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and every Monke had his Mazer). These would be much smaller than the

great mazers described above. A list of the mazers and other plate belonging to the Frater has been preserved ; Raine gives an abstract

of it.-Br. Acc., 94n. where he did sitt as chief]. The Prior ordinarily sat at his own private

table, the Sub-Prior presiding at the monastic table ; see ch. xliv. He must not be confounded with the Deece Prior or Vice-Prior,

ch. XLIX, p. 94. their great feast of St. Cuthberts day in Lent). March 20th, the day of

St. Cuthbert's death, which always falls in Lent. That the law of abstinence was relaxed on this occasion, at any rate for the lay guests, appears abundantly from the Cellarers' rolls quoted by Raine (St. Cuthb., 158n.), where, besides enormous quantities of fish, we find such entries as 6%2 oxen for the week, 21 sheep, with hundreds of chickens, geese, and other fowls, And Raine says that in the Bursar's Roll of 1344 is an entry of a payment to divers persons for carrying letters from the Prior to the chief men of the Bishopric, inviting them to the feast of St. Cuthbert in March. But see Rolls,

544, 545 the Dresser Window of the great Kitchin). What appears to be part of this

window is still to be seen in the Covey, in the south wall. There is a space of about 15 feet between the south side of the Loft and Covey and the north side of the Kitchen, in which there must have been some passage or lobby connecting the two buildings, as at Canterbury, Ely, Worcester, Castle Acre, and elsewhere. At Ely it was called “le Tresaunce," i.e., “transitus," a passage (Prompt. Parv., 502). It is somewhat remarkable that in the text we have no description of the Kitchen. There are in Durham two mediæval kitchens still in lise, viz., that which Bishop Fox constructed within the walls of the square Norman keep of the Castle, and this earlier one of the Abbey, which is a very fine example and but little altered from its original state. The fabric roll for its building still exists, and shows that the work began in 1368 ; see Rolls, 569-580. Raine gives an abstract (Brief Acc., 114). Its remarkable groining and lantern are well represented in Billings, Pl. 74. A building apparently belonging to the Kitchen and coeval with it, abutting on it to the S.E., is shown in a plate in Storer's Cathedrals (1816), Vol. II. The roof-mark of that same building is still to be seen. There are numerous references to

the Kitchen in the Rolls ; see Index thereto under the word. the mr of the novicies, etc.). The monks usually dined in the Loft (ch. XLIV).

See further on the Novices in ch. xlix, p. 96, under “Dane Richarde

Crosbie," and in Rolls, under Novices. the great Cellar). In the southern portion of the undercroft of the Great

Dorter, to the left of the passage going from the Cloister to the Infirmary, called “the great cellar" to distinguish it from the cellar under the Loft (ch. XLIV), and perhaps from subsidiary cellars in the vaulting under the Frater. Carter's plan shows that the one bay of the vaulting most to the south, perhaps the Buttery, was walled off from the two bays between it and the passage to the Infirmary

but had a door through. Those two bays, probably the Great Cellar, opened into the group of vaulted apartments under the Loft,

viz., the lesser cellar and the Covey. dyd reade summe parte, etc.). See the Rule of St. Benedict, cap. 38, which,

however, is for monks. The novices carried on in the Frater what had been the practice of the monks before they formed the habit of dining in the Loft. In the Catalogi Veteres, p. 8o, is a list of books kept in an almery by the way to the Infirmary (see Scr. Tres, App. No. cccxlvii), for the reading in the refectory, i.e. in 1395,

while yet the monks regularly dined there. a convenyent place). No signs of the arrangements here described can

now be seen above the subvaults, this part of the Frater having been rebuilt. See above, p. 257.

But Mr. W. H. St. John Hope has identified the base of the Frater pulpit. It is built against the frater wall outside and extends for three bays. It is below the level of the present passage from the kitchen to the Deanery. In 1544 we find, “ Pro Refectorio," a payment of 6d. for “two hovndrith tyngkyll nayll for ye lettryos," probably for fastening up some sort of drapery. --- Misc. Cart. 2769 ; Rolls, 726. The reader's pulpit in the Frater at Chester is a very fine example, Early English in character, somewhat late. There is an excellent illustration, showing the pulpit, with its staircase and two aumbries, in Murray's Chester Cathedral, 1869, p. 404. Another pulpit, somewhat richer, of nearly the same date, and quite perfect, is in the frater of the Cistercian abbey at Beaulieu, Hants, now the parish church. At Fountains, the staircase and bracket of the pulpit remain. Other examples, or indications of their having existed, occur at Worcester, Shrewsbury, the Vicar's Hall

at Chichester, St. Agatha's by Richmond, and elsewhere. a gilden Bell]. The monastic scilla or small bell commonly used in

refectories, infirmaries, etc. See Du Cange, s.v. Skella. departed to ther bookes). Here follows, in Ed. H., this addition :

This Fabrick retained the Name of the Petty Canons Hall, till Dr.

