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ye making of his grave). “During the excavation (of part of the cemetery of the monks) a few years ago

a very great number of skeletons were found ranging closely side by side, buried in coffins made of thin stones set on edge, and all of them without sepulchral memorials, save the grave of Earl Cospatrick, .. who in his latter years had exchanged his coronet for the cowl of a monk." —Raine, Br. Acc., 48, 68. Earl Cospatrick's supposed coffin and its cover, inscribed GOSPATRICVS COMES, were found in 1821 (Rud's Catalogue, 218n.). They are now preserved in the cellarage under the Dormitory, but it seems doubtful whether the coffin belongs to the cover. In the sixteenth century monks were buried in wooden " chests."- Rolls, 292n.

XXIV, pp. 52–53. a litle challice of silver). In the Historica Narratio concerning the Trans

lation of St. Cuthbert in 1104, the writer, after mentioning the silver altar and other things found in the coffin, names “calicem paruum quidem, sed materia et opere preciosum"; a cup of onyx fixed on the back of a lion of pure gold. Acta SS. Boll., 20 Mar., 140 ; Raine, St. Cuthb., 81. For references to silver coffin chalices, see Hope and Fallow in Archæol. Journal, XLIII, 138, etc.

XXV, pp. 53–54. Johannes fosser]. See above, ch. xiv. The eight Priors whose names

follow next after Fossor have been mentioned in chapters XIV, XVI,

XVII.

Hugo Whithead). Hugh Whitehead, D.D., Oxon., 1513, succeeded to the

Priorate in 1524, having been Warden of Durham College in Oxford. Chambre gives him a very high character (Scr. Tres, 154). He effected considerable repairs at Bearpark, and built the Prior's Hall, with its appurtenances, at Pittington ; remains of these were to be seen about a century ago. Having been Prior for eighteen years, he surrendered the monastery Dec. 31, 1540, and was appointed Dean in 1541. He probably syınpathized with the old learning and forms of worship, for early in the reign of Edward VI he was summoned to appear before the Council in London. His health broke down under the fatigue and anxiety of the journey, and he died in 1548, soon after his arrival in London. He was buried in the Church of the Holy Trinity in the Minories, near the Tower. A. Wood has preserved part of his epitaph, viz., “Here lyeth the body of Hugh Whitehead, the last Prior of Durham, and first Dean thereof, who died at London

and was buried in the Church of the Minories, Anno

- Willis, Cathedrals, I, 252. Robert Horne). An eager refornrer, D.D., Cantab., 1549, Dean of Durham,

1551. He was deprived under Mary in 1553, but restored under
Elizabeth in 1559, and in 1561 was consecrated bishop of Winchester.
During his exile, he became the head of the English party at
Frankfort. For the mischief and sacrilege perpetrated by him at
Durham, see chapters XXXIII, Xxxv, xxxvi, and for the same at

Winchester, see the full account of him in the Dictionary of National
Biography. According to Fuller, the pamphleteers of his day.
“sported with his name, as hard in nature, and crooked in
conditions,” not ticing “how Horn in Scripture importeth power,
preferment, and safety." They moreover “twitted his person, as
dwarfish and deformed,” showing their malice “who carp at the
case when they cannot find fault with the Jewel.He was, it seems,
a person of “a sprightful and fruitful wit." He died in Southwark,
and was buried in Winchester Cathedral, under a flat marble stone,
says Godwin, with this inscription :—“Robertus Horne theologiæ
doctor eximius, quondam Christi causa exul, deinde Episcopus
Winton. pie obiit in Domino lun. 1, 1580. Episcopatus sui anno 19."
Godwin, Catalogue of the Bishops, 1601, p. 196.

XXVI, pp. 54–56. Bushops of Durhm). Notices of the Bishops may be found in Symeon's

Hist, of the Church of Durham and in the continuation, in Scriptores Tres, in our Appendix, No. IV, p. 139, and in the works of the mediæval chroniclers. In English we have Godwin's Catalogue (also in Latin), the tract on the Origin and Succession of the Bishops of Durham, printed by Allan in 1779 from Durh. Cath. MS. c. iv, 14 (1603), and the accounts of them in Browne Willis, Hutchinson, and Surtees ; see also the short but serviceable notes in Murray's

Handbook to Durham Cathedral. Eadmundus . . . under one stone). Not now to be found, nor is it shown in Browne Willis's plan (1727).

