Obrázky na stránke

upp a paire of faire staires). This “porch was evidently such a loft

as those at St. Alban's and Christ Church, formerly St. Frideswide's, Oxford, which are beautiful structures of wood. For St. Albans, see Carter's Plans, etc., 1810, Plan K2, Plate v, Observations, p. 5; for Oxford, Murray's Cathedrals, Frontispiece, and p. 22. The term “porch” was applied to small internal chapels between pillars, as well as to external ones between buttresses. Some holes in which the timbers of this chamber may have been fixed are to be seen, filled up with stone, at various heights up to the tops of the columns that bear the arch leading from the north aisle of the choir to the Nine Altars. But there was once a modern gallery in this same

aisle.- Raine, Br. Acc., 49. On “pair,” see above, p. 207. the pascali did lye). Doubtless taken to pieces when put away. See notes

on ch. III, VII, pp. 201, 206. the children of the aumerie). Of the Almery or Almonry ; see ch. XLVIII. to dresse, trim, etc.). After the Dissolution persons were employed to scour

the Paschal. In Durh. Cath. Misc. Cart., Nos. 2751 -59, we find, 15 Aprilis. In primis for scowryng off the pascall to Cuthbert paype and hys felowe, ijs. . . . Solut. Jacobo Person et Cuthberto Jonson pro croccione (polishing with crocus of iron) Candelabri Paschalis, cum aliis sibi servientibus feria 4ta ebdomadis sanctæ

Ao 1545to iijs. iiijd.-Rolls, 715, 720, 727. a faire marble stone). No longer to be found. The bench table in this bay of the aisle was reconstructed in 1402–3.

The riser has a range of cusped panels, pointed and circular alternately, the latter enclosing twelve shields all bearing Skirlaw's arms, viz. (arg.) a cross triple-parted and fretted (sa), otherwise described as “three Rodds or Spells crosswise, traversed in manner of a Sive or Riddle.”— Origin and Succession of the Bishops of Durham, 1603, in Allan's Collection of Tracts. For a roll of expenses of the construction and

furnishing of Bishop Skirlaw's chantry chapel, see Rolls, Intr., p. lix. invyroned wth Irons). The holes where these were fixed into the columns

are distinctly visible. a stall or pewe . . for gentlewomen Probably the pew where Cosin tried

to make certain gentlewomen stand at the Nicene Creed.-- Corresp.,

Surtees Soc., I, 174. His body was not removed). It was found in 1848 in a stone grave, encased

in lead, through which appeared “an indication of the right hand in a state of elevation, holding a pastoral staff, or in the act of benediction.” No internal examination was made, and the body was buried a few feet further northward, to make room for the organ.— See Raine, Auckland Castle, 44, 45, and woodcut there ; Durham

Obituary Rolls (Surtees Society), p. xxiin. onely the stone). The stone is now lost. the song scoole). Not the original Song-school, which is described in ch.

Xxxi, and which was at the south end of the Nine Altars, outside, but the one in use when this account was written.

See ch. XLIX, section 4, p. 97.

the segresters exchequer). The Sacrist's or Sacristan's or Sexton's checker

or office. a porch adioyninge to the quire). Another internal chapel constructed of

wood, in the form of a loft or gallery surmounting the screen at the entrance of the choir aisle. No stairs are mentioned. There are holes high up, showing where wood has been let into the columns

and arch. Si Bendicts altar). This altar stood in the transeptal chapel adjoining the

aisle. Dtr Swallwell]. Thomas Swallwell is described in 1496 as monachus

gremialis, S.T.B., and chancellor of the church ; at this time, acting for the Archdeacon of Durham, he offered on the altar of St. Cuthbert the silver seals of Bishop Sherwood, to be made into a chalice or two cruets. In 1502 Prior Castell “ enucleated" from the beginning to him and other of the religious the whole history of a miracle wrought at the shrine. In 1507 he was terrarius or “terrer of the house, and took part in a synod held in the Galilee, sede vacante. In 1519 he was a “doctour,” and together with Hugh Whiteliead petitioned Bishop Ruthall for licence to elect a Prior on the death of Prior Castell. -Scr. Tres, ccclxxxvii, 153, cccciv, ccccxix.

