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the north plage). “In boreali plaga " (Scr. Tres, 137), in the north region or quarter, in this case the transept.

XV, pp. 23-29. ye battell of Durhm] The occasion of this fight was that David II (David

Bruce), king of Scotland, being in alliance with Philip VI of France, invaded England in the hope of drawing Edward III away from his campaign in Philip's country. But the Archbishop of York and the heads of the great houses of the North mustered their forces and met David and his army between Beaurepaire (now Bearpark) and Durham. After a fierce conflict, the Scotch army was totally routed, and David taken prisoner. Tradition points to “King David's Bridge,” over the Browney, near Aldin Grange, as the place where

he was taken. wth in ye corporax). “Corporax here means the Corporas-case used to

contain and protect the corporal or corporas itself, i.e., the linen cloth used in the consecration of the elements. It was called the corporal because the Sacrament of the Body of Christ was originally consecrated on it, not on a paten. And De Moleon states that the corporal was used to cover the chalice in the great churches of France, as late as the seventeenth century.— Voyages liturgiques, Paris, 1718, pp. 57, 198, 286. Corporas cases were often richly

embroidered. See Pugin, s.v. ye Readhilles). Called Red Hills in the editions of 1672, etc., as at present.

They are the high grounds to the west of the city of Durham, where the railway passes through them by a deep cutting. The name is probably derived from the colour of the soil, which is somewhat

reddish. prostrating themselves in praier). Knighton states that some also watched

the battle from the campanile of the Church (not the present Lantern, which was not built till some years later, but its predecessor, or else one of the western towers), “Monachi existentes in campanili Ecclesiæ

videntes fugientes Scotos, levaverunt vocem nubesque repleverunt sonitu clamoris, clamantes et Deum laudantes, flebilibusque lacrimis præ gaudio dicentes, Te Deum laudamus, quam vocem Angli audierunt ac si a tergo eorum prope adessent, et fortiorem audaciam in Deo inde sumentes inimicos acrius insecuti sunt et fortius eos protriverunt. Nam monachi Dunelmenses finem fecerant cum Scotis pro se et maneriis suis et suis tenentibus in patria in crastino sequenti pro mille libris solvendis absque ulteriori mora, et sic liberati sunt ab ipso jugo.”—Scriptores Decem, Lond., 1652, col.

2590. the said battell ended). In some of the accounts there is mention of a hill

called Findon, a well-marked elevated spot three miles north-west of Durham, overlooking the village of Sacriston in the line of the road, and the valley of the Browney, in which Bearpark is situated, to the left. Prior Fossor wrote to Bishop Hatfield that it was rightly named, “a quodam præsagio . quasi finem dans, vel finem dandus," as putting an end to the long and miserable strife between the English and the Scotch.-Scr. Tres, p. ccccxxxv; Durham Wills, I, 29, 30.



victorie atchived that daie). The principal authorities on the Battle of

Durham or of Neville's Cross are Chron. Lanercost, 346, etc. ; Minot's Latin poem, in Hall's edition, Oxf., 1887, p. 108; Fordun, Scotichronicon, lib. XIV, ii-iv, and two letters from Prior Fossor to Bishop Hatfield, in Scr. Tres, App., Nos. cccxxxvi, cccxxxvii. For modern accounts, see Archæologia Æliana, n.s., I, 271; Fasti Ebor., 440 ; Boyle's Durham, 392. It is sometimes said that Bishop Hatfield was present at the battle, but his presence is not mentioned in any of the early accounts, and indeed Prior Fossor's second letter gives a description of the battle as from an eye-witness to one

who was absent. holie rudehouse). The abbey of Holyrood, which frequently accommodated

the Scottish court before a distinct palace was added in the sixteenth century.—Daniel Wilson, Memorials of Edinburgh, Edinb., 1848, pp.

25, 403-410. wch crosse ...

is recorded, etc.). This legend of the wild hart properly belongs not to David II, but to David I (1124-1153), the son of

St. Margaret, and himself accounted a saint. ye Rude well). By the “ Queen's Drive," at the foot of Salisbury Crags,

about a quarter of a mile to the S.E. of Holyrood Palace, is a well that was known of old as St. David's or the Rood Well. The ancient wellhouse of St. Margaret's well at Restalrig in the same neighbourhood, which would otherwise have been destroyed by the North British Railway Company, was some years ago removed and erected over the Rood Well, which is now commonly called “St. Margaret's Well."—See Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., Vols. II, 143, III, 365, for accounts of the wells, with excellent illustrations, also Old and New Edinburgh by James Grant, Vol. III, pp. 129, 130, and D. Wilson, Mem. of

