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Crutch). A variety of crotch or croche or croce, a pastoral staff or crosier.

See N. E. D. s.7. CROSIER. a litle challice). See above, notes on XXIII, XXIV. ye horsses, charelte, etc.). These are mentioned in the accounts of the

perquisites received by the church at the burials of Bishop William of St. Carilef and of several of his successors. See the earlier pages in Wills and Inventories (Surtees Soc.), Part I. Together with the horses and bier, the Church of Durham received either the whole or a great part of the bishops' capelle, by which term was meant the sets of vestments and other ornaments that they carried about with them, including all the articles necessary for the pontifical offices ; "all there furniture belonging therto" (c. XXVIII). Raine gives a list of the articles acquired by the Convent at the death of each bishop from Carilef in 1095 to Langley in 1437. Brief Acc., 145, from a roll compiled by Prior Wessington. Rolls, Index under

Baudekyns, Char' d'ni Ep'i. ye historie of ye church of Durisme at large). Perhaps the same as Acts

of the Bishops ; see above, p. 228, and just below in ch. xxvIII. But the Scriptores Tres may possibly be the work referred to in all these cases. Here cf. Scr. Tres, p. 142, and Durham Wills and Inventories, I, 1-5, etc.

XXVIII, pp. 58–59.

Anthony Beeke). As to the bishops, see above, p. 240n. in a faire Narble Tombe). There is now only a plain floor-slab of blue

marble on which is a small brass plate with the following lines :“ Presul magnanimus Antonius hic jacet imus | Jerusalem strenuus Patriarcha fuit quod opimus | Annis vicenis regnabat sex et j plenis | Mille trecentenis Christo moritur quoque denis | Restauratum a Roberto Drummond Willoughby de Eresby 1834"\. The epitaph has been taken from Browne Willis, Cathedrals, Vol. I, p. 239. The tomb was before the one altar of St. Aidan and St. Helen (not

2 alters "), see p. 2. ye wall beinge broken). See above, p. 194n. Raphe Lord Nevile). The writer is mistaken here. It was Ralph, the

grandson of the hero of Neville's Cross, that was called Daw Raby, and was first Earl of Westmoreland. The earlier Ralph Lord Neville and Alice de Audley his wise were originally buried in the nave before the Jesus Altar. The former died in 1367, and the latter in 1374. Their bodies were removed to the site of the Neville chantry, where the eastern of the two Neville tombs now is, in 1416, by licence from Bishop Langley (Scr. Tres, App. No. clxxxi, p. ccvi). Their tomb has been a very fine one, but has been denuded of almost all its ornamentation and of its inscription. The alabaster effigy of Lord Ralph is reduced to a headless and otherwise mutilated trunk ; that of the Lady Alice is tolerably perfect. A Durham Calendar contains this entry :-“vii Id. Aug. Ob ... Radulphus de Nevell et Alic. vxor eius."—Harl. MS. 1804. The tomb of Lord John and of Matilda Percy, his former wife, under the next arch to the west, is in

much better condition, and has niches with weepers all round, together with many shields bearing the saltire of Neville and the lion rampant of Percy. The effigies, however, are both reduced to something like great boulders. There is no indication of any inscription having been included in the design. Both tombs are shown in Carter, Pl. v, that of Ralph, on larger scale, in Pl. vi, and

that of John, in Billings, Pl. xlviii. Lodowicus Bellomonte). See above, pp. 14, 206. Ricardus de Berye). Above, pp. 2, 194. Thom's Hatfeilde]. Above, pp. 19, 210. Walterus Schirley). Above, pp. 18, 209. Thom's Langley). Above, pp. 44, 230. Robertus Neivell). Above, pp. 40, 225. Cuthbertus Tunstall). “In his Will, proved Jan. 30, 1559–60, he order d to

be buried before the Crucifix, or Rood Loft, of Durham Cathedral, if he died in his Diocese ; or, if he died in London, in St. Paul's Cathedral, where he had been Bishop, near Thomas Linacre." He was, however, buried in Lambeth Parish Church with this epitaph :

Anglia Cuthbertum Tonstallum moesta requirit | Cujus summa domi Laus erat atque foris Rhetor Arithmeticus Juris Consultus & aequi | Legatusque fuit, denique Presul erat | Annorum satur & magnorum plenus Honorum | Vertitur in Cineres Aureus iste senex | . Vixit annos lxxxv, Obiit 18 Nov. MCCCCCLIX."--Browne Willis, Cathedrals, I, 245.

