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maruelous solemne seruice). That known as “creeping to the Cross,” or

“ Adoration of the Cross." The Service is contained in Missals and

Processionals under Good Friday. the passion was sung). That according to St. John (xviii, xix, 1-37), followed

by the Gospel for the day (xix, 38-42). The Passion was often sung, as it still is in the Roman rite, by three singers, one taking the narrative, another the words of Jesus, and a third the words of others. That according to St. Matthew was sung on Palm Sunday, St. Mark's on the Tuesday, St. Luke's on the Wednesday, and St. John's on Good Friday. In some missals the parts are marked by letters, etc., to indicate the voice for each, or the part to be taken. In the Sarum missal, ed. Burntisland, it is explained in the rubric before the Passion for Palm Sunday, that letter a signifies Jews and Disciples, b Christ, m the Evangelist, and that the voices are alto, bass, and medius or tenor. The Roman missal has for Jesus, c for Chronista, and s for Synagoga. So has a MS. Sarum missal c. 1320. The Durham Chapter MS. of the Gospels (A. II, 16), which is supposed to date from about A.D. 700 or earlier, has in all the four Gospels, in the histories of the Passion, the words of Christ distinguished by l, and all the rest together under c. This would seem to be a simpler and earlier arrangement than any of the above ; the letters are probably not very much later than the original MS. For other forms, and on the whole subject, see Grove's Dictionary

of Music, s.v. Passion Music. a goodly large crucifix]. Usually kept within the image of Our Lady of

Bolton (ch. XVI). the picture). The writer uses the term “picture” for any representation.

See ch. xii, and end of xiv. St. Cuthberts armes). See below, in App. I, p. 109. singinge an Himne). The stanza Crux fidelis inter omnes Arbor una nobilis,

followed by Pange lingua gloriosi Prælium certaminis, to be found in most mediæval Breviaries and Missals. See Hymns A. and M.,

No. 97 ; Dict. Hymnology, 880. which sepulchre was sett upp in the morninge). It is clear that they had a

moveable wooden “ sepulchre,” not a stone structure such as may be seen in Lincoln Minster and in many other churches. Among the sacristan's expenses for 1547 we find “in tackettes (tacks to fix up drapery) to sett vp ye sepulcre, jd.Rolls, 728. Nails, tacks, and pins for the sepulchre are frequently mentioned in the Ludlow Churchwardens' Accounts. In 1557-58 wainscot was sawn for the sepulchre. ---Rolls, 715. A new one was probably made at this time to take the place of an earlier one destroyed. In village churches the sepulchres

often moveable closets of wood, on which were hung “sepulchre cloths at Easter-tide. The simplest form of the stone sepulchre is a recess in the north wall of the chancel in which a moveable wooden sepulchre could be placed. In the more elaborate examples we find sculptured representations of the Roman soldiers guarding the grave, and the figure of Christ rising amid censing angels. Probably not one old English wooden sepulchre exists. In Lincolnshire they were broken up and burned, made into


communion-tables, “a presse to laie clothes therein," etc. (Peacock, Ch. Furn., passim). At Winterton “one sepulcre clothe of lynnen' was sold and defaced (Ibid., 165). The modern Roman ceremony of “the Sepulchre" is quite distinct from the old English rite ; see Pugin s.v. We do not find the sepulchre in the lists of necessary Church furniture, nor is it mentioned in half the parish lists printed by Peacock. The service connected with it is nevertheless to be found in the missals and processionals. It took place after Evensong on Good Friday, when the cross that had been “crept !o" was laid in the sepulchre together with a consecrated host, there to remain until Easter morning. See, e.g., Processionale Sarum, Leeds, 1882, pp. 72, 91; Proc. Ebor. in York Manual, etc. ; Surtees Soc., 163 ; Martene de Ant. Mon. Rit., lib. III, cap. xiv, sect. 48, and de Ant. Disciplina, cap. xxiii, sect. 27 ; Bloxam, Gothic Archit., uth edition, 1882, Vol. II, 98—124 ; Alcuin Club Tracts, I, third ed., p. 54.

VI, pp. 12, 13. The resurrection). The ceremonies here described correspond with the

service provided in the Sarum Processional, but in the York Use Te Deum was sung to a joyous chant. Process. Ebor. (Surt. Soc.),

p. 171. Image of our sauiour). The form which the pyx took in this case. Christus resurgens). Rom. vi, 9, 10.-See Breviarium ad usum Sarum,

In die Sancto Pasche before Matins ; or the Sarum Processional. 4 antient gentlemen). Of the Lord Prior's household. See ch. L, last

section ; Rolls, Intr., p. iii. tached). Attached, tacked on, perhaps with taches ; cf. Exod. xxvi, 6,

So H. 44, but the editions have “tassell’d,” and “tasled," which words probably give the right reading. crosse of X pall). A processional cross, perhaps not all of crystal, but

largely ornamented therewith. holy water font of siluer). For the sprinkling of holy water during the

procession before the principal mass. one of the nouices). Puer qui ad aquam scribitur in tabula. Puer deferens aquam ; Processionale ad usum Sarum.

