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Apostolici moderaminis clementiæ convenit religiosos viros diligere, et eorum loca pia protectione munire. Dignum namque et honestati conveniens esse cognoscitur, ut quia ad anima
Finit Feliciter.” The rarity of this book-alluded to by Dom. Liron in his Singularités Historiquez et Litteraires, tom. iii. pp. 337-339—is so great that the only copy which I have been able to discover is that in the Bodleian Library, 1. Q. v. 56, quoted in the following notes by the title, “Privilegia Ordinis Cist.," though this and the foliation have been added by the pen. It is in the original binding, and has a pictorial frontispiece, engraved on wood, representing a body of monks and nuns kneeling under the protection of the cloak of the Virgin, above whose head is inscribed on a scroll,
“Quam tibi Cisterci placeant sanctissimus ordo,
Hæc nobis primum ostensio facta probat;
Deditus ante alios, Virgo beata tibi."
On the other side of the page is a large wood-cut of the pope seated, in the act of benediction, and holding a bull or charter in his left hand. Two cardinals stand on each side, and abbots and monks kneel before him. St. Robert and St. Albert hold the representation of a church, before which is an armorial shield-Seme of fleurs de lis, an escutcheon of pretence, charged with bendy of sir, within a bordure-subscribed “Cistercium.” This collection was published in an enlarged form by Chrysostom Henriquez, under the title, “Regula, Constitutiones, Privilegia ordinis Cisterciensis: item congregationum monasticarum et militarium quæ Cisterciense institutum observant, etc. Antverpiæ, ex officina Plantiniana Balthasaris Moreti, 1630," but it is very seldom to be met with in this country. Considering therefore, the unusual rarity of these works, and the absence of any other equally comprehensive collection, I have appended in the following notes, under the reign of each pope, the rubrics and dates of the bulls included in the third series of the manuscript register above mentioned, and not found in the second, supplemented by memoranda from accessible Registers of English Cistercian monasteries containing documents of this nature, and other quoted sources of information. Assuming the improbability of a Cistercian Bullarium being published for some time to come, such an accompaniment seems, also, requisite, inasmuch as the series of bulls in the text affords a suitable opportunity of providing, at least, a connected abstract of documents, which throw remarkable light on the influence and decline of an order that left beneficial results, deeply and indelibly traced, not only in t of the kingdom, but in the history of European civilization.
A large portion of the bulls granting privileges to the Cistercian order were probably obtained at the instance of the chapter-general, or of the parent house of Citeaux. In most instances, they were addressed to the abbot of that monastery and all his fellow abbots, in others, with respect to England, to the archbishops, bishops, and other prelates of the provinces of Canterbury and York, when their operation was consequently confined to those provinces. Copies of them, under the bulla, or papal seal, bearing varying dates, were therefore obtained from the pontiffs who granted them, by different monasteries—a circumstance which causes much trouble in their identification and arrangement, especially when entered in a register in an undated and abstracted form. Without a knowledge, also, of the general series of privileges granted to the order, bulls might be erroneously supposed to be special and peculiar to a house that had been previously enjoyed elsewhere. Thus, the bull of Benefaciens Dominus, granted to the abbot and convent of Meux, in Holderness, by pope Honorius III., on the 9th of April, in the eighth year of his pontificate (Lansd. Ms., 424, f. 17), had been addressed to all archbishops, bishops, etc., on the 31st of December, in his third year (Bullar. Rom. Cocquel., tom. iii. p. 201), and copies had been obtained by Fountains on the 4th of January (Regist. Privil. de Font., f. 38), and by Meux, on the 15th of March in the following year (Lansd. MS., 424, f. 15). In this case, the abbot of Meux probably sought to add greater weight to some cause he might have in dispute, by the production of a special exemption granted to his house under the papal seal. Sometimes the operation of a bull of privileges was confined, in the first instance, to a particular province or provinces, and afterwards was made general, as in the instance of another bull of pope Honorius III.-Cum abbates Cisterciensis ordinis-which was originally addressed to the archbishops of Canterbury and York, on the 25th of June, in the seventh year of his pontificate (Regist. Priv. de Font., f. 36), copies of that date being entered also in the registers of Meux (Lansd. MS., 424, f. 15), and of Sibton in Norfolk (Arund. Ms., B.M. 221, f. 145). This was not, however, made generally operative, by being addressed to all archbishops, bishops, and prelates until the 9th of November, in the ninth
-rum regimen assumpti sumus, eas et a pravorum hominum nequitia tueamur, et apostolicæ sedis patrocinio foveamus."
