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As the nobles took the opposite side, and as the people had no in-

fluence, the success or failure of the Reformation in Scotland

was simply a question of the success or failure of the aristo-

215-218

In 1542, the nobles openly refused obedience to James V.; and

their treatment of him at this critical period of his lite, broke
his heart.

218-219

Directly he died, they regained authority. The clergy were dis-

placed, and measures favourable to Protestantism were adopted 219-222

In 1546, Cardinal Beaton was assassinated, and Knox began his

223-224
Subsequent proceedings of Knox

225-226

While Knox was abroad, the nobles established the Reformation . 227

He returned to Scotland in 1559, by which time the struggle was

nearly over

228

In 1559, the queen regent was deposed; the nobles became su-
preme; and, in 1560, the Church was destroyed

229-232

Immediately this revolution was completed, the nobles and the

preachers began to quarrel about the wealth of the Church 232-233

The nobles, thinking that they ought to have it, took it into their
own hands

233-236

Thereupon, the Protestant preachers said that the nobles were in-

stigated by the devil

236-238

Morton, who was at the head of the nobility, became enraged at

the proceedings of the new clergy, and persecuted them. 239-240

A complete rupture between the two classes

240

The clergy, finding themselves despised by the governing class,

united themselves heartily with the people, and advocated de-

mocratic principles .

240

In 1574, Melville became their leader. Under his auspices, that

great struggle began, which never stopped until, sixty years

later, it produced the rebellion against Charles I.

241

The first manifestation of this rebellious spirit was the attack on

the bishops

In 1575, the attack began. In 1580, episcopacy was abolished 243-244

But the nobles upheld that institution, because they loved in-

equality for the same reasons which made the clergy love

equality

244-247

Struggle between the upper classes and the clergy respecting

episcopacy

247-249"

In 1582, James VI. was imprisoned ; and his captivity was jus-

tified by the clergy, whose democratic principles were now
openly proclaimed .

249-250

Violent language used by the clergy against the king and against

the nobles

251-255

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Their leader, Melville, personally insulted the king, and they were
probably privy to the Gowrie conspiracy in 1600

256
Still, the clergy, notwithstanding the indecency of their conduct,

conferred the greatest of all boons upon Scotland, by keeping
alive and nurturing the spirit of liberty.

257-260

CHAPTER IV.

CONDITION OF SCOTLAND DURING THE SEVENTEENTH AND EIGHTEENTH

CENTURIES.

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In 1603, the King of Scotland became also King of England, and

determined to use his new resources in curbing and chastizing
the Scotch clergy

261-267
His cruel treatment of them .

267-269
In 1610, James, backed by the power of England, forced episco-
pacy upon Scotland. Courts of High Commission were also

. 270-271
Tyrannical conduct of the bishops

272-274
Meanwhile, a reaction was preparing

274-276
In 1637, the reaction declared itself, and, in 1638, the bishops were
overthrown

276-278
The movement being essentially democratic, could not stop there,

but quickly spread from the Church to the State. In 1639,
war was made upon Charles I. by the Scotch, who, having de-

feated the king, sold him to the English, who executed him 278-280
The Scotch, before they would crown Charles II., compelled him

to humble himself, and to confess his own errors and the errors
of his family.

280-281
But, after Charles II. mounted the throne of England, he became

powerful enough to triumph over the Scotch. He availed him-
self of that power to oppress Scotland even more grievously
than his two predecessors had done .

· 281-283
Happily, however, the spirit of liberty was strong enough to baffle
his attempts to establish a permanent despotism

283-284
Still, the crisis was terrible, and the people and their clergy were
exposed to every sort of outrage

284-288
Now, as before, the bishops aided the government in its efforts

to enslave Scotland. Being hated by the people, they allied
themselves with the Crown, and displayed the warmest affec-
tion towards James II., during whose reign cruelties were per-
petrated worse than any previously known

289-292
In 1688, another reaction, in which the Scotch again freed them-
selves from their oppressors

293

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The only powerful friends of this bad government were the

Highlanders

293

Reasons which induced the Highlanders to rebel in favour of the

Stuarts

293-295

The Highland rebellions of 1715 and 1745 were not the result of

loyalty

295-300

After 1745, the Highlanders sank into complete insignificance, and

the progress of Scotland was uninterrupted

300

Beginning of the trading spirit

301-302

Connexion between the rise of the trading spirit and the abolition,

in 1748, of hereditary jurisdictions.

302-303

The abolition of these jurisdictions was a symptom of the declining

power of the Scotch nobles, but not a cause of it

302

One cause of the decline of their power was the Union with Eng-

land, in 1707 .

303-307

Another cause was the failure of the Rebellion of 1745 .

308

The nobles, being thus weakened, were, in 1748, easily deprived of

their right of jurisdiction. In this way, they lost the last
emblem of their old authority .