VII, pp. 13-14. Almeries). There are two large lockers in each of the piers or walls that

connect the Norman choir with the later eastern bay, to the west of the sedilia, of which there are four on either side, uniform in character with the Neville screen. Billings, Pl. lv. The doors of

the lockers are modern. letteron . . . epistle and the gospell). It is somewhat remarkable if they

sang both the Epistle and the Gospel on the Gospel side and from the same lectern, but perhaps the book was carried away for the Epistle. Almost universally in Milan, however, they sing the prophetical lesson, Epistle, and Gospel from the same ambo. At Durham there was “a coveryng for the lecteron of white sylke.”

--Inventories, Surtees Soc., 138. On lecterns, see Pugin, s.v. diwith a gilt pellican on the height [Topp, H. 45) of it). These words would

seem to mean that the pelican was on the top of the desk, but as it

Il, etc.

is said just below that the book lay on the wings, it must have been constructed in the usual way, and so must the eagle lectern described in the next paragraph. So again is the Norwich pelican lectern

referred to above, p. 199. taken in sunderl. Like the candlesticks in ch. III, and probably the

Paschal in ch. IV. all in hernes). In harness, i.e., with joints, like armour, “the joints of

the harness." standinge in the midst). In the corresponding situation in Lincoln Minster

is an ancient stone in the floor with the words CANTATE HIC. wch same stood theire, etc.). Either this lectern was reconstructed or a

different one made in 1586, for we find a voucher dated May 14, • Payed and geauen vnto Wyll’m Foster of Yorck in rewarde in considerac'on of his paines in comynge for the makinge of the eagle for the letterne of brasse in the Quier, xiijs. iiijd.-Rolls, 731. This is no doubt the lectern referred to in Hegg's Legend of St. Cuthbert, where he says, “ Amongst other Monuments of this church, the brasen Desk is not the least, which was the joynt guift of a Reverend Prebend (note, Robert Swift Spiritual Chancellor'; he was prebendary 1562-99) of this Abby, and his Sonne, who added the Globe and the Eagle to that sumptuous Basis and Columne (the guift of his Father) which was the twelfth part of a great Candlestick found hid in a Vault." Are we to suppose that the Great Paschal had been hidden away, and that, when it was found, the twelve prebendaries

divided it among themselves ? Dunbarr feight]. In which Cromwell routed the Scotch royalists, Sept. 3.

Note that this passage is a later addition. burned vpp all ye wood worke). Accordingly, there is no woodwork left that

is earlier than about 1663, and there are several places in the Cathedral where the stones are reddened by the fires that they made. They also destroyed the font at this time (Greenwell, 74, note 2),

a pair of organs " (below, ch. ix and App. VIII, p. 163). It is slated below that they were to the number of 4,500 (ch. Xix). Sr Arthure Haslerigg). A sacrilegious Puritan, characterized by an

opponent as having more will than wit.” Under Richard Cromwell he became one of the most powerful men in England, but soon after the Restoration he ended his days in the Tower.--Dict. Nat. Biog.,

s.v. Hesilrige. ye poore prisoners]. See further in ch. ix, xix. 3... siluer basins). Mentioned above, ch. iv.

VIII, pp. 14–16. Ludovick de Bellomonte). Lewis de Beaumont, 1318-1333. a most curious stonn). The stone remains, and is in two pieces,

measuring together 15 feet 10 inches by 9 feet 7 inches. The matrices are perfect, but no brass is left. There is a full account of it, with a reduced facsimile of the stone, in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, January 16th, 1890, where also the beautiful seal of the bishop is figured. A drawing of the stone is preserved at the Heralds' College.-Raine, Br. Acc., 42.

and “


his uerses of his breast]. The verses “In pectore "given below. the sd through of marble). Through is a northern word for a flat tombstone ;

see below, ch. xxix, and Durham Church-wardens' Accounts, 1630 and 1682, Surtees Soc., Vol. 84, pp. 185, 250. Brockett gives “Thruff Stone”; A.S. þruh, in Runic inscriptions prui, drui. The

'through stone” as applied to a stone going through the whole thickness of a wall is quite distinct. some of them). The portion containing the date seems to have been lost

when these inscriptions were copied. Epitaphium eius). Part of this Epitaph was legible in 1672.-Durham

Notes, in possession of Rev. W. Greenwell in 1842, but now lost. Dapsilis ac hilaris). The Lanercost Chronicler, speaking of an earlier

Bishop of Durham, Robert de Insula, 1274-1283, says “ vidimus in vita satis dapsilem et jucundum," and proceeds to give an amusing account of the way in which he would banish care and delight his guests by setting two monkeys to fight for almonds.-.Chron. de

Lanercost, Bannatyne Club, Edin., 1839, p. 14. inimicus semper amaris). This is the reading of the Cosin and H. 44

MSS. and of Davies, but MS. L., with Hunter's and the later

editions, has “ avaris.” liberat ipsum]. The asterisk, here placed by mistake, belongs to the next


was one

two or more.