XII, pp. 18-19. a most faire roode or picture). For this use of the term “picture," see Ch.

v, note. Davies says the “ Pictures ” were a yard or five quarters

long"; edition 1672, p. 31. black Roode of Scotland). The silver had no doubt became black by reason of oxidation ; MSS. L. and C., and Davies, say that the figures

“all smoaked black over,” and the smoke from lights may have helped to blacken them. See also ch. XV, p. 25, where the silver is described as “ being, as yt weare, smoked all over." But the name may have been suggested by that of the small cross described in the

next note. brought out of holy Rood house, etc.). The great Black Rood with Mary and

John is not to be confounded with the black cross, a palm in length, that was taken upon the person of King David, as stated in ch. xv, where the two crosses are kept distinct. Both were taken to the battle, the smaller one borne probably on his breast, by the king himself, the larger one by two or three men, and both were won by

the English and taken to Durham Abbey. See note below. the battaile of Durham]. See ch. II, XII, XV. a deuice or wrest). A mechanical contrivance. See above, on ch. II, p. 201. the bpps seate]. As the bishops of Durham were Counts Palatine, their

Episcopal throne represents secular as well as spiritual dignity, and is in a sort of gallery with seats for two persons on either side of the bishop, whose own seat is under a rich tabernacled canopy. This canopy forms the central portion of a construction of panels, niches, mullions, tracery, and canopies, filling up the whole of the Norman arch under which it stands, and the whole space between the pillars. “A pair of stairs" leads up to this gallery at its east end, and the floor is carried over the tomb of Bishop Hatfield


by an enriched segmental arch. The alabaster figure of the bishop remains, in a somewhat mutilated condition, lying on a richly panelled altar-tomb, under very beautiful groining with foliated bosses. Upon the walls at the ends of the arch, over the head and feet of the effigy, are remains of paintings in which have been representations of angels. The whole structure has been richly gilded and coloured, and it still exhibits many shields bearing the arms of Bishop Hatfield and others. The various parts of the whole structure show signs of some giving way or shrinking and of unskilful repairs ; again, the parts are not well fitted, as if it had been made in whole or in part for some other situation. There is no sign of any inscription, but the tomb has a very unfinished appearance all round the figure, such as cannot have been contemplated in the original design (Billings, Pl. lvi, lvii, lviii). Billings does not show the remains of paintings, only conventional bare wall. But Carter's drawing (B.M. Add. MSS. 29, 933) shows a figure of Christ in a red garment with cruciferous nimbus, displaying His wounds ; on His right below stands an angel censing. Besides his throne in the choir the Bishop of Durham has his stone chair in the chapter-house, p. 56, and the first stall in the choir on the right, as having been in place of an abbot ; the Dean, representing the Prior, has the lefthand stall. In the Vestry were kept “two cloithes for the bisshoppes stall one of reid baldking and th’other of reid damask.”Inventories,

Surt. Soc., 139. all of Alabaster). Not the tomb, only the effigy. a little altar). This altar could not have stood at the end of the tomb,

there being no space for it between the pillars. There are, however, signs of alteration in the choir aisle, namely, the cutting away of Norman masonry, and perhaps the insertion of an iron grate, suggesting that the altar may have stood near the S.W. corner of the tomb. (Billings, Pl. Ivii, lviii). Or, possibly, the tomb may have stood more to the south, and have been shifted to its present

position to be more out of the way. See the last note. the uestrye). This vestry, a plan of which is given in Carter, Pl. ii, was

built by Henry de Luceby, sacrist, before 1300, not " within " the aisle, but against the outside wall. It was entered from within the aisle by an inserted doorway, which remains, and had four windows, (see “Description of the Histories in Glass," in Appendix I, p. 117). It is somewhat remarkable that our writer has not devoted a separate section to it and told us more about it. The watching-chamber at the west end is referred to in the next chapter. The vestry itself was used by the Minor Canons until 1802, but was suffered to fall into disrepair, and was finally demolished in that year.-Raine, Br. Acc., 48. For the writer's use of the word “within ” compare the account of the Sexton's checker, in ch. XLIX, p. 97. He considered that buildings abutting on and entered directly from the church were within it. The position of the vestry was usually, as here, on the same side of the church as the cloister was. The Inventory of all the ornaments being within this vestry in 1546, as found in six almeries, “the presse,” five chests on the north side and six on the

south, is printed in Inventories of Church Goods, Surtees Society,

Vol. 97, pp. 137–141. See Rolls, Index under Revestry. a peculiar altar). Probably so called because, although within the abbey,

it belonged specially to the bishop, as a church locally situated in another diocese might do. A reredos of wainscot was made for the altar in the Revestry in 1557–58.- Rolls, 715. Its situation is shown in Carter's plan. All large sacristies probably had altars in them, as they still have in Italy. Mass would be said at them occasionally, but they were also used for laying out the vestments when a prelate was being vested solemnly before entering the church. So at Westminster, • ffyrste the westerer shall lay the abbotes cope lowest opon the awter wtin the sayd westre."— Registrum vestibuli, 1388, in Archæologia, LII, 213.