Edinb., p. 399. his own captivitie). He was first taken to Ogle Castle to recover of his

wounds, and then confined for a long time in London. It is said that after that he was kept in Nottingham Castle, and that he carved on the rocky side of his prison the whole story of Our Lord's Passion (D. Wilson, Mem. of Edinb., p. 9). His conduct shortly before and at the battle of Durham is reported to have been that of a most ungodly man, but his thoughts may afterwards have been directed

to better things. lost ye saide crosse wch was taiken vpon him). The “Holy Cross" mentioned

above in this same chapter, being the smaller of the two Black Roods, the Nigra crux of earlier writers. Nothing is more likely than that David would carry the smaller one, which was but a palm in length, and had been used by St. Margaret and by David I on their deathbeds. It was an heirloom greatly venerated, and in course of time became connected with the legend of the wild hart related in ch. xv. In the Life of Queen Margaret (Surtees Symeon, p. 252, also in Pinkerton's Scottish Saints), we read “ Ipsa quoque illam, quam Nigram Crucem (Crucem Scotia nigram, MS. Tiberius E. 1, 186a) nominare, quamque in maxima semper veneratione habere consuevit, sibi afferi præcepit,” etc. In that of David I by Baldred, Ethelred, or Aelred of Rievaulx (Fordun, Scotichron., lib. V, cap. lv ;

Scriptores Decem, col. 349) the cross, “quam nigram vocant,” is thus described, “Est autem crux illa, longitudinem habens palmæ, de auro purissimo, opere mirabili fabricata, quæ in modum techæ clauditur et aperitur. Cernitur in ea quædam Dominicæ crucis portio, sicut sæpe multorum argumento miraculorum probatum est, Salvatoris nostri imaginem habens de ebore decentissime sculptam, et aureis distinctionibus mirabiliter decoratam. Hanc religiosa regina Margareta, hujus regis mater, quæ de semine imperatorum et regum Hungarorum et Anglorum extitit oriunda, allatam in Scotia, quasi munus hæreditarium transmisit ad filios. Hanc igitur crucem, omni Scotorum genti non minus terribilem, quam amabilem, cum rex devotissime adorasset, cum multis lacrymis, peccatorum confessione præmissa, exituin suum celestium mysteriorum perceptione munivit." There was a cross, probably this one, that was sometimes called St. Margaret's Cross. See ch. LV, and Rolls, 426. Why this smaller cross is described as black does not appear. Perhaps the portion of the True Cross was enclosed in a black cross, and that again in a gold case, which, again, may have been at some time enclosed within the great Black Rood. But in 1383 it was kept with some other crosses, etc., in a place of honour among the relics.Rolls, 426. At Abingdon there was a nigra crux believed to have been made in great part “ex clavis Domini.”—Mon. Angl. (1682), I,

97, 99. noblemens aunncientes, etc.). See ch. II, XLIX. pippes of siluer). These, being fitted tog er end to end, would combine

strength with lightness; the lowest portion of the staff seems to have been of wood. See further in ch. XLIX (Dane William Watson, p. 94). At Doncaster were “ij coper crosses and pypes belongyng to

them."--Inventories, Surt. Soc., 104. fyve yerdes longe). On the contrivances for lifting it up and down and

holding it up, see ch. XLIX, p. 96. a wand of siluer). A cross-bar to carry the banner. maid fast). 1.e., bound round so that it would not fray out. sackring belles). Little handbells rung at the Tersunctus, and at the sacring

or consecration of the elements in the mass, also before the Host

when carried in procession, or for the communion of the sick. (never) caryed or shewed at any battell, but, etc.). Provost Consitt (Life of St.

Cuthbert, p. 215) repeats this statement, but then goes on to say that it was carried for the last time “in the glorious but ill-fated" Pilgrimage of Grace in 1556. The banner appears to have been injured by rioters in 1536–37. The Feretrar's Roll of 1537–38 mentions 55. “pro emendacione vexilli Sci Cuthberti per communes Dunelm.

fracti.” Rolls, 483. Deane Whittingham]. William Whittingham, the puritan dean of Durham,

was educated at Oxford, and May, 1550, travelled to Orleans, where he married a sister of John Calvin. He returned to England, but fed when Queen Mary succeeded, and joined the Puritan congregation at Geneva. Here he was made a minister in some Genevan form, succeeded John Knox, took a leading part in the translation of the Genevan Bible, and turned into English metre the

psalms, etc., marked “W. W." in Sternhold and Hopkins's collection. He returned again under Elizabeth, and in 1563 was placed in the deanery of Durham, which he held for sixteen years. His death put an end to a long dispute whether he could hold the deanery, having been ordained only at Geneva. He was buried in Durham Cathedral, with a monumental inscription that was afterwards destroyed. Browne Willis remarks that “his Monument, soon after the erecting of it, met with the same Fate as he had treated others. On it was this Inscription : In obitum doctissimi viri Gulielmi Whittinghami Decani olim Dunel mensis, Mariti Catherine Sororis Johannis Calvini Theologi, qui obiit Anno 1579.”. Some Latin verses follow. Cathedrals, I, 253. There is a Life of him, copiously annotated, and

