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2 irons fastened). There are many marks and holes where irons have been

fastened, and among these are two which may have served for the canopy. The high altar here mentioned would be the one made in 1380, and dedicated in honour of SS. Mary, Oswald, and Cuthbert (Scr. Tres, 136). An earlier one, consecrated in 1240, was in honour

of St. Mary. App. VI, No. III, p. 150. that the pix did hange in it). The Pix or Pyx was a box for the reser

vation of the Holy Eucharist ; a box so called was sometimes, however, used for singing-bread or relics, or even documents. It was made of some precious material, as gold, silver, beryl, crystal, or ivory, in well appointed churches, but there were in some churches “full ‘simple and inhonest pixes, specially pixes of copper and timber (Pugin, s.v.). The Sacrament was not to be kept in a bursa or loculus, but in a fair pix with fine linen inside it, which pix was directed to be locked up in a “tabernacle,” which appears sometimes to have been constructed of wood, and sometimes to have been a locker in the chancel wall near the altar. The common English custom of suspending the pix was not in accordance with the above direction (contained in Peckham's Constitution Dignissimum) and it was held by some to be open to objection, though having its advantages.-Lyndwood, Provinciale, lib. III, tit. 26; ed. 1679, p. 248. We find in Rolls, “ Corda pro Corpore Xti pendente,” 179. On wall-lockers “ Sacrament-houses" Walcott, Scotimonasticon, 33. Such Sacrament lockers are pretty common in Scotland, some of the 16th century being enriched by appropriate sculpture and inscriptions. They are usually near the north end of the east side of the chancel, and the small lockers found in English churches in the same place, or in the east wall, may possibly have been meant for the same use. In Germany the Sacrament was kept (in later times, at least) in a lofty tabernacle on the north side of the altar, called a Sakramenthaus. The present Roman custom is

to have a Tabernacle at the back of the altar. a pellican). There was a “pellican”... feeding her

yong ones with her own blood" in the Cathedral church in the 17th century ; see Cosin's Correspondence, Surt. Soc., I, 168n. Pelican “ in her piety,” wounding her breast with her bill to feed her young ones with her blood, was an expressive symbol of Christ shedding His Blood for the world. This device was borne as his arms and used as a badge by Richard Fox, bishop of Durham 1494-1502. It is to be seen wherever he did much building or other work, as at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, Durham Castle, Winchester, and elsewhere. And very possibly the pelicans mentioned here and in ch. vii were made at his suggestion. A fine Pelican of brass, of late Decorated character, still serves as the lectern in Norwich Cathedral. There is a good woodcut of it in Murray's Cathedrals, Norwich, Pl. vi. For

other examples see N. & Q. 9th S. IX, 375. the white cloth). Such cloths are often mentioned in Inventories, and one

still exists at Hessett in Suffolk. See Alcuin Club Tracts, I, third ed.,

p. 3on. both the epistoler and the gospeller). These offices continued in the New

Foundation until they were abolished by the Chapter in 1884-5.

the epistoler . . . all 3 arow). It is still the custom in Durham Cathedral

for the clergy to go to and from the altar in single file, and one of the vergers before them with a tipt staff in his hand, but now the celebrant goes first. The officiating clergy went out under- the organ-screen and re-entered by the south quire door, namely the door in the screen between the aisle and the choir, within living memory, some of the older canons continuing to do so after others had begun to go direct from their stalls. This was a survival of going to and from the Revestry (demolished 1802). Until the use of copes was discontinued (in 1759) they were put on in the Revestry, which was on the south side of the choir, immediately before the celebration of Holy Communion. · Carter drew a portrait of the verger who remembered the time when he used to vest the clergy with the copes, a comely old man in wig, bands, gown, and knee

breeches.-B.M. Add. 29.933, No. 70 verso. the office of the masse). The Officium or Introit. which booke did serue for the pax). After the prayer for peace that followed

the commixtion of the elements in the mass, the priest kissed first the corporals, chalice, and altar, and then the deacon, who passed the actual kiss of peace to all in the choir, until about the 13th century, when the ancient practice of mutual salutation, founded on St. Paul's Epistles, primitive tradition, and the Apostolic Constitutions, was superseded by the use of an osculatorium or object passed round to be kissed by all in turn. In England this was called the tabula pacis, pax-brede (-board), asser ad pacem, or pax, and was commonly made of wood, jet, metal, ivory, or glass, often with a representation of the Crucifixion upon it (Speaker's Com. on Rom. xvi, 16; Maskell, Ancient Liturgy, 1846, 116n. ; T. J. Simmons' LayfolksMassbook, 1879, p. 295; Púgin, s.v. ; Rock, Hierurgia, 107). Many'highly prized Texts, with ivory, metal, or jewelled covers, also did duty as the Pax. One of the ancient MSS. of the Gospels now at Durham has the appearance of having been so used, at the picture of the Crucifixion. It may be the book here referred to. Sometimes, as at Canterbury, a cover was used without a book inside. At Lincoln, the Texts of the deacon and of the subdeacon were kissed before