XXIX, pp. 59–60. ye centrie garth]. It will readily be perceived that “ centrie" is a con

tracted form of “cemetery." Cos., H. 44, C., L., and Dav., have Centory”; Hunter's editions have “ Centrey," Centery," and

Centry”; Sanderson has “ Centry”; H. 45 has “Sanctuary "; and Roll, above, pp. 52, 53, “Sentuarie,” and “Sentory.” The Centry Garth is now wholly effaced as a place of burial. See below,

in this same chapter. a vaulte all sett, etc.). There is a similar and probably later vault, now

closed, in the cemetery on the north side of the church ; see the next


a Charnell house to cast dead mens bones in). It was the usual practice,

when bones were disinterred in making new graves, to put them aside in some sort of a charnel or bone-house, and not to return them to the earth as is commonly done now, or to stow them under the floors of pews, as was often done from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century.

One of the most famous charnels was on the north side of Old St. Paul's. “ This yere (1548) was put downe the chappell with the charnell howse in Powlles church yerde . and a iiij. or v. C. lode of bones carred in to the feldes and burryd there.Chron. Grey Friars (Camd. Soc., LIII, 1852), 57. The crypt under the chapter-house at Ripon Minster was used as a charnel, known far and wide as “Ripon Bone-house.” The bones were removed and buried in 1865.--Walbran's Guide, 1874, p. 74 (wood-cut illustration). In the present cemetery on the north side

of Durham Cathedral is a large charnel vault wholly below the surface, marked by a long stone inscribed with the word VAULT. It was discovered 2nd February, 1831, and is described in Raine's Brief Account, p. 127. It occupies the same situation as the charnel vault at Worcester, over which was the charnel chapel, served by a little college of six chaplains.-Prof. Willis, in Arch. Journal, XX, 259. There was a chapel at Evesham known as the carnarium or charnelhouse.Liber Evesham, H. Bradshaw Soc., p. 161. The charnel house at Abingdon was pulled down at the Dissolution.—Accounts, Camd. Soc., 167. The crypts so often found under the east ends of chancels and aisles in parish churches, as at Grantham, Northborough, Sandwich St. Peter, Hatfield (Yorks.), etc., were used for the same purpose. See further in Bloxam, Gothic Architecture,

uth edition, 1882, Vol. II, pp. 185–196. Mr Rackett]. John Rackett and Lionel Elmeden appear among the Lord

Prior's gentlemen in 1510, infra, App. V, p. 144. ye pictur . . . all in Brasse]. Brasses on tombs outside churches were not

usual, but the writer seems to have had a clear recollection of this tomb, as well as of the others which were defaced in the sixteenth

century. a washinge howse). There is an old building now on the east side of the

garth, and it may possibly have been Dean Whittinghan's laundry.

XXX, pp. 60—62. Holy Water stones). See above, ch. xix. taken awaie). No remains of them are now known to exist. a conveiance ... as thei had, etc.). Holy-water stones sometimes had

drains for emptying, but not often. Lambes shop ye bluck smyth]. Robert Lambe made a crook, etc., for the

organ, and did other smith's work for the Chapter in 1593.Rolls,


now to be sene). Probably employed as the base on which Lambe's anvil

was fixed. Mris Whittingham). See note on ch. xv, p. 216. She bequeathed her house

in the North Bailey, “with the lyttle house upon the wall,” and her lands near Orleans to her son Timothy. Her houses in Kingsgate, near the Bow Church, to her son Daniel. Her armour and warlike furniture to her sons and grandson ; also Foxe's Acts and Monuments and her great French Bible to other relatives. Her husband's will, and copious extracts from her own, are printed in Durham Wills and

Inventories, II, 14—19. Both are exceedingly interesting. ye Abbey yard wher now they are). There are many early grave.covers

lying in the churchyard on the north side of the Cathedral and in the cellarage under the Dorter at the present time. It


here be noted that the Cathedral Church of Durham has usually been called “The Abbey" by Durham people, but the term is now obsolescent except at the Grammar school, where the Cathedral is never called anything else. The influences that destroy old traditions elsewhere do not as yet greatly affect the boys in this inatter.

Ambrose Myers). Some one of this name gave to the Chapter Library,

ist January, 1665, a copy of Walton's Polyglot, ed. 1657, in 6 vols. fo.

XXXI, pp. 62-63.

A Song School in the Centory Garth). The earlier Song-school. For a later

arrangement, see above, ch. XI, and at the end of this chapter. betwixt two pillers). I.e. buttresses, or corner turrets. The building

probably ran north and south. the children of thalmarie). See ch. XLVIII. ye place where ye mr did sitt). This place seems to have been very much

like later and modern schoolmasters' desks. Mr. John Brimley was the last of the masters of the old time. See ch. XXII, p. 43, and note,

p. 231. ye priors gentlemen). The upper servants or attendants in the Lord

Prior's household. At Ely they had liveries of “depgrene" and litgrene.”—Stewart, Ely Cathedral, 237.

At Durham there was no fixed colour ; we find mention of green and motley, green ray, blue

and green, blue mixture, and red mixture.--Rolls, 598, 617, 632, 636. one cannot tell almost]. The effacement of the old Song School has been

completed by the refacing of the wall against which it stood.