with valuable appendixes, in Camden Miscellanies, VI. did most iniuriously burne, etc.). It had been supposed that the banner

would not only put a check upon fire, but could not be consumed

thereby.Regin. Dunelm., cap. 39. Neivelles Crosse). The “ sockett" is all that remains ; it has recently been

removed to a new mound some yards distant from the old site. An old milestone stands where “the stalke” has been. Dr. Raine states that documents in the Treasury refer to an earlier Neville's Cross in the same place. -St. Cuthb., 106. But he gives no

references. ye Nevelles crosse). The well-known saltire in the arms of Neville (gu. a

saltire arg.). pictures of ye 4 evangelistes). The usual symbols of the Four Evangelists

are still to be seen on the four corners of the socket-stone ; perhaps

there were statues standing over these, round the octagonal shaft. ye Bulls head). The Neville badge and crest. the Read hilles). See note above, p. 214. ye flashe). A hollow about half a mile in length, still called the Flass Bog,

although it has been drained and is partly under cultivation and partly built over. It is crossed by the railway viaduct, some of the piers of which had to be built on piles, and it runs down eastward from the top of the Red Hills. Its name survives in “ Flass Street and “ Flass Well." For “ Flash," a pool or marshy place, see

N. E. D. north Chilton poole). Not identified, but it was probably a dam on the Mill

Burn, in connexion with the old “ Clokmylne,” in Millburngate. See

Rolls, 905.

ye maydes bower). In the south side of the Flass Bog there runs down

northward a tongue of comparatively elevated ground at the end of which has been thrown up an artificial hillock, still known as “ Maiden's Bower." On places thus designated see Memorials of

St. Giles's (Surtees Soc.), Intr., x-xiv. where ye said prior, etc.). This passage is very obscure as it stands here,

but it is made clearer in Davies by the insertion of “there" before

was erected." u faire crosse of Wood). This cross appears to have been set up on the top

of the above-mentioned hillock, where now a tree has been planted.

Beareparke). The present name of the manor of Beaurepaire, on the river

Browney, about 22 miles N.W. of Durham. The Priors had a country residence and park there ; the latter was ravaged by David Bruce the day before the battle of Neville's Cross. Some small portions of the buildings are yet standing. Considerable remains are shown in the Kaye Collection of drawings at the British Museum, Vol. II, Nos. 83–95 ; in Hutchinson's Durham, II, 338 ; and in Grose, Antiquities, Vol. V, 1777, under Durham. See Rolls, under

Beaurepaire. at the foote of ye said crosse). Whichever way they went, they would have

to make some little digression to reach the cross, if it was, as is

supposed, on the hillock called Maiden's Bower. John Fossour). Or Forcer, Prior 1341-1374. Of a family that had pro

perty at Thockerington in Northumberland. He died at the Prior's manor of Beaurepaire, at the age of ninety, in 1374, and his body was stitched up in the hide of an ox, which cost, including the wages of the artificer employed, five shillings.---Rolls, p. 581. In 1729, his grave was opened, and the hide found to be tolerably fresh, but the body was much decayed. Prior Fossor made the west window of the nave and the great north window of the transept ; he also expended large sums in the binding and repairing of the Church missals, etc., and in altar-plate, vestments, and images, as well as on the kitchen and other monastic buildings outside the church.-Will. de Chambre in Scr. Tres, p. 130-134, and Index ; Ibid., App. p. cxli;

Raine, Br. Acc., 34 ; St. Cuthb., nion. ; Rolls, Index under Fossour. the first, etc.). See ch. xv, xxv. the Centorie garlh). The Cemetery, frequently referred to. See Index, and Rolls, Index under Cemetery, and Centry.

XVI, pp. 30–32. The South Alley of ye Lantern). It is a little remarkable that we have here

no reference to the fire-place mentioned in a note on Singing breads, above p. 194. It very likely fell into disuse and was walled up before Rites was written ; it so continued until 1901, when it was opened out. The square recess now made over the fire-place is of doubtful authority. There appeared to be some indications of there having been such a recess, and so it was left open. Such fire-places may have been used not only for heating obley-irons, but for supplying burning charcoal for the censers, warming the water for washing the altars and for the washing of feet at the Maundy, for heating the

or calefactories used to warm the priests' hands, etc.Cf. Wordsw., 300. There are fireplaces in the south transepts at Lincoln and at Hereford, the latter, like the Durham one, inserted in an earlier wall of the Norman period. The Lincoln example, which is in an internal vestry of the same date as the transept, makes it seem not unlikely that at Durham and at Hereford internal vestries have sometime been constructed and provided with fire-places, and that when more commodious vestries were made outside, the internal ones were swept away, their fire-places only remaining, blocked up or left open.


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