Ea propter, dilecti in Domino filii, vestris justis postulationibus clementer annuimus, et præfatum locum, in quo Divino mancipati estis obsequio, sub beati Petri et nostra protectione suscipimus, et præsentis scripti privilegio communimus. Statuentes, ut quascunque possessiones, quæcunque bona, ipsum monasterium in præsentiarum juste et canonice possidet, aut in futurum, concessione pontificum, largitione regum, vel principum, oblatione fidelium, seu aliis justis modis, Deo propitio, poterit adipisci,
year of his reign,- Regist. Priv. de Font., p. 3. f. 66. By one of the constitutions of the order, it was directed "ut, in omnibus monasteriis habeantur transcripta privilegiorum," and, in case of neglect, the abbots, “stallum proprium ingredi non presumant, donec habuerunt ipsa privilegia.” --MS. Laud, in Bibl. Bodl., 362, f. 8. If this regulation was strictly observed, the Register of Fountains is, however, so far as I am informed, the only English volume devoted exclusively to that purpose. Probably, like the original bulls, they were systematically destroyed at the Reformation. There are not more than thirty chartularies of English Cistercian monasteries preserved in our public libraries and archives, and collections of papal privileges occur only in those of Beaulieu, Fountains, Furness, Gerouden, Holm-Coltram, Meux, Sibton, and Vale-Royal.
Though the second part of the Register of Privileges of Fountains probably contains as perfect and comprehensive a collection of the papal privileges granted to the Cistercians, within the provinces of Canterbury and York, as can now be recovered, still, the monks never appear to have entertained a desire to obtain copies as the series was issued, either “sub plumbo" or under the hand of a notary-public. Thus the compiler says of the bull of pope Urban III.--Cum ordo oester-"Habetur apud Kirkestall sub bulla ;" of that of Alexander IV. Licet ad hoc-"Originale est in Claravalle, et transcriptum sub manu publica apud Kirkestale;” of that of Boniface VIII.
-In ecclesice firmamento-"Est apud Revalle et Strateford;" and other instances of a like nature will be observed in the following notes. Some of these records were of greater rarity than others, even when they were of greater importance, as in the instance where the compiler observes on the bull of pope Innocent IV.--Significastis nobis-"Est valde bonum privilegium et necessarium et raro invenitur.” In all cases, they were preserved with jealous care-bond being required, even when lent from one house of the order to another-but when Fountains was the mother house, it is somewhat surprising to find it said in its register, of the bull of Honorius III. Contigit interdum -"Apud Valle Dei dicitur esse sub bulla;” and of that of Gregory X.-In vestitu deauratoOriginale est, ut dicitur, in Parcolude, sed sub manu publica est apud Melsam et Jorevallem.” It is to be hoped, for the credit of all parties concerned, that it was an exceptional case which drew forth the significant observation relative to the bull of Alexander IV.--Sedes apostolica duxit“Istud originale perdidimus per moniales de Synigthwait, tempore abbatis P., sed est aliud originale in Parcolude." The abbot thus alluded to was Peter Alyng, who is thought to have been deposed.-Vide vol. i. p. 139.
(1) The exordium, as well as other clauses, of Papal Bulls granting privileges to religious houses, were drawn up, in ordinary cases, from settled forms and precedents, varied of course as occasion required. Thus the exordium used in the present bull was adopted in that which follows it in the text, granted by pope Eugenius III.; and in the succeeding clause, after the word, annuimus, pope Innocent II. added, sometimes, on similar occasions, “atque prædecessorum nostrorum vestigiis inhærentes.” (Bullar. Rom. ed. Cocquelines, tom, ii. col. 270-271.) A Bull of Confirmation couched in nearly similar terms as the present was granted, by pope Eugenius III., to the monastery of Vaussoire in France. (Coll. Vet. Script. ed. Martene et Durand, tom. i. col. 819.) (Bullar. Rom. Cocquel., tom. ii. c. 321); and there is another with the same exordium and scope in the collection of Cocquelines, tom. ii. c. 459. Pope Innocent II., by a bull dated at the Vatican, 5 Id. Mar., 1140, takes the Cistercian abbey of Thame-which I had occasion to mention in the first volume of this work, p. 69-into his protection, adding the clause, “Sane decimis laborum nostrorum quos propriis manibus,” etc., and enjoins that none shall disturb their possessions.--Cott. MS., Julius, C. vii. fol. 304.
firma vobis vestrisque successoribus et illibata permaneant.