SUDBURY Dean of this Cathedral generously erected a beautifull Library in its Place, which he not Living to finish completely, by the following Clause of his Last will, binds his Heir Sir JOHN

SUDBURY to the due Execution thereof. “ Item, whereas I have lately contracted with several workmen for the

building of a Library in the Place commonly called the Petty Canons
Hall in the College of DURHAM, for the Use of the Dean and
Prebendaries of the said Cathedral Church. And if it should please
God that I do not live to finish the same, my will and Pleasure is,
that my Executor, hereafter named shall pay out of my personal
Estate, all such Sum or Sums of Money, as shall be necessary for
the finishing thereof, according to such Form or Modell, or in such
manner as shall leave Directions for, under my Hand, attested by
two or more good and sufficient witnesses." This will is dated

Jan. 11. 1683.- Addition, Ed. H.
The Petty Canons' Hall is mentioned in 1593.Rolls, 738. There was

also about 1566“ the petycanons kytching.”16. 716. The hall had
long been useless and ruined in 1665 (Hutchinson, II, 131n.).

XL, pp. 82-83. a fair laver or counditt]. There were two distinct kinds of monastic lavers

or lavatories, namely those of a circular, polygonal, or multifoil form, and those of a long trough form, both supplied from conduits which were themselves supplied from springs at some distance. Thus at Durham the water was brought from springs which supplied a tank a mile to the south, and of course on higher ground. At Westminster, from springs where Hyde Park now is. -Archæologia, LIII, 164. At Worcester, from Battenhall, Swanpool, and ultimately from Henwick Hill.-Noake, Worcester, 111-115. At Canterbury, from springs in higher ground to the north of the monastery, as was the case at the London Charter-house.—R. Willis, Conv. Buildings, ch. x; Archæologia, LVI, 251–266 ; LVIII, 293-312. The finest example of the second kind is at Gloucester ; others remain, or have left indications, in more or less perfect condition, at Fountains, Worcester, Peterborough, Westminster, Norwich, Kirkhamn, Hexham, etc. The great cloister-laver at Durham was of the former kind, and there were four of the same type at Canterbury; two were in the Infirmary Cloister: the laver-house of one of these still remains, and has been miscalled “the Baptistery"; another was in the Great Cloister, and a fourth in the North Hall. Willis describes them as shown by an ancient drawing to have been large tanks of ornamental form from which water either ran continually from points in the circumference, or was drawn off by several cocks. The three first mentioned were sheltered by circular houses with conical roofs.-Conv. Buildings in Canterbury, 1869, p. 158. At Peterborough in 1896 were found portions of a marble basin between 20 and 30 feet in circumference, with a series of small basins running round it ; it has probably been a great cloister laver similar to one at Maulbronn. At the Cluniac Priory of Wenlock, co. Salop, are the remains of a fine late Norman lavatory, with an enriched circular basin in the centre of which stood a pillar or fountain with the water supply. The whole was enclosed in an octagonal building, like that at the Cistercian Abbey of Mellifont in Ireland, projecting into the garth from the cloister alley in front of the frater door. The Durham example resembled this in arrangement. The cloister well, which afforded the earliest supply, and which was retained in reserve, to be used “quando pipa gelidata fuit ” (Rolls, 536), or when from any other cause the hydraulic system failed, has lately been found. A full account of recent discoveries

will probably appear in Archæologia, LVIII, pt. ii. in forme Round]. Round within, certainly, but perhaps octagonal outside.

The marble basin still exists, with a trough all round it.—Billings, Pl. xlv. The building and basin were begun, on the site of an earlier laver-house, in 1432, and completed the next year. A detailed account-roll of the expenses is printed in Scriptores Tres, App. No. cccxlvi; it shows that the marble was quarried at Eggleston on the Tees, being bought of the abbət of the monastery there. There is a full account of the plumber's and carpenter's work “circa le pentees,” the carriage of the marble, etc., and see Rolls, Index under Lavers.

