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than baked, between the “obley-irons," which were irons that closed upon them and gave the impress. Some of the breads were made larger, to be used by the priest alone; the smaller were for the communion of the people. In the accounts of the Prioress of Pray (S. Maria de Pratis), near St. Albans (Dugd., Mon., 1817-1830, III, 359) we find “ pd. for howselyng brede synging brede and wyne vd. ob.' From this it has been inferred that singing-bread was the priest's host, and houseling bread that which was given to the people. This distinction may have been sometimes made, but certainly “singingbread" was a term used of all altar-bread both before and for some time after the Reformation, and even to denote wafers for sealing letters. So the French oublie, a wafer, is from oblata, an obley or host. (Rock, I, 153—156 ; Scudamore, Notitia Eucharistica, part II, ch. xv, sect. ii). In the west wall of the south transept of Durham Cathedral is a fireplace supposed to have been used for heating the obley-irons. It is not mentioned in Rites. See further in a note on ch. XVI, p. 218. Part of the chimney that belonged to the fireplace in the destroyed vestry of the Lady chapel at Winchester still remains. An oven exists in the vestry at Hulne, and in that of St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich. In a large room at Castle Acre, supposed to have been the Sacrist's checker, was found a fireplace with an oven at the side, i foot in diameter, having a domed roof 16 inches high. -- Norfolk Archæology, XII, 123. Obleys were sometimes bought ready made. In 1545 we find a payment at Durham “Roberto Hackett pro hostiis consecr. 1200, xijd.,” and again to him “for fower hovndrith breydes, iiijd." See above, p. 97, and Rolls under Hosts, Obleys, Singing-breads. There are very minute directions for the making of obleys in Lanfranc, cap. vi, and in the Consuetudinary of Abbot Ware (end of 13th century).—Cotton MS. Otho, C. xi, cap. vi, fo. 34. See also Sir E. M. Thompson's Customary of ... St. Augustine's, Canterbury, and St. Peter's, Westminster, H. Bradshaw Soc., 1902, p. 119, and Alcuin Club Tracts, I,

third ed., p. 68. a faire marble stone). Neither this tombstone nor that of Bishop Beck now

exists. “When the church was flagged after an uniform plan, within the memory of persons still alive, many monumental slabs, worthy of preservation, were destroyed, and others were injudiciously removed from their places into the spaces between the pillars of the nave and other retired corners which they now occupy.”—Raine, Br.

Acc., 12. the wall beinge broken). The writer is here following what appears to have

been a common opinion in his day, but the doorway referred to, now walled up, is, like the one at the opposite end, evidently a part of the

original design. allyel. The walk immediately west of the eight wainscot partitions that

divided this entire transept into nine eastern chapels. It turned round eastward at either end, forming "the north alley" and "the south

alley” of the Nine Altars. shrines). Here we are probably to understand canopies. ouer head). These canopies were probably flat at the top, with some sort

of cresting, and coved or vaulted underneath, like that of Our Lady's Altar in the Galilee, described below,

partition of wainscott). The floor has been renewed and raised, and there

are no precise indications of the fixing of these partitions. At Fountains there were perpent walls with gabled copings ; at some late period these were replaced by wooden screens extending westward to a long parclose.—Hope, Fountains, 27, 30. At Rievaulx the five eastern altars were divided by perpent walls of stone, continued westward with wood, to meet a great cross screen or parclose. Rievaulx Cartulary (Surt. Soc.), vol. 83, pp. cxi, 336. For similar

arrangements at Abbey Dore and Lincoln, see Hope's note. pictured and guilted). There are remains of colour about the stonework

over where the altars stood. lockers or ambers). Like the one mentioned above; note, p. 193. in the wall]. There are three square recesses to the left of three of the

altars. As the sides are not grooved, they probably had wooden linings in which shelves were fixed. For the corresponding provision

at Fountains, see Hope, 30, 31. St Katherns window). Mentioned in 1545 as “ye windoo in the Kateron

wheyll.”Rolls, 727. This may have been originally wheel-shaped with radiating shafts, like others of the period, as, for example, that in the north transept of Beverley Minster, or that in the west front at Peterborough, a design which would keep in mind St. Katherine's Wheel. The glazing was done at a cost of £14, given by Tho. Pikeringe, rector of Hemingburgh, 1409-12.Liber Vitæ, 115. The present stone-work (36 lights) was made by Wyatt in 1795, and the

glazing is modern. 24 lights). Either this is a mistake for thirty-six, or the present design is

different from that which preceded it. The other window, in which

the legend was represented, is described again below, p. 119. as shee was sett uppon the wheele, etc.). See Legenda Aurea, Leg. clxvii,

according to which account she was afterwards beheaded with a sword, and angels carried her body to Mount Sinai.

The once popular legend of St. Katherine is still contained in the Roman

Breviary; it is given more fully in those of Sarum and York. cressetts of Earthen mettall]. Basins of earthen material standing in the

iron frame. Stone is classed as “mettell” in ch. XVII. A similar use of the word metal has survived in the term road-metal. At p. 24 it is used of the material of the miraculous Rood of Scotland. Cressets were often made of stone, a square block having from four or five to sixteen (or more ?) hemispherical cavities worked in it, each to contain grease and a wick. Such stone cressets were used in the Lantern, ch. XIII, and in the Dorter, ch. xliii, and in many other places about the Abbey. See Rolls, Index under Cressets. Such have been described and figured by Mr. Lees in the Cumberland and Westmorelan Transactions, Vol. III, pp. 194—196; see also Arch. Association Journal, XXII, 105. There are cresset-stones in situ in the atrium of S. Ambrogio, Milan, at Lewannick in Cornwall, and one, not in situ, at Wool Church, Dorset (Cornhill Mag. Nov. 1890, p. 193). There is one in the York Museum, also a fine example with nine holes at Furness Abbey. One was found at Waverley in 1899,

moveable, for four lights. Proc. Soc. Ant. Lond. 2nd Ser. XVIII, 201.

There were some at Abingdon. Accounts, Camd. Soc., 61, 62, 87. south alley end). The end of the Nine Altars where the south alley was,

the south end in fact. St Cuthberts Window). This description might have been written for the

St. Cuthbert's window in York Minster, on which see Yks. Arch. Journal, IV, 249-376, and XI, 486-499. Raine gives a list of armorial bearings noticed in the tracery of these windows by

Dugdale in 1666.-Br. Acc., 73. storye of Joseph}. Probably including the New Testament anti-types.

II, pp. 3–7. feritorye). As the “Nine Altars" transept was so called from the altars it

contained, so the raised enclosure at the back of the High Altar was called the “Feretory,” not only from the great shrine in the midst of it, but from any others that were kept there, as at Winchester, and even at Gloucester, where they had no great shrine. In the same way the term

“ High Altar" has often been applied to the area in which the holy table stands.

L. and H., 251. quadrant forme). Quadrate or quadrilateral ; so the courts or yards about

Hulne Abbey are said in a survey to be “ of quadrant fashion." shrine]. The great shrine, large enough to contain the entire body and the

relics kept with it. There were such at Canterbury, York, Winchester, Oxford, Bury, St. Albans, and Westminster. That at Westminster was restored after a fashion in 1556; there are two representations of an earlier shrine of St. Edward from a 13th century MS. in Scott's Gleanings, 1863, pp. 136, 138. The stone substructures of the two at St. Albans, and portions of that of St. Frideswide in the Cathedral at Oxford, were reconstructed as far as possible a few years ago. There is a drawing of the Canterbury shrine in Cotton Ms. Lib. E. viii, fo. 269, engraved in Dugdale's Monasticon and elsewhere, but best in Stanley's Memorials, 1865, p. 228 ; this is, however, considered to be untrustworthy, not to say imaginary. There are some good representations of the Durham shrine in the uth century in MS. Univ. Coll. Oxon. clxv, one of which is reproduced in Yks. Arch. Journal, IV, 341. It shows the stone substructure with a flowing cloth hanging about half way down, on which is set the shrine itself, with panelled sides and imbricated roof. The Rolls are full of interesting references to the shrine. See the Index thereto, under Shrine. The Purbeck marble ground-course of the substructure was recovered from St. Cuthbert's grave in 1899, and is now lying on the floor of the Feretory. This formed part of the “novum opus marmoreum et alabastrinum sub feretro Sancti Cuthberti,” for which John Lord Nevill paid more than 200l, of silver, and which he sent in chests by sea to Newcastle, the Prior conveying

it by waggons to Durham. Scr. Tres, 135; Archæologia, LVII, 11—28. seates or places conuenient). Recesses in the stone or marble substructure

on which the shrine proper usually stood. sittinge on theire knees). A local expression for kneeling. To bow or lean

forward as in curtseying is in Durham folk-speech “ to kneel.” In a Langholm proclamation it was said “they shall sit down on their bare

knees" (N. & Q. 8th S. II, 484). In the Metrical Life of St. Cuthbert, 1. 6241, we read “And on þair knees pai sett þaim doune," and below, ch. V, “sittinge downe uppon his knees . . . did creepe away uppon his knees”; so in ch. Vi, etc. The same expression is used in the Kirk Session Records of Balmerino under 1649 and 1658, quoted in

James Campbell's Balmerino and its Abbey, 205, 213. euen in theise latter dayes). E.g., in 1502 ; see note p. 222, and Scr. Tres, 152. the history of the Church at large). Mentioned again a little lower down,

p. 6, and in ch. XXVII (where see note), and ch. XXVIII. a little altar). As was usual. Such little altars are represented at the ends

of shrines in the St. Cuthbert's and St. William's windows at York. This particular one is described as “altare sancti Cuthberti, ad caput sancti Cuthberti situatum."--Scr. Tres, App., p. ccclxxxviii. A little altar has been set up at Westminster at the head of St. Edward's shrine at coronations. A permanent altar, in Irish black marble, was provided for the coronation of Edward VII, under the direction of

Mr. J. T. Micklethwaite, F.S.A. St Cuthberts day in lent). March 20, which always fell in Lent, as Easter

Day cannot fall earlier than March 22. The other feast of St.

Cuthbert, that of his Translation, was on Sept. 4. frater house). See ch. xxxix. the couer). When let down, it would rest on the substructure on which the

shrine stood. a pully under ye Vault). The pulley may have been fixed in a hole now

visible in the top of the Vault, immediately east of the middle arch between the Choir and the Nine Altars. The “rota in volta” is

mentioned in Rolls, p. 441. a loope of Iron). There are several holes in the pillar ; in one of these the

loop may have been fixed. fower staves). So in the case of St. Bede's shrine. See ch. LII. Brattishing). Properly board-work, a wooden parapet ; here apparently a

cresting. “Brandishing” is a corrupt form of “ Brattishing." See

N. E. D. att euery corner ... a locke). There were probably four different locks

with as many keys, kept by four persons. almeryes of fine wenscote). The marks on the floor, where these were fixed,

are clearly visible. all the holy reliques). There are lists of Durham relics in Trin. Coll. Camb.

MS. O. 3, 35, c. 1150, which formerly belonged to Finchale, in MS. Eccl. Ebor. XVI, 1, 12, printed in Scr. Tres, App., p. ccccxxvi, and the Liber de Reliquiis of 1383 in MS. Eccl. Dunelm. B. II, 35, printed in Smith's Bede, p. 740 ; Rolls, 425-440 ; transl. in Raine's St. Cuthbert, p. 121. Some of the most important of the relics are mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon poem De Situ Dunelmi printed in the Surtees Symeon, p. 153, in a short list in the Rolls edition of Symeon, I, 168 (c. 1150), and elsewhere. For a Finchale Inventory, including relies preserved there, A.D. 1481, see Durh. Arch. Soc. Trans., IV, 134, and for other relic-lists, Rolls, 953.

french peir). A name for the Neville screen, ch. III ; Billings, Pl. xxviiixxxiii.

. Not derived from its being supposed to be made of Caen stone, but from franche peer, free-stone, superior stone (N. E. D., under Freestone). We find “a franche botras” in 1412, probably a buttress of freestone.—Raine, Catterick Church, 1834, p. 8. Some say it is Dorsetshire clunch, others Bedfordshire stone. The screen was made in London, and brought to Newcastle by sea, packed in boxes, at the expense of John Lord Neville, who had contributed £533 6s. 8d. towards the cost of it (1372-1380).-Scr. Tres, 135, 136. Rolls, Index under Reredos. The screen and its alabaster images appear to have been beautifully painted and gilded. Dr. Raine says that “the screen was originally painted with the most gaudy colours.”— Br. Acc., 41. Traces of these may have been seen when the whitewash was scraped off, ib., but no remains of such decoration, which may have been done in the 14th or in some later century, are now to be seen. In 1380-81 a painter of Newcastle was paid 12d. for painting one of St. Cuthbert's birds (the Eider ducks of the Farne Islands) pro exemplare pro le Rerdos."Rolls, 591. In MS. Ebor. XVI, i, fo. 13v., is a short

treatise De Avibus S. Cuthberti. 2 dores). One on either side of the high altar, to give access to or from the

feretory, as at Westminster, Winchester, St. Albans, etc., and as is

usual. So again in the case of the Jesus Altar, ch. XVII. the irons). It would seem that there was some sort of an iron railing round

the raised platform called the Feretory. In like manner St. Thomas's shrine at Canterbury was enclosed by a grate. Some time after the dissolution of the monastery the place of the Durham grate was occupied by handsome carved oak screen-work, swept away during the last century, when so much valuable woodwork was destroyed. A portion of this screenwork is preserved in the University Library. It is shown complete in Billings, Pl. Ixvii. The

feretory is now surrounded by a modern stone coping. Ancient]. A corruption of Ensign. See N. E. D. ye battel done). That of Neville's Cross or of Durham, fought in 1346.

See ch. XII, XV. holy rood crosse). See also ch. xii, xv. wrythen). Wreathed. loup of Iron). There is no pillar immediately under St. Catherine's window,

but there are holes in the pillars near, in one of which the loop may have been fixed.

JII, pp. 7–10. the antient history). Probably Scriptores Tres. See the next note. Laordose). In the editions “Lardose," a doublet of Reredos, from Fr.

L'arrière dos, or, as in Scr. Tres, 136, La Reredos. to the middle vault]. I.e., to the bottom of the triforium. curtaines or hanginges]. The curtains called riddels or costers, that hung

originally from rods between four pillars at the corners of the altar, or, later, on rods projecting, as in this case, without front support. They had pairs of curtains of white silk and of linen at Canterbury. L. and H. 165.

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