Sane laborum vestrorum quos propriis manibus aut sumptibus colitis, sive de nutrimentis vestrorum animalium, nullus omnino clericus vel laicus a vobis decimas exigere præsumat.
Si qua vero libera et absoluta persona, pro redemptione animæ suæ, vestro monasterio se conferre voluerit, eam suscipiendi facultatem liberam habeatis. Addentes etiam auctoritate apostolica prohibemus ne quis fratres vestros, clericos, videlicet, sive laicos, post factam in vestro monasterio professionem, absque vestra licentia suscipere audeat vel retinere.
Sanximus etiam nequis archiepiscopus vel episcopus, sive cujuslibet ordinis, locum vestrum a divinis interdicat officiis, sed liceat vobis omni tempore, clausis januis et exclusis excommunicatis, divina officia celebrare, nisi abbatis vel fratrum ipsius loci evidens et manifesta culpa extiterit.
Si qua igitur, in futurum, ecclesiastica sæcularisve persona, hanc nostræ constitutionis paginam sciens, contra eam temere venire temptaverit, secundo, tertiove commonita, si non satisfactione congrua emendaverit, potestatis honorisque sui dignitate careat; reamque se Divino judicio existere de perpetrata iniquitate cognoscat; et a sacratissimo corpore et sanguine Dei et Domini Redemptoris nostri, Jesu Christi, aliena fiat; atque in extremo examine districtæ ultioni subjaceat.
Cunctis autem eidem monasterio justa servantibus, sit pax Domini nostri, Jesu Christi, quatenus, et hic fructum bonæ actionis percipiant, et apud districtum Judicem præmia æternæ pacis inveniant. Amen. Amen. Amen.
Ego Innocentius,' catholicæ Ecclesiæ episcopus, [subscripsi]. 16
(1) Innocent II. was elected Pope, 15th February 1130, was consecrated on the 23rd of the same month, and died 24th September, 1143. Of his acts and times see Baronius Annal. Eccles., ed. Mansi, tom. xviii. pp. 427-624. Muratori Rerum Ital. Script., tom. iii. pt. 1. p. 433, pars. ii. col. 366. Ciaconius, Vit. et res gest. Rom. Pont., Romæ 1677, tom. i. col. 971-1010. Vita Innocentia II. Pont. Rom., auctore Caulio; Marburgi, 1744. Hist. B. Platince de vitis Rom. Pont.; Coloniæ, 1574, p. 173. L'Art de Vérefier les Dates; Paris, 1818, tom. iii. p. 343. Jaffé Regesta Pont. Rom., p. 558.
The copy of the signum of pope Innocent II., and the monogram BENE VALETE, between which the papal subscription is placed, are reduced in size one third from that drawn in the Register of Privileges. There are also copies in Bullar. Rom., ed. Cocquel., tom. ii. col. 205-206. Ciac, Vit. Rom. Pont., tom. i. col. 976. Papias says, in voce Formata, “Privilegia summorum episcoporum sunt cujuslibet ecclesiæ concessiones Pontificum, quorum materia hæc est, ut dicat pontifex, erogatum cujuslibet dignæ personæ, vel alia qualicunque ratione ecclesiæ illi, illa seu illa pontificali concedere et roborare dignitate. Anathema ponatur in calce epistolæ. Habent autem et Privilegia prologos, sicut et cæteræ epistolæ, et monogramma hujusmodi in fine BTE., quod est Bene valete. Signum autem in Privilegii exordio vel crismon, vel crux Dominica, cum crismon erit.-Consueverunt præterea in extremo margine privilegii quosdam insignire orbiculos, antistitis nomen, et quælibet paucula verba continentes in hunc modum," etc. A facsimile of part of an instrument of pope Benedict III. (A.D. 855-858) where the words BENE VALETE are written horizontally, the one below the other, will be found in Mabillon De re diplomatica, pl. xxvij.