A Durham Calendar has “ij nonas Junij. Translacio ep'or. dunelm. Edmu'di & Edredi."—Harl. MS. 1804. Prior Melsonby was buried in the same grave. See note

below, on ch. XXXIV. Walcherus . ..

under one stone). A long narrow grave-cover, inscribed, ALDVINVS (et) WALCHERVS EPISCOPI. In a Durham Calendar (Harl. 4664) we find “ij nonas Marcij. Translatio Walcheri, Will'i, & turgoti Ep'or. Dunelm. & fr(atrum),” and in another (Harl. 1804) “Non. Marcii, translacio ep'or. dunelm. Alduni Walcheri Will’mi et turgoti ep'i Scottorum." The same entry occurs under v Non. Mar. See Obituary in Liber Vitæ, 141. This translation of the bodies of certain bishops and their brethren was a removal from their former place of burial to the present Chapter-house, and it would be then that in two instances two bodies were placed in one grave. The remaining grave-covers up to and including that of William de St. Barbara are uniform in character, and were probably all made

and inscribed soon after the completion of the Chapter-house. Short read, etc.). The war-cry of the mob at the murder of Walcher at

Gateshead in 1080 : “ Schort red god red, slea ye the bischop

(Wendover, Flores Hist., ed. 1841, II, 17). Willm's ep'us]. The stone is not marked in Willis's plan (1727), nor is it

now to be found. with Malcome kinge of Scotts). Had Malcolm been present, so memorable

an event would, one might think, never have been left unrecorded by Symeon, who

say's in his History of the Church of Durham that the

bishop, Turgot, and the brethren placed the first stones in the foundation Aug. 11, 1093, having begun to dig the foundations on Friday, July 29th, which, by the way, they seem not to have regarded as an “unlucky day." The Continuator and other authorities, however, represent Malcolm, Bishop William, and Prior Turgot, as laying the three first foundation stones. See Symeon, ed. Bedford, p. 236, and Surtees ed., Vol. I, xxvii, 103 ; Rolls ed., II, 220 ; Freeman, William Rufus, II, un. It seems on the whole most likely that not only King Malcolm but the Earl of Northumberland and all the magnates of the North were present, Symeon not caring to mention any but ecclesiastics. And although Malcolm had been a persecutor of the Church of St. Cuthbert, there

may have been peace just at this time. Ranulphus). This and the two following stones lie side by side over the

stone coffins, are quite uniform, and are inscribed respectively,

RANNVLFVS · EPISCOPVS : , GAVFRIDUS : EPI (the rest perished), and WILLS : EPISCOPUS : SECVNDVS : For an account of an examination of the graves see Archæologia, XLV, 385–404, or Durham and

Northumb. Arch. Trans., II, 235—270 and plates. Hugo de Puteaco). On a large piece and a small fragment of a thick blue

marble slab are an initial cross, parts of two letters, and o : EPS. The slab is shown entire in Willis's plan, and was no doubt broken

up when the Chapter-house was demolished in 1796. King Steph. was his vncle). Stephen addresses him as nepoti meo

charter, Scr. Tres, App. No. xxvii ; and in another charter (No. xxxii) Henry II, who was a nephew of Stephen, describes the bishop

cognatus meus." But how the relationships came about does not appear to be known. Philippus]. Willis marks this stone in his plan, but as both it and the last

one came in the line of the wall made in 1796, they were destroyed, together with the graves, in digging the foundations at that time. This bishop was buried by laymen in unconsecrated ground outside the bounds of the church (Scr. Tres, 26), but perhaps his body may

afterwards have been removed to the Chapter-house. Richardus de marisco). Also shown by Willis, but destroyed with the last

in a

as

two.

Nicholaus de farnham). A long blue grave-cover indicated by Willis still

bears the words NICHOLAUS : DE : FARNAM EPI. It is said in ch. XXXIV, p. 73, that Prior Melsonby, who was elected bishop by the monks but not consecrated, and Bishop Farnham, lie under one stone

in the Chapter-house. Walterus de kirkham). A long freestone cover similar to the earliest ones, indicated by Willis, bears the words * WALTERUS : DE : KIRKHEM

The bishop died at Howden on the eve of St. Laurence, A.D. 1260, and was buried at Durham on the octave (Scr. Tres, 44). The viscera were interred at Howden, where there is a grave-cover of Frosterley marble, now lying loose and broken in the church, with a raised cross and this inscription :—H' REQVI(escunt v)ICERA WALT'I KIRKHA' : qvo’DA' : DUNELMIE's 'EP'I : ORA (the rest defaced).

EP.

IKHYL.

Robertus Stichell). Willis places a number on his plan with the reference

* Bps Robt de Insula & Robt Stickull.” There is a blue marble slab, large enough to cover two graves, in a broken and defaced condition, on which may still be seen, .ob'T': DE : i'SUL.

The body of Robert de Insula may have been at first laid in the part of the Chapter-house below the step, but afterwards removed to the higher level immediately before the Bishop's seat. Bishop Stichell died on his way home from the Council of Lyons, in 1274, at Arbipellis (l'Arbresle, dep. Rhône), and was buried at the abbey of

Savigny, but his heart was brought to Durham.-Scr. Tres, 55. Robertus de Insula). See the last note. Richardus de Kellow). Both these marble stones are indicated in Willis's

plan and shown in Carter's with matrices of brasses on them. They had been removed when the site of the east end of the Chapter-house was examined in 1874. A portion of a slab, which may be that of Kellaw, is now lying in the undercroft.–See Proc. Soc. Ant., Jan. 16,

1890. king Malcolme caused, etc.). In the tract De injusta vexatione (Bedford's

Symeon, p. 374) it is stated that on Sept. 11th, 1092, Bishop William destroyed the old church which Ealdhun had built, and, with Prior Turgot and King Malcolm, laid the foundation stones of the new church on August uth, 1093.

See note above, p. 240.

Notwithstanding the silence of Symeon, Freeman thought that Malcolm was present, and that his presence had a great political significance, indicating that although the king of Scotland had been driven back by William Rufus in 1091, friendly relations had now become

established. one Egelwyn, etc.). Bishop Egelwin or Æthelwyn died in 1071 ; William of

St. Carilef was bishop 1081-1086, according to all writers, whether

Scottish or other. lyves of quene Margaret, etc.). The Latin life of St. Margaret in Nova

Legenda Angliæ and elsewhere has been attributed to Turgot, but no

writings by him “in the Scottishe tongue" are now known. This Turgotus). See above, pp. 67, 72. emonges the rest of ye Bushops). His long narrow grave-cover of freestone is indicated on Willis's plan, and the inscription *TVRGOTVS

can just be made out. There is yet another very interesting grave-cover in the Chapter-house, not noticed in Rites, nor indicated in Willis's plan, namely that of Robert de Graystanes the chronicler, who was elected, consecrated, and installed as bishop of Durham, but was obliged by pope and king to retire in favour of Richard de Bury in 1333. There are entries relating to this business in Rolls, 521, 522, 525. His episcopal seal is shown in Surtees's History, Vol. I, Plates of Seals, Pl. iii, No. 1. He died shortly after, and was buried with the other bishops in the Chapter-house, where the following inscription may be seen in letters filled up with lead, on a long narrow stone (De Graystane) NATVS ; IACET : HIC : ROBERTVS : HVMATVS LEGIBVS ARMATVS ROGO : SIT SANCTIS : SOCIATVS AMEN. The two first words are gone, but are here taken from Willis's Cathedrals, I, 241. Prior Melsonby, who had been elected to the bishopric,

EPISCO ...

but against whom sixteen exceptions were raised by Henry III, so that his election was quashed, was also buried in the Chapter-house, and, as it happened, in the grave of Bishops Eadmund and Eadred (“ Etheldredus " in Scr. Tres). Miraculous visions are related in con

nexion with his death and burial.-Scr. Tres, pp. 38—41, and lxxii. seat of stone). This seat is well shown by Carter in Pl. xi, and in his

drawing (Durham and Northumb. Arch. Trans., V, Pl. ii). It was destroyed in 1796, but the arms and other portions found in 1895 have been worked into a new chair made after Carter's plate. During the nineteenth century, a common wooden chair served at the installation of bishops, who, as the honorary heads of the Chapter, are placed in the Chapter-house seat as well as in the throne. The reconstructed stone chair was used for the first time at the enthronement of Bishop Moule in 1901. The risers of the wallbenches still remain in the apse and sides of the Chapter-house. Carter's drawing shows them as they are now, but they have probably been completed by oak seats for the monks originally, as well as footboards “for warmeness” (Cf. pp. 62, 79). Billings, in his “restored view," shows stone seats, which must be only

conjectural, for Carter's earlier drawing shows nothing of the kind. a prisoune). For the plan, see Billings, Pl. v. For the round-headed

doorway that led into it from the Chapter-house, see Durham and Northumb. Arch. Trans., V, pl. iii. On the wall facing the Chapter-house are traces of a mural painting representing Our Lord in glory, as the Judge of all men. In the south wall of the easternmost of the two inner chambers is a hatch for passing food through, and in the innermost of these, which has had between it and the last

mentioned chamber a strong door with a bolt outside, is a latrine. a faire glasse wyndowe). Now filled with modern tracery and plain glazing. For the other Jesse window, see p. 42.

XXVII, p. 57. browght to ye abbei church). For example, Eadmund was brought from

Gloucester, Walcher from Gateshead, Carilef from Windsor, Pudsey from Howden, Philip of Poitou from some unconsecrated place outside the precincts of the Cathedral, De Marisco from Peterborough, Farnham from Stockton, Kirkham from Howden, Stichil's heart from l'Arbresle (Arbipellis), De Insula from Bishop Middleham, Beck from Eltham, Kellawe from Bishop Middleham, Beaumont from Brantingham, Bury from Auckland, Hatfield from Alford near London. After this time none of the bishops who died away from Durham were brought to the Abbey until Pilkington, having been buried at Auckland in 1575, was reburied at Durham. Bishop James was buried near the grave of Pilkington at the west end of the choir in 1617, since which date no bishop has been buried

in the cathedral church except Van Mildert. ye Customable burying of ye Bushopes). On the burial of ecclesiastics see

Martene, Eccl. Rit., III, xii, Sect. viii-xii ; Mon. Rit., V, x-xiii. phannell]. The fanon or maniple. vestmt]. Here used in the narrower sense for the chasuble.

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