309-310
This great democratic and liberating movement was aided by the
growth of the mercantile and manufacturing classes

311-312

And their growth was itself assisted by the Union with England 312

Evidence of the rapid progress of the industrious classes in the

first half of the eighteenth century.

. 313-322

During the same period, a new and splendid literatur arose in

Scotland .

322-323

But, unfortunately, this literature, notwithstanding its bold and

inquisitive spirit, was unable to diminish national superstition. 323-325

It is the business of the historian to ascertain the causes of its

failure. If he cannot do this, he cannot understand the history

of Scotland.

325

The first and most essential quality of an historian, is a clear per-

ception of the great scientific doctrine of Law. But whoever
seeks to apply this doctrine to the whole course of history, and
to elucidate, by its aid, the march and theory of affairs, is met
by obstacles which no single mind can remove

325-329

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AN EXAMINATION OF THE SCOTCH INTELLECT DURING THE

SEVENTEENTII CENTURY.

The rest of the Volume will be occupied with a still closer in-

vestigation of the double paradox presented by the history of
Scotland ; namely, Ist, that the same people should be liberal

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in politics, and illiberal in religion; and, 2d, that the free

and sceptical literature which they produced in the eighteenth

century, should have been unable to lessen their religious il-

liberality.

330

Their religious illiberality was the result of the immense power pos-

sessed by their clergy in the seventeenth century.

The causes

of that power will be examined in the present chapter

331

The failure of their literature in diminishing this illiberality dur-

ing the eighteenth century, was the result of the peculiar
method of inquiry adopted by the Scotch philosophers. The
causes of the universal diffusion of that method, the nature of
the method, and the consequences of it, will be examined in the
next chapter, which will conclude the Volume

331-332

Circumstances in the seventeenth century favourable to the influ-

ence of the Scotch clergy

332-335

While the English war against Charles I. was essentially political,
the Scotch war against him was essentially religious

335-338
Though this was the effect of Scotch superstition, it was also a
cause of its further progress

339-340

Hence, in the seventeenth century, secular interests were ne-

glected, and theological ones became supreme. Illustration

of this, from the zeal of the people to hear sermons of inordi-

nate frequency and of terrible length; so that they passed the

greater part of their lives in what were erroneously termed

religious exercises

341-343

The clergy availed themselves of these habits to extend and con-
solidate their own authority

343-344

Their great engine of power was the Kirk-Session. Tyranny of

the Kirk-Sessions .

344-347

Monstrous pretensions of the clergy

347-349
Cases in which it was believed that these pretensions were upheld
and vindicated by miracles

349-356

The clergy, becoming elated, indulge in language of extraordinary

arrogance

357-362

They asserted that miracles were wrought in their behalf, and
often on their persons

362-364
Effect of these proceedings upon the Scotch mind

. 364-366

The clergy, to intimidate the people, and bring them completely

under control, advocated horrible notions concerning evil

spirits and future punishments

366-376

With the same object they propounded notions more horrible still,

respecting the Deity, whom they represented as a cruel, pas-
sionate, and sanguinary Being

377-383

They, moreover, declared that harmless and even praiseworthy

actions were sinful, and would provoke the Divine wrath 383-392

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To prevent such imaginary sins, the clergy made arbitrary regu-

lations, and punished those who disobeyed them, sometimes

by flogging, and sometimes by branding with hot irons, and

sometimes in other ways .

393

Specimens of the sins which the clergy invented

394-398

The result was, that all mirth, all innocent gaiety, all demonstra-

tions of happiness, and nearly all physical enjoyments, were

destroyed in Scotland

398-399

Hence, the national character was mutilated. For, the pleasures

of the body are, in our actual condition, as essential a part of

the great scheme of life, and are as necessary to human affairs,

as are the pleasures of the mind

399-400

But the clergy, by denouncing these pleasures of the senses, do

what they can, in every country, to diminish the total amount
of happiness of which humanity is susceptible, and which it
has a right to enjoy .

401-405
In no Protestant country have the clergy pushed these narrow
and unsocial tenets so far as in Scotland

405-406
Indeed, in some respects, the Scotch clergy were more ascetic

than those of any branch of the Catholic Church, except the
Spanish ; since they attempted to destroy the affections, and to
sever the holiest ties of domestic love

406.409

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The Scotch philosophical literature of the eighteenth century, was

a reaction against the theological spirit of the seventeenth

410

But the peculiarity of the philosophy which now arose, is that,

instead of being an inductive philosophy, it was a deductive

one.

410-411

This is well worthy of notice; because the inductive method being

essentially anti-theological, it might have been expected that
the opponents of the theological spirit would have followed
tbat method

411-413
The truth, however, was, that the theological spirit had taken

such hold of the Scotch mind, that it was impossible for the
inductive method to gain a hearing .

413-417

Hence, the secular philosophy of the eighteenth century, though

new in its results, was not new in the method by which those

results were obtained

418

In this respect, Scotland is similar to Germany, but dissimilar to

England.

418-419

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