Ego Conradus, Sabinensis episcopus. tiensis episcopus.
Ego Albericus Hos
454; and the same mode is adopted in a bull of pope Nicholas I. (858-867), Ibid., Pl. xlviij. p. 456. In a facsimile of a portion of a bull of pope Leo IX. (1048-1054), the monogram is represented as in the text, and the name of the pope is inscribed within a circular border bearing an inscription. Mabillon, alluding to this document, says-Ibid. p. 460–“ Perpetuam salutem Pontifex præmittit. Omissum est scriptum per manum Notarii, itidemque in plerisque subsequentibus Pontificum bullis, non tamen omnibus ut mox videbimus. Incipiunt circulus cum nomine et dicto Pontificis, atque Bene Valete in monogramma redectum à Leo IX. Dat. præmisso crucis signo per ipsum forsan Pontificem, cum solis annis ejus, omissis annis Imperatoris, ac deinceps.” In Dr. Hickes' Thesaurus, vol. i. p. 177, is a facsimile of a bull of pope Nicholas II., dated in 1061, where the form of both the monogram and the circular sign is of simpler character than was used in after days. Henschel, in his edition of Du Cange's Glossary, tom. i. p. 654, in voce Benevalete, says, “Extat liber singularis Jo. Car. Conr. Oelrichs, de Signo Pontificali, Bene Valete; Stettini, ann. 1773, form. max. cum figg.; but I have not been able to refer to a copy. With reference to this subject, see also Cartularie de l'abbaye de Savigny, etc., par. Aug. Bernard, vol. i.-Elements de paléographie : par. M. de Wailly, tom. ii. pl. xii.
Pope Innocent the second by his Constitution, Habitantes in domo Domini, dated 10th February 1132, confirming the possessions of the abbey of Citeaux, conceded also several very important privileges to the Order in general, the origin of some of which has not always been referred to so early a date,
“Et quoniam,” he writes, “ubi spiritus Domini ibi libertas, ut liberius divinis famulatibus valeatis insistere et purgata mentis acie sincerius contemplationi vacare, Prohibemus ne aliquis archiepiscopus aut episcopus te vel successores tuos, seu aliquem abbatem Cisterciensis Ordinis nisi pro fide, ad Concilium vel Synodum venire compellat.
Quia vero Cisterciense monasterium hujus Religionis origo est atque principium, nostra concessione hac prærogativa non immerito gaudeat, ut si quando fuerit pastore proprio viduatum, quemlibet abbatem de omnibus abbatibus vestri Ordinis vel monachum, salva nimirum sedis apostolicæ reverentia, sibi libere præficiendum eligat et absque aliqua contradictione obtineat.
Cæteris vero vestri Ordinis abbatiis quæ unam vel plures abbatias habent sibi subditas et de sui corporis fructifera copia derivatas, abbate suo rebus humanis exempto, eligendi quemcunque maluerint de sibi subjectis abbatibus, vel quemlibet monachum de omnibus Congregationibus Cisterciensibus liberam concedimus facultatem.
Illa autem abbatia quæ nullam habet sibi subditam, quemlibet monachum de omnibus præfata Religionibus Congregationibus, cum concilio et deliberatione Cisterciensis abbatis et illius qui eidem fratri eligendo præfuerit, libere sibi in abbatem eligat et habeat.
Porro conversos vestros qui monachi non sunt, post factam in vestris cænobiis professionem, nullus archiepiscoporum vel abbatum sine vestra grata licentia suscipere aut susceptum retinere præsumat.
Verùm quoniam sicut beato Gregorio Augustinum Anglorum episcopum instruente, didicimus communi vita viventibus tam de faciendis portionibus vel exhibenda hospitalitate et adimplenda misericordia nobis quid erit dicendum, cum omne quod superest in causis piis ac religiosis erogandum est, Domino Magistro omnium docente : Quod superest “date eleemosinam, et ecce omnia munda sunt vobis” ?
Statuimus ut de laboribus quos vos et totius vestræ Congregationis fratres propriis manibus et sumptibus colitis et de animalibus vestris, vobis decimas expetere vel recipere nemo præsumat." - Manrique Annal. Cist., tom. i. p. 234.—D'Achery Spicil. II. p. 577.- Privil. de l'ordre de Cisteaux, p. 25.
