamus. In cujus &c. T. R. apud Ebor. xxv die Februarij.- Per billam de Garderoba.

(2) Stat. de Religiosis, 7 Edw. 1., st. 2. All the statutes of mortmain were based on Magna Charta, 9 Hen. III., cap. 36, where the prohibition was absolute; but the king subsequently licensed alienations, partly because it was assumed that there was an inherent power in the Crown to dispense with Acts of Parliament: and partly, perhaps, because the statutes gave him a right of entry in cases where the provisions were broken, and the lord of the fee neglected to enter. In the Ordinatio de Libertatibus perquirendis, 27 Edw. I., it was provided that men of religion that would amortize lands or tenements should have writs out of the Chancery to enquire upon the points accustomed in all things. And, by the 18th Edw. III., st. 3. c. 3., “If prelates, clerks beneficed, or religious people, which have purchased lands, and the same have put in mortmain, be impeached upon the same before our Justices, and they shew our charter of licence, and process thereupon be made by an inquest of ad quod damnum, or of our grace, or by fine, they shall be freely let in peace without being further impeached for the same purchase.”

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