XXXII, pp. 63–68. The xiijo ... of ye Callandes, etc.). St. Cuthbert died 13 Kal. Apr. (20

Mar.), 687. The old editions all wrongly say “the 20. of the Calends

of March.lyeth waike). Lithe or supple. See N. E. D., under Leathwick. in a fereture light). Bede's words are “in levi arca,” “levi in theca,”

meaning apparently the wooden coffin still existing in great part, as distinguished from the stone coffin in which the body was laid at first. See Metrical Life, 3884, note. The wooden coffin was covered with carvings of saints and angels, with their names in Roman and Runic characters. See Catalogue of Sculptured Stones, etc., Durham,

1899, pp. 133—156 and Plates 1--13. said to be descended). Here the writer is following the fabulous Irish

legend. brought up in the Abbey of Mailros). So according to Bede and the more

trustworthy authorities, as Symeon, who, in the main, are followed

in this chapter. abbott Edrede). Eadred, abbot of Carlisle, who was summoned by Eardulph,

bishop of Lindisfarne, that they might consult on this matter.

Symeonis Hist. Eccl. Dunelm., cap. xxi (lib. II, cap. vi). men of ye shire). The Haliwerfolc or holy man's people. The wanderings

of the Corsaint or holy body are described in the Met al Life and in the earlier accounts referred to in the Surtees Society's edition

thereof. turned into bloode). It has been suggested that the water may have been

coloured by the red earth of the east of Cumberland.

ye booke of ye Holie Evangelistes). This book is supposed to be still in

existence in the British Museum Library, to be identical, in fact, with the “Lindisfarne Gospels," thus described in the second volume of the Palæographical Society's facsimiles, Pl. iii :-“Cotton MS. Nero D. iv. About A.D. 700. The Four Gospels, in Latin, of St. Jerome's version, with Prefaces, Eusebian Canons, etc.; and with an interlinear English gloss. Written at Lindisfarne, in honour of St. Cuthbert, Bishop of Lindisfarne, who died A.D. 687. Quarto ; 258 leaves, of 1372 x 978 inches, in double column of 24 lines, stout well-dressed vellum. A note at the end, in characters of the tenth century, by Aldred, the glossator, states that the MS. was written by Eadfrith, Bishop of Lindisfarne (A.D. 698-721); that the ornamentation was added by Ethilwald, Bishop of Lindisfarne (A.D. 724-740); that Bilfrith the Anchorite worked the jewelled covers ; and that Aldred the Priest added the gloss.” It has been shown by Mr. Edmund Bishop that this MS. has been copied from a Neapolitan MS., which was brought to England by a missionary from Rome, and that thus the Lindisfarne draughtsman would have the Byzantine drawings which have evidently served as his models. Facsimiles of the writing, and of some of the most elaborately ornamented pages, will be found in Plates 3—6 and 22. Detailed accounts are given by Sir E. Maunde Thompson in Bibliographica, 1894, Vol. I, pp. 132-8, Pl. iv, and English Illuminated MSS., 1895, pp. 4-10, Pl. i, and by Westwood in Miniatures and Ornaments, Lond., 1868, p. 33, Pl. xii, xiii.

See also the Prolegomena to the fourth volume in the Surtees Society's Lindisfarne Gospels, and authorities there cited. It is quite possible that it remained at Lindisfarne until the flight of the monks, c. 878, went about with them in their wanderings, was lost in the sea and recovered, and came to Durham with the monks in 995. Symeon, whose history ends 1096, mentions that the book on which Eadfrith, Ethilwald, and Bilfrith had laboured was kept in Durham up to his time, and believed to be that which was lost in the sea about 200 years before. When Lindisfarne was re-established about 1095, the book apparently went to its old home, and there remained till the Dissolution. In the yearly inventories of the monks of Lindisfarne Priory an entry supposed to refer to it regularly occurs, viz., “ Liber Beati Cuthberti qui demersus erat in mare." In 1623 it was in the hands of Mr. Robert Bowyer, clerk to the House of Commons, who disposed of it to Sir Robert Cotton. From him it passed to the British Museum with the rest of his MSS. Dr. Raine rightly considered that the book by its appearance abundantly confirmed the tradition of its immersion, and completely disproved Symeon's assertion that it was uninjured (St. Cuthb., 47). But he and Symeon looked at it with different eyes. Sir F. Madden believed the stains on the vellum to have been occasioned by sea water (Lindisf. Gosp., Surt. ed., IV, Pref. xxviiin.). There can be no doubt whatever that water has got in between the leaves, in some cases forming map-like stains where it has crept in the furthest, but as the edges have been cropped off in binding, they no longer afford any evidence. The edges of the leaves of a vellum book would at once swell when immersed in water,

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