the Officium and the Credo.- B. and W., I, 376, 379; Wordsw., 172. basons of siluer). For the priest to wash his hands in ; this was another

primitive practice, founded on Ps. xxvi, 6. It was done immediately before or after the offertory, at Milan, immediately before Qui pridie, beginning the act of consecration, either at the water-drain in the south wall of the chancel, or at a basin held at the south corner of the altar, with suitable words, as, Munda me Domine, etc. (Sarum), Lavabo inter innocentes, etc. (Ebor.). See Maskell, p. 62 ; Simmons, p. 252. In early times the priest washed his hands also after he had communicated; this practice has survived in the rinsing of the fingers in the ablution of the chalice. After the ablutions the priest washed his hands again (Maskell, 134). Silver basins are often mentioned in the Inventories of great churches, e.g., St. Paul's, 1245, Archæologia, L, 469; Rolls, Index under Basins; Legg and Hope, Inventories, p. 72.

more masses.

Cruitts). The larger cruets, like the gold chalice and larger basin, appear

to have been used on principall days " for the more show ; more wine and water would, however, be required on days when there were

They were called “Urceoli ad vinum et aquam." --Legg and Hope, p. 73. See Rolls, Index under Cruets, and Flackets. shipps). Naviculæ or incense-boats, so called from their form ; the incense

was taken out of these to be put into the censers. 2 . . . candlesticks]. Note that even for principal days on the High Altar

of Durham Abbey there were only two. In a council at Oxford in 1322 this direction was given, “Accendantur duæ candelæ vel ad minus una.” In the representation of mass in a Sarum missal printed at Rouen in 1492 there are two candles, and so in illuminations and prints in service-books generally, and in inventories of parish church goods, e.g., those in Lincolnshire in 1566, “ij candellstickes,” passim. The first Injunctions of Edward VI, and Cranmer's Visitation Articles, continue to hand on the traditional two lights which have been provided for in the Church of England to this day. In small and poor country churches it was perhaps not unusual for there to be only one. In Myrc's Instructions, E.E.T.S., I. 1875, we find “Loke þat þy candel of wax hyt be.” On the use of a single candlestick, see further, J. N. Comper, in Legg, Principles of Prayer Book, 1899, 72. On great festivals and in great churches many extra lights were used on the beam, on the floor, or otherwise round about the Altar, but these were ornamental, like the hanging lights in basins, and quite distinct from the altar-lights proper.

On the whole subject of Lights, see Legg, ut supra, 68–81. Alcuin Club Tracts, I, third

ed., p. 33.

3 quarters). 1.e., of a yard. taken in sunder with wrests). Made to unscrew by means of some sort of

keys that fitted them, probably in order to be more easily cleaned. So the Pelican lectern in ch. VII. We find references in the Rolls to the “scouring of the Paschal” after the Dissolution. See Rolls,

Index under Paschal. stooles and fannels). Stoles and fanons or maniples. Crosses to bee borne). Processional crosses were used from early times. At

first they were simple crosses, then the crucifix was introduced, and in the 15th century the figures of the Blessed Virgin and St. John were added on brackets. The Evangelistic symbols were placed on the four ends. The crux magna processionalis et alia minor pro mortuis are mentioned among the things required for a parish church, in Peckham's Constitutions, A.D. 1280 (Wilkins, II, 49). See also Quivil's, 1287 (Ibid., 138). For processional crosses at Durham, see Rolls, Index under Cross. There was a very fine processional cross with “ Mary and John" at Ripon, in 1466, and there is one with the same figures (ancient) now at St. Oswald's, Durham (Ripon Chapter Acts, Surtees Soc., 205, 206, and note).

IV, pp. 10-u. the pascall]. For the great Easter candle that was consecrated on Easter

Even and lighted with the new fire struck from flint, beryl, or crystal, and blessed immediately before the blessing of the candle. On this

rite see Pellicia, Polity of the Christian Church, tr. by Bellett, Lond., 1883, pp. 366-369 ; Processionale ad usum Sarum, Leeds, 1882, pp. 74-82 ; Missale Sarum, Sabbato Sancto; on the Paschal Candlestick, Pugin, p. 47. In the ancient churches in Rome, the Paschal candlestick is a fixture, standing beside the Gospel ambo, in England it was commonly moveable, and only brought out for the Easter season, as at Durham, ch. XI.- -Rolls, 715, 720. It is mentioned in the lists of Church requisites in provincial constitutions, as in

Wilkins, II, 49, 138. Maundye thursday). It seems to have been set up on this day, to be ready

for Easter Even. the first grees or stepp). Apparently the lowest Altar-step. 3 basons of siluer). Probably those which were presented by Bishop

Pudsey (1153-95), described in Scriptores Tres, p. 11. “Fecit etiam in ecclesia coram altari tria ex argento baccilia, cum unciis suis argenteis, cristallis mixtim insertis, dependi, in quibus lumina die noctuque perpetuo ardentia, ob venerationem sancti patris Cuthberti et reliquiarum, lucerent.” De Moleon, Voyages liturgiques, Par., 1718, p. 318, speaking of Rouen, mentions “le Cierge Pascal entre le tombeau de Charles V. et les trois lampes ou bassins d'argent." See Rolls, under Basins. For candle-basins al Lincoln, see B. and W., I, 290, 364; II, 361. There are some excellent representations of hanging basins with lights burning in them in 13th century windows at le Mans. See the plates in Hucher, Vitraux Peints, Par., 1865. For the same at Canterbury see Farrar, Painted Glass in Canterbury Cathedral, 1897, Pl. 27. In the Abingdon Rolls (Camd. Soc.), p. 91, 1422-23, we find, “ In cereis pro bacinis emptis, ijs." Finally, see L.

and H., 325. in the midst ... a nick, etc.). All this seems to show that at Durham

the Paschal stood, not on the north side, as was usual, but in the middle, on a wooden platform set with its four corners pointing N., S., E., and W., the six branches spreading north and south, being merely ornamental adjuncts to the central branch, which served as the actual Paschal candlestick in later times. The Durham Paschal was no doubt originally one of the great seven-branched candlesticks introduced in the twelfth century as part of the Judaizing movement of that period.--L. and H., Intr., 45. “ The custom at Durham of using the seven-branched candlestick for the Paschal was exceptional, and probably of comparatively late date, when the significance of the candlestick had been forgotten.”—L. and H., 49. There were other examples at Winchester (of silver, given by Cnut), Canterbury (given by Conrad), St. Augustine's, Canterbury, Bury St. Edmunds, Westminster, Lincoln, Hereford, York, and probably in most if not all great churches. See L. and H., 471. Existing examples at Essen and at Brunswick are figured in Lübke, Ecclesiastical Art, tr. 1871, pp. 176, 177, and there is a cast of one at Milan in the South Kensington Museum, which is remarkably like the Durham one as described in the text. At Durham there was “a tunycle (?) of white damask for the Pascall.”— Inventories, Surtees Soc., 137. One of the duties of the Treasurer in

Cathedrals of the Old Foundation was to provide seven candles for

the brazen candelabrum.-B. and W., I, 288 ; II, 66, 97. Latten). A kind of brass. the 7 candlestick). The Paschal proper, which held the Paschal candle.

The Sarum Processional of 1517 directs that the latter be 36 feet long, that is, of course, in Salisbury Cathedral. At Lincoln, c. A.D. 1300, the Paschal candle was to be of three stones of wax.-B. and W., I, 291 ; Wordsw., 204 ; in 1439-42 we find tres libras, but duas petras interlined.Ib., II, 303. At Westininster in 1558 the Paschal was made “the wheyth of iij c. of wax."-Machyn, 169. The great candle was, after Whitsuntide, made into candles for the funerals of poor people. Wilkins, I, 571, and II, 298. On the Paschal see a

note in Westminster Missal, H. Bradshaw Soc., Fasc. III, p. 1511. the lower uault]. The triforium, as above, p. 7, where it is called “the

middle vault ” ; here the lower with reference to the vaulting of the choir. The candlestick according to this account must have been about 38 feet high, and the candle with its “Judas "another 30 feet,

nearly 70 in all. wherein). That is, in the Paschal, not in the vault. a long peece of wood). A wooden imitation of the lower part of a candle,

called “the Judas of the paschal," a term which has not been very satisfactorily explained ; it is said that the Paschal candle typifies Christ, who sprang out of Judas (Judah). The wooden imitations on which other candles stood

also called “ Judases,” perhaps from their resemblance to the Paschal Judas. See Rock,

“Judases " (once “ Jewes light ") and “pascall posts (i.e., candlesticks) occur in Lincolnshire Inventories (Peacock, Ch. Furniture, see Index, s. vv.) The candle was carried to be blessed in hasta quadam (Osmundus de Off. Eccl. in Rock, Vol. IV, after Index, p. 52). This, however, seems to have been something different from the Judas ; it is represented in a woodcut in the Sarum Processional of 1508, Leeds ed., p. 80, as a hasta of wood with a beast's head at the top ; in the mouth of the beast is fixed the

actual candle. square taper). Why square is not evident, but candelæ majores quadrate

are mentioned in the Black Book of Lincoln.-B. and W., I, 364. In the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries at Edinburgh is a small square taper, entered as a donation in 1782. Nothing is known of its history. It is in several pieces, which, when put together properly in line, measure 13 inches. The base is 1% in diameter, and the apex 58. The four sides have floral and other devices in low relief, including a thistle and a sort of fleur de lys. Candela rotunda is especially ordered for Candlemas in Westm. Missal (H. Brad

shaw Soc.) ii, col. 621, note. a fine conueyance through the sd roofe). Not now to be identified.


IV, 244.

V, pp. 11-12. The Passion). The Durham missal (MS. Harl. 5289) contains rubrics

concerning local usages at Passion-tide, Easter, Candlemas, etc. See App. No. XI, pp. 172—191.

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