spoutes of brasse). “ Item Laurencio latonerio de Novo Castro pro factura

le spowtys, ixs.”—Roll in Scr. Tres, p. ccccxliv. viio faire wyndowes). One on each side save that occupied by the door,

and it was so at Wenlock. appar'nt till this daie). 1593. Plumber's work ouer ye douescott is

mentioned in the same year.-Misc. Cart. 3131 ; Rolls, 735 ther did hing a bell). In connexion with the lavatory at Gloucester is

a narrow vertical shaft which may have been made for the passage

of a rope to a frater bell. closettes or almeries). All traces of these have disappeared at Durham ; at

Gloucester, however, in the wall over against the lavatory, is a fine groined recess for towels, formerly closed by doors, the crooks of which remain, and above them open tracery for the free passage of air, as at Durham (ch. XXXVIII). The towels would hang in two wooden closets at the back. At Westminster are four tall niches united into one composition by tracery above. They have had doors, as is shown by the places where the hooks and fastenings have been, and have no doubt been the towel closets. The Durham closets are more particularly described above, ch. XXXVIII. Cloister towels are mentioned by Udalric, c. 1100 (Du Cange, s.v. Manutergium). See

Rolls, Index under Manutergia, Towels, Towel-closet. to drie ther handes). Their hands would be partly dried in walking from

the laver to the towel-closets by the Frater door.

XLI, p. 83. all fynely glased). Probably with white glass, so as to admit as much light

as possible. in euery wyndowe iijo pewes or carrells). The north alley was probably

screened off at both ends. At Canterbury, Prior Selling (1472-95) glazed the south alley (that next to the church) “ac ibidem novos Textus, quos Carolos de novo vocamus, perdecentes fecit.” Al Gloucester are twenty carrels in the south alley, below the transoms of the windows; the one most eastward may have been fitted up as a book-closet. Textus seems to be for tectos, which might mean covered places in a cloister.—See Du Cange, s.v. Tectus, 2. Five carrels remain at Chester, but in most cloisters, as at Durham, they have disappeared. The term pew is here used of an enclosed space similar to a pew in a church, and is derived from the Old French pui, an elevated space, and pews were at first only for distinguished persons, as the Prior of Durham, who had “a seate or pew" in the Neville Chapel (ch. xx). Carol was originally a ring-dance or a circular enclosure, e.g. “the Gyauntes Carole," or Stone-henge, and stone circles in Brittany, hence an enclosure of any form ; see N. E. D., under Carol. There are some notices of the Carrels in the

Rolls, q.v., Index, s.v. great almeries). Some of the marks still to be seen on the wall may be

vestiges of these book-cases.

old auncyent written Docters, etc.). For a catalogue of the books found in

the common almery and in various places within the cloister at Durham in 1395, see Catalogi Veteres, pp. 46--79. Many of the books still remain in the Cathedral library, and contain inscriptions such as “Liber S'ci Cuthberti assignatus co'i armariolo,” “E communi libraria monachorum Dunelm.," and the like.--See Rud's Catalogue, p. 8, etc. Lanfranc, in accordance with the Rule of St. Benedict, ch. 18, gives minute directions about the returning and reissuing on the first Monday in Lent of books which the brethren had out for their private study ; this is to be done in the chapterhouse, and the keeper is to record in a note the names of the books, and of those who have received them.-Reyner, 216; R. Willis,

Conv. Buildings, 332. prophane authors). As, for example, Terence, Horace, Juvenal, Virgil,

Ovid, Cicero. See Catalogi Veteres, Index.

XLII, pp. 83-85. ye Threserhouse). The Treasury is the northernmost bay of the undercroft

of the Dorter, separated froni the rest by a thick wall. It retains its strong door and two locks, and its grate of iron, dividing the inner or western portion from that next to the cloister. The books, charters, etc., formerly kept here, have long been removed, as stated in MS. L., and in Hunter's addition, together with the original oak almeries, into St. Helen's Chapel over the great gateway ; the chapter seal is kept in the Chapter-house, and the old treasury is now a lumber-room. In 1391 it was called Cancellaria, from the grate, or “le Spendement," or, incorrectly, "Splendement," from the paying of wages and other money through the bars. A great many of the more valuable books were kept in this secure place. See Catalogi Veteres, v, vi, 10, 34, 85. From this use it was

called “Libraria interior.” ye Chapter seale). While now of late it is altered, their Treasure and

Money being kept in a strong House over the East Gates of the
Abbey in the South Baily now called the Exchequer ; but in the said

old Treasury the Common Chapter Seal is still kept. Addition, Ed. H. The two bays of the undercroft next to the old Treasury served

for the Song-school until it was removed to the chamber over the Parlour in 1900. At present (1903) the first bay from the Treasