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[nulfo], episcopo Lexov[iensi], T[homa], cancellario, Comité Reginaldo, apud Eboracum.'

Fol. 10.



H[enricus], rex Angl., et dux Normanniæ et Aquitaniæ, et comes Andegaviæ, archiepiscopis, episcopis, abbatibus, comitibus, justiciariis, baronibus, vicecomitibus, ministris, et omnibus fidelibus suis, Francis et Anglis, totius Angliæ, salutem. Sciatis me concessisse et confirmasse Deo et abbatiæ sanctæ Mariæ de Fontibus, et monachis Cisterciensis ordinis ibidem Deo servientibus, pro salute animæ meæ, et uxoris meæ, et filiorum meorum, et pro anima patris mei, et avi mei, regis Henrici, et omnium predecessorum meorum, donationem illam quam Thurstinus, Ebora

(1) This charter appears to have been granted in or before February 1155, when the King left York, and soon after proceeded to the siege of Bridgnorth castle, in Shropshire.-Chron. Gervasii, X Script., col. 1377. It was on this visit to the north that he regained, from William Earl of Albemarle, the castle of Scarborough, which he ordered to be strengthened by the erection of a great and goodly keep.-Chron. Jo. Brompton, X Script., col. 1046. At that time, all the witnesses to this charter were in possession of their respective sees and honors mentioned in the attestation clause. - Le Neve's Fasti, pp. 4, 347, 138; Gallia Christ., vol. x. col. 774 ; Ibid., vol. xi. col. 361 ; Chron. Gerv., X Script., col. 1377. Earl Reginald was, no doubt, the Earl of Cornwall, and illegitimate son of King Henry I., who died in 1175,-R. de Diceto, X Script., col. 586.

Immunity from toll, in fairs and markets, is still enjoyed by a few of the tenants of lands which formerly belonged to Fountains, being also suitors of the Court Leet of “the late dissolved monastery.” This is allowed on the production of a document, called “a Fountains charter," under the seal of the Court, of which an engraving will be found at page 1 of this volume. The earliest certificate of the kind which I have seen is copied below. The charter which it mentions as one of King Henry I. is the document now under consideration; the mistake, as to the reign, having probably arisen from a recital of it, as such, in the Letters Patent of Confirmation, granted by King James I. to Sir Stephen Procter, once owner of the abbey and many of its estates.

Liberty of the late dissolved monastery of Fountance, in the county of Yorke.

To all Christian people to whome these presents shall come, I, Benjamin Norcliffe, Esq., Steward of the said Liberty, send greeting. Whereas tyme out of memory of man, and by confirmacion thereof by severall charters and grants of King Henry the 1st, Henry the 2nd, Richard the first, Edward the 1st, Edward the 4th, and the late King James of blessed memory, under their greate seales of England, made to the Abbey and monastery of Fountance aforesaid, the men and inhabitants of and within the said Liberty are, and ought to bee, exempt from paying any manner of tolls in any place within England and Wales, as by the records of the said late dissolved Monastery & Abbey remaining within me may att large appear; These are, therefore, to certifye all whome it may concerne that Ainderbie in the county of Liberty, and that Thomas Fall, of Ainderbie aforesaid, is within the said Liberty, by vertue of the said prescription and of the said severall grants, is and ought to be free and exempt from paying of any tolls in any place throughout England and Walles. In testimony whereof, I, the said Benjamin Norcliffe, have caused the seale (sic) to bee hereunto put, the 5th day of May, in the xxist yeare of the raigne of our soverigne lord King Charles the second that now is, Annoque Domini 1669: (Seal of the Court, pendant.)


censis archiepiscopus, fecit eis de Suttuna, scilicet, duas carucatas terræ. Ex dono Roberti de Essartis et Raghen' uxoris ejus, totam terram de Herleshow, scilicet, tres carucatas terræ, in bosco et plano, assensu et confirmatione Henrici, Eboracensis archiepiscopi. Ex dono Alani comitis de Richemundia, grangiam de Couton more. Ex dono Rogeri de Moubray, grangiam de Aldeburgh et quandam partem terræ nemorosæ juxta Suttunam, ex dono ejusdem et uxoris ejus. Et donationem illam quam idem Rogerus et uxor ejus fecerunt eis, scilicet, ut habeant omnia necessaria sua in foresta de Niderdale. Et grangiam de Dacra cum pertinentiis suis. Ex dono Eustachii filii Johannis et Sarlonis de Burgo, duas carucas terræ in Caytona. Ex dono Willielmi filii Dunecani et Aeliz uxoris ejus, duas carucatas terræ et dimidiam in Kylnesay. Quare volo et firmiter præcipio quod prædicta ecclesia teneat omnes prædictas terras, et cæteras omnes quæ ab aliis hominibus eidem ecclesiæ rationabiliter collatæ sunt; ita bene et in pace, et honorifice, et libere, et quiete, sicut cartæ donatorum testantur, in bosco, et plano, in pratis, et pascuis, in essartis, in aquis, et stagnis, in viis, et semitis, et in omnibus locis, cum soca et saca, et toll, et theam, et infangentheof, et cum aliis omnibus libertatibus et liberis consuetudinibus suis, et quietanciis de sciris et hundredis, et themanetale, et geld, et dangeld, et placitis, et quærelis, et assisis, et scutagiis, et auxiliis, et omnibus occasionibus, et omni terreno servitio, et sæculari exactione. Testibus, Theobaldo, Cantuariensi archiepiscopo ; Rogero, Eboracensi archiepiscopo; Thoma, cancellario; Reginaldo, comite_Cornub; Roberto, comite Legrecestriæ; Comite Patricio; Eustachio filio Johannis; H[enrico]' de Essex, constabulario; Ricardo de Hum[et,]? constabulario; apud Brugiam, in obsidione.3 Fol. 1.



H[enricus], rex Angl., &c. (ut supra proxima) justiciariis, vicecomitibus, et ministris suis de Eboracscira, salutem. Sciatis

(1) Probably the same Henry de Essex whose imprudence in dropping the King's standard, which he bore in a battle with the Welsh in 1157, ultimately led to the confiscation of his large estates, and his retirement to the abbey of Reading.-Matt. Paris, p. 99; Brompton, X Script., col. 1048; Chron. Gerv., Ibid., col. 1380.

(2) “Ricardus de Humet, constabularius Henrici regis Angliæ,” A.D. 1170.- Mon. Angl., . vol ii. p. 880. He witnessed many of the charters of King Henry II.

(3) This passage, while it discloses the date of the charter, is of greater importance in being, probably, the only record of the presence of several eminent persons who accompanied King

me concessisse et confirmasse abbatiæ sanctæ Mariæ de Fontibus, omnes possessiones et omnes res suas quas juste tenent, cum soca, et saca, et toll, et theam, et infangentheof, et cum omnibus aliis libertatibus, et liberis consuetudinibus. Quare volo, et firmiter præcipio, ut prædicta abbatia, et monachi ejusdem ecclesiæ de Fontibus, sint quieti et liberi de themanetale, et de danegildis et auxiliis, et sciris, et hundredis, et assisis, et omnibus sæcularibus placitis, et omni alia sæculari exactione. Et prohibeo ne quis eis injuriam vel contumeliam faciat, sed teneant omnia sua bene, et in pace, et libere, et quiete, sicut carta mea eis testatur. Teste, comite Reginaldo, apud Burg[iam].



Chart., 5 Edw. II., n. 21, per Inspex.]

H[enricus], rex Angl., et dux Normanniæ et Aquitaniæ, et comes Andegaviæ, justiciariis, vicecomitibus, et omnibus ministris suis totius Angliæ, et nominatim de Eboracscira, salutem. Præcipio quod homines et equi et omnes res abbathiæ de Fontibus, et monachorum ibidem Deo servientium, sint quieti de theolonio, et passagio et pontagio, et omni alia consuetudine, quocumque venerint, et nominatim ad pontem de Burgo, tam per aquam tam per terram. Et nullus eos injuste vexet, nec disturbet, super decem librarum forisfacturam. Testibus, Henrico filio camerarii, et Ricardo de Canvilla; apud Blauncmon' in Walliis.