The Westminster altar was dedicated in honour of St. Faith, and mural paintings that belonged to it still remain. St. Andrew's chapel at Canterbury, which was the revestry, had an altar. For Lincoln, see Wordsw., 231, 299. Many parish church vestries had altars, some of which remain, e.g., those at Burford, Oxon., and Warmington, Northants. At Durham it would seem that the bishop held his ordinations in the revestry so as not to interfere with the monastic services in the choir.

XIII, pp. 20-22. The crosse allye). The area of the central tower, in a line with the

transepts, and formerly separated from the nave by the wall at the

back of the Jesus altar (ch. XVII). former part]. Foremost, where you first enter. See N. E. D. under Former

+3. in theire seuerall roomes). Places, probably niches in “ le Rerdoose ad

ostium chori" made by Prior Wessington (1416-1446) at a cost of £69 4s. (Scr. Tres, cclxxiii). For the inscriptions that were under

the figures, see App. IV. kinges and queenes). The choir-screen at York has a series of sculptured

figures of the fifteen kings from William the Conqueror to Henry VI. There is a similar series of kings on the so een at Canterbury, as was formerly the case at Wells. At Chichester there still remain paintings representing bishops from the first, and kings from the

Conqueror. whose names hereafter followeth). There are considerable discrepancies

among the lists of figures on the screen. The list in the Appendix IV, p. 137, appears to belong to an earlier set of thirty-two figures, sixteen kings and sixteen bishops. MS. Cos. contains all the twentyeight kings and queens named in MS. H. 45, with six additional

If two of these have been repeated by mistake, the number is reduced to thirty-two, that of the supposed earlier set of figures, and if the other four names be added to the list in MS. H. 45, we again have thirty-two, the probable number of the niches in the screen, two rows of eight on either side of the choir doorway. It is quite possible that thirty-two kings and queens were at some time substituted for the same number of kings and bishops,


the new workel. The “ new work" here meant is the uppermost stage of

the central tower, an unsatisfactory excrescence on the beautifully designed lantern below it, which was not finished in 1474, “in defaulte of goods, as God knaweth,” wrote Prior Bell in that year. Nevertheless the belfry stage must have been added not long after. It commands a very extensive prospect, and can itself be seen from several points round Durham, rising above the hill-tops that conceal all the rest of the church. For notices of the great tower, see Rolls,

Index under Tower. a Chamber ouer the west end of the sd uestrye). The arrangements are to

some extent indicated in Carter's plan. This chamber was used as the singing men's vestry until 1802 (Raine, Br. Acc., 48); earlier it

served as the boys' room ” (App. IX, p. 169). a chamber in the north allye]. This chamber must have been between the

two porches” mentioned above (ch. XI), and the upper portion of the north aisle of the choir must have been almost filled up by the three

wooden structures. holy water stones). Frequently mentioned below ; see Index. before it came to be hallowed). At the Benedictio salis et aquæ, which took

place every Sunday morning before the procession that preceded · high mass. The office for it is usually inserted at the beginning of the missals and manuals, but in the Durham MS. Missal (Harl. 5289)

it is at the end. See Rolls, Index under Holy water. a foure squared stonn . in euerye square). The writer uses square' in an obsolete sense, meaning

angle." On the cressets (cavities), see note on ch. I, p. 195, and Arch. Journal, xxxix,

390, 396. filled with tallow). See Rolls, 87, where crucibulum is the term used for a

[ocr errors]

« corner”

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]



one of them was lighted). That is, probably, one at a time, a fresh one being lighted as each one burned out, until daylight.

XIV, pp. 22--23. John Washington). Otherwise “de Wessington," Prior 1416-1446. He was

one of the most famous of the Priors of Durham, and a handsome provision or pension, including rooms, etc., at Coldingham, was assigned to him in 1446. For lists of his compilations and collections of evidences relating to the church of Durham, and of the buildings and repairs effected by him during his twenty-nine years of office, see Scr. Tres, pp. cclxviii-cclxxvi, and for other notices of him, the index to the same volume, our Appendix, No. III, p. 124n., and Rolls, Index under Wessyngton. The Durham Chapter MS. B. III, 30, is a volume of collections by Prior Wessington on fifteen different subjects. His tombstone is lost, as is also the case where no mention is made in

the following notes of any ting stones or portions thereof. Robert Berington). Prior 1374-1391.

A short notice of him will be found in Will. de Chambre (Scr. Tres, 136). Authority for the Priors of Durham to use the mitre, pastoral staff, and other pontifical insignia, was obtained from the Pope, and confirmed by the bishop of Durham and the archbishop of York in 1382 (Ibid., note).

« PredošláPokračovať »