IX, p. 16. 3 paire of organs). Note that these three were “ belonging to the quire."

For another pair, used at the Jesus mass, see ch. xvii, and for one in the Galilee, ch. XXII; Scr. Tres, p. cccxvi.

It is perhaps hardly necessary to point out that “a pair of organs" is what we now call an organ. A “pair" was formerly a set of any number of things, thus we used to speak of a pair of vestments, beads, cards, stairs, etc., and it has only come to usually mean two in modern times.—See Rolls, 822, 868. Perhaps an organ

stop or rank of pipes, a pair of organs

Prior Hugh de Derlington inade organa grandiora" in 1264 (Scr. Tres, 46). Prior Wessington (1416-1446) expended £ 26 13s. 4d. in “factura diversorium parium organorum (Ibid., cclxxiii). For notices of some later organs see Appendix VIII, and of older ones, Rolls, Index

under Organs. the leaues). Folding doors to close the organ in front, such as the old

organs commonly had. 1630). Read 1650. a letterne of wood). Probably a simple desk. the 9 lessons]. The writer must be referring to the time after the dissolu

tion of the monastery, previous to which the three or twelve lessons of the Benedictine Breviary would be sung. But perhaps he is only

speaking loosely, as a secular might, of a feast day. the 4 doctors . . . read). This expression seems to have come down from

monastic times, and to refer to Sundays and other festivals, on which, in the Roman and Benedictine breviaries, the first lesson in the third nocturn is an exposition of the Gospel for the day, usually,


though not invariably, taken from the writings of one or other of the four doctors named. Thus it would mean on Sundays and other festivals when not superseded by the first pair of organs. The expression would hardly apply to the Sarum and York breviaries, in

which a great many of the expositions are from Bede. the cryers). Perhaps because of their shrill tones. In a will of 1467 is

mentioned " a small belle called a cryer" (N. E. D., s.v. Crier). The

use of different organs for different days is curious. the third paire). For ferial days, for which there is only one nocturn, and

the expositions of the Gospel do not come in. This third organ was perhaps a moveable one. It was called the “White Organs." See Appendix VIII, p. 162.

X, pp. 16—17. an excellent fine booke). The Liber Vitæ, now robbed of its original

binding, among the Cottonian Manuscripts at the British Museum (Domitian vii). Its contents have been printed in Vol. 13 of the Surtees Society's series. It was originally prepared so as to admit the names of benefactors arranged in classes, as,

" Nomina regum vel ducum,” “Nomina reginarum et abbatissarum," etc.

But as unoccupied parchment grew scarcer in the volume, names entered in any blank spaces that there were ; there are also some memoranda, charters, etc. The earliest entries have been referred to the ninth century, the latest belong to the sixteenth. It will be observed that in use and purpose the Liber Vitæ corresponded with the Diptychs of the Primitive Church, and with the tablets in use at a later period. Thus in 1514 a Table was ordered to be made with the names of all the brethren and sisters, quick and dead, of the Guild of the Holy Trinity in St. Mary's church, Leicester, and it was to stand on the Trinity altar.-Throsby, in North, Chron. of St.

Martin's, 18on. which booke). Namely, that which was published by the Surtees Society

in 1841, as Liber Vitæ. another famous booke). What has become of this most interesting book is

not known. It may have been that described in Scr. Tres, ccxxviii, as chained to the high altar in 1433, when it was consulted by Prior Wessington in the presence of a notary public.

XI, pp. 17–18. porch wch was called the Amanchoridge). So, by mistake, in MS. Cosin ;

L., H. 44, and Davies have “Anchoridge,” Hunter and Sanderson

Anchorage.” Nothing seems to be known of the Anchorite here referred to, but Mabillon speaks of recluses dwelling in cells within monasteries (Ann. Bened. s.a. 916, quoted in Bloxam, Gothic Archit., 1882, II, 167). Bloxam has collected a great deal of information on the subject, pp. 163-181. The term porch often applied to a chapel within a church. Thus, in 1412, we find

chappel or porche of owr lady,” and in 1492 “a chappel or porche dedicat vn to Saynt Janis ” (Raine, Catterick Church, 12); in 1522, my Porch of or Ladye" (Durham Wills, II, 105); in 1614-15, then newly built, in great part, “ the portch in the North Allye,” probably a sort of pew (Durham Church-wardens' Accounts, Surtees Soc., vol. 84, p. 167).


the 66

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