Henry II. to the siege of Bridgnorth castle, in Shropshire, in the year 1155. It was occasioned by the refusal of Hugh de Mortimer to surrender that fortress, when Henry II. resumed possession of many of the estates of the crown which had been granted, by his predecessor, to several persons of distinction.—Ymag. Hist. R. de Diceto, X Script., col. 531 ; Chron. Jo. Brompton, Ibid., col. 1046.

(1) Although there is no internal evidence which enables us to ascertain, with certainty, the regnal year in which this charter was granted, I am somewhat inclined to believe that, since the King was then in Wales, it may have been procured soon after those which were granted when he was at York and Bridgnorth, in 1155; and in the year 1157, when he was engaged in an expedition against the Welsh.-Chron. Gerv., X Script., col. 1380. It will be observed that it confers no privileges not previously conveyed by those instruments; and, therefore, its declaratory character, with reference to exemption from toll taken at the bridge of Aldborough, now called Borough. bridge, on the river Ure, coupled with the speciality of its direction to the Sheriff and other King's ministers in Yorkshire, lead me to suppose that the monks may have experienced some opposition, at that place, to their former grants, which the present charter or writ was intended to remove. I may perhaps venture a step further. The charter by which King Henry II. first granted the general immunity from toll, at York, in 1155, and from which the present document appears in a great measure to have been copied, was witnessed by Eustace Fitz John, then lord of Aldborough, a manor which was ancient demesne, and also particularly franchised, from its inclusion within the Honor or Liberty of Knaresborough. Now, this Eustace was slain in the Welsh campaign of 1157 (Dug. Bar., vol. i. p. 90), and it is not improbable that the seizure of his



H[enricus], Dei gratia, rex Angliæ, et dux Normanniæ, et Aquitaniæ, et comes Andegaviæ, archiepiscopis, episcopis, abbatibus, comitibus, baronibus, justiciariis, vicecomitibus, ministris, et omnibus fidelibus suis, Francis et Anglis, totius Angliæ, salutem. Sciatis me concessisse, et præsenti carta confirmasse, Deo, et abbatiæ sanctæ Mariæ de Fontibus, et monachis ibidem Deo servientibus, donationes quas subscripti eis rationabiliter fecerunt, in puram et perpetuam elemosinam, sicut cartæ eorum testantur. Ex dono Willielmi Percy, totam pasturam de maro de Malhom, sicut rivus vadit sursum usque ad viam de Malhom, et postea totam viam deorsum usque ad Dernebroke; et deinde Uden deorsum usque ad Erneclifum, et totam pasturam quam idem Willielmus habuit, ex illa parte, versus rupes. Et donationem quam Turstanus de Arches, concessione et assensu ipsius Willielmi, fecit eis de terra de Erneclif, secundum quod cartæ eorum testantur. Concedo etiam eis et confirmo donationem ejusdem

property soon after into the hands of the crown (Mon. Angl., vol. ii. p. 819), a change of manorial officers, or some circumstance connected with these events, may have occasioned the opposition which I have supposed,

A little colour, too, may perhaps be added to this conjecture by the fact that the only Inspeximus or Confirmation of this charter which the monks ever obtained, was granted in the year 1311, just after Piers Gavestone had regained the Honor of Knaresborough, and disputes possibly may have arisen with his officers, similar to those which may have occasioned the grant which was inspected. Be this as it may, since neither the one nor the other are entered in the Register of the Privileges of Fountains, it may at all events be inferred that they were both obtained for a special and temporary purpose. It may be observed also that, on the same day on which the monks obtained this Inspeximus, they procured from the King, who was then at York, another charter of confirmation of some select estates, among which was included the privilege, conferred by Edmund Earl of Cornwall, Lord of the Honor of Knaresborough, of free passage in the rivers Ure and Ouse, between Boroughbridge and the City of York, without paying toll, pontage, or passage.

The names of the witnesses will not assist us in arriving at the date of this document. For Richard de Camville-ancestor to the Barons Camville of Clifton, in Staffordshire-after founding the Cistercian Abbey of Combe in Warwickshire, lived through the reign of Henry II., many of whose charters he witnessed, and died in 1191, at the siege of Acre.-Mon. Angl., vol. i. p. 882 ; Ibid., vol. i. pp. 424, 429, 514, vol. ii. pp. 302, 954, 978; Chron. Jo. Brompton, X Script., col. 1203. As to the other witness—Henry son of the Chamberlain-whom I presume to have been son of Gerold the King's chamberlain, it appears from the Pipe Roll that he also survived King Henry II. (Henricus fil. Geroldi Camerarii debet xxvjl. ixs. vd. de scutagio exercitus Walliæ).- Rot. Pip., 2 Ricardi I., Essex et Hartford. He had a son, “Warinus fil. Henrici fil. Geroldi Camerar.," livin 1199 (Rot. Pip., 10 Ric. I., Wiltescir), who succeeded to the office of Chamberlain, and married Alice de Curci, Lady of Harewood in Yorkshire. “Warinus fil. Henrici filij Geroldi, Camerarius domini Regis—dedi, &c. Deo et S. Mariæ de Sibbeton, &c. Test., Alicia de Curci, uxore mea," &c. Seal; on a shield, two lions passant guardant: SIGILL. GARINI FILII GEROLDI.-Dods. MSS. in Bibl. Bodl., Oxon., vol. lxviii. f. 7.

Pona. Est concessartæ ipsius ex donaqua

Willielmi quam eis fecit de Mallewatre,' et piscaria ejusdem aquæ, et donationem dimidiæ carucatæ terræ in Malhom, ex dono Ulf filii Roschilli, secundum testimonium cartæ ipsius Willielmi, et sicut eadem donatio facta fuit et concessa, in præsentia Capituli sancti Wilfridi de Ripona. Ex dono Aliz Carow, quæ fuit uxor Gaufridi Rothom', totam terram suam in Eboraco, cum ædificiis et pomerio et omnibus adjacentiis suis, sicut eam ipsis dedit et concessit, liberam et quietam de se et hæredibus suis, et sicut carta sua confirmavit. Quare volo et firmiter præcipio quod ipsa abbatia, et monachi in ea Deo servientes, omnia supradicta habeant et teneant, bene et in pace, libere et quiete, integre et plenarie et honorifice, sicut prædicti donatores ea ipsis rationabiliter dederunt, et cartis suis confirmaverunt. Testibus, H[ugone] episcopo Dunelmensi; Johanne, decano Sar[isburiensi]; Ricardo, abbate de Mortuomari ; Willielmo filio Aldelini, dapifero; Randulpho de Glanvilla, Reginaldo de Curtenay, Húgone de Creisse, Thoma Bard[ulf];2 apud Eboracum.3




Ricardus, Dei gratia rex Angliæ, dux Normanniæ, Aquitaniæ, et comes Andegaviæ, archiepiscopis, episcopis, abbatibus, comitibus, baronibus, justiciariis, vicecomitibus, ballivis, ministris, et omnibus fidelibus suis, salutem. Sciatis nos, pro anima patris nostri, et pro salute nostra, et matris nostræ, et fratris nostri Johannis, et omnium antecessorum et successorum nostrorum, concessisse, et hac carta nostra, confirmasse Deo et ecclesiæ sanctæ Mariæ de Fontibus, et monachis Ordinis Cisterciensis ibidem Deo servientibus, omnes concessiones et confirmationes, libertates et liberas consuetudines, quas rex Henricus, pater noster, eis fecit vel confirmavit, sicut in cartis ejus rationabilibus continetur. Præterea concedimus eis, et in perpetuam elemosinam confirmamus, omnia tenementa sua, cum omnibus aisiamentis et libertatibus ad ea pertinentibus, per divisas suas plenarias; scilicet,

(1) From a side note, written before the Dissolution, it appears it was then called Malwater terne.

(2) Thomas Bardulf, witness to a charter of King Henry II.-Mon. Angl., vol. ii. p. 203.

(3) The date of this charter may be fixed between the 1st of September, 1174, when the predecessor of Richard abbot of Mortimer died, and the 26th of November, 1175, when John de Oxenford, Dean of Salisbury, was promoted to the Bishopric of Norwich.- Gallia Christ., vol. xxi. col. 309; R. de Diceto, X Script., col. 588.

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