The same pope confirmed also the possessions and privileges of the Abbey of Clairvaux, 17th Feb., 1132.-D'Achery Spicil. II. p. 577.
(16) I have no doubt that, in transcribing this and several other subsequent Bulls, the compiler of the Register has omitted the 8., indicating subscripsi, after the name of each pope, bishop, and cardinal, under the impression that no signification attached to it. Of this sign, see Mabillon De re dipl., p. 472.
(1) When acting as legate in England, he had been assisted by the first abbot of Fountains, so perhaps the present Bull had been obtained through his influence. See vol. i. p. 70; and Priory of Hexham, vol. i. p. 96.
Ego Martinus presb.-card. sancti Stephani de Chelio monte.
Ego Stancius cardi-
Sanctæ Anastasiæ. anno ceutins / Ego Ivo presbyter
card. Sancti Lauren-
byter-cardinalis tituli Sanctæ Priscæ. Ego Goizo presbyter-card. tituli Sanctæ Cæciliæ.
Ego Gregorius diaconus-card. Sanctorum Sergii et Bachi.
Ego Otto diac.-card. Sancti Gregorii ad velum aureum. Ego Hubaldus diac.-card. Sanctæ Mariæ in via lata. Ego Octovianus diac.-card. Sancti Nicholai in carcere. Ego Guido sanctæ Romanæ ecclesiæ diaconus-cardinalis.
Data Laterani, per manum Baroniss capellani et scriptoris, xvi. Kal. Octobris, Indictione V., Incarnationis Dominica M°CXLI°, anno vero pontificatus dompni® Innocentii papæ secundi duodecimo.
Regist. Privil. de Font., fol. 17.
11.—PRIVILEGIUM EUGENII PAPÆ III. DE PROTECTIONE, CONFIR
MATIONE QUORUMDAM LOCORUM, IMMUNITATE DECIMARUM,
(1) A distinguished disciple of St. Bernard, and once a monk at Clairvaux. See Ciac., tom. i. col. 984.
(2) Stantius aut Stamius. Ciac., tom. i. c. 990.
(3) There was one Ivo a cardinal about this time, but he was “Card--diac. S. Mariæ in Aquiro.” Ciac., tom. i. col. 1004.
(4) Afterwards ordained by Pope Eugenius III., Priest-Cardinal of St. Cæcilia, by which title he is historically known as a statesman.--Ciac., tom. i. col. 996.
(5) Bullæ Innocentii II. sunt per manum Baronis capellani et scriptoris a 21 Junii, 1141, ad 15 Dec., 1141.-Jaffé Reg. Pont. Rom., p. 560.
(6) Domnus pro Domino per Syncopen dicitur, qua appellatione olim Pontificem Romanum, mox et alios episcopos venerationis causa honorabant. Pontificem enim Domnum apostolicum vocabant; nam dominus terroris, non reverentiæ vocabulum esse existimabant.-Onuph. Panuini, Interp. voc. eccles., p. 83,
(7) Eugenius III. was elected 27 Feb., 1145, consecrated 4th March, and died 8th June, 1153. -Cocquel. Bull. Rom., tom. ii. c. 284. “Ob. 7 au 8 Juillet.” L'Art de Verefier, etc., t. iii. p. 347.-Vide, Baron. Annal., tom. xviii. pp. 640-671.--Muratori Rer. Ital. Scr., tom. iii. par. 1. p. 437.-Ibid., pars. 2, col. 368.–Vita et epistolæ Eugenii Papoe, etc., Labboei Conc., tom, xxi, col. 622, et. seqq.- Platina de Vit. Pont. Rom., p. 176.-Libellus de miraculis Eugenii Papoe III. Vet. Script et Mon. Martene et Durand, tom vi.--Jaffé Reg. Rom. Pont., p. 617. Chacon says, Vit. et res gest., Rom. Pont., tom. i. c. 1034, “De rebus gestis Eugenii III. fusius scripsit,” Chrysost. Henriquez in Fasciculo SS. ord. Cist., lib. 1, dist. 7; Otho Frisingensis episc., monachus Cistercien. ; Petrus Manlius in Opusc. Hist. sacroe, ad Alex. III. Pont.; Bernalb. Montalbus in Hist. Cistercir; aliique plurimi.
(8) See vol. 1. pp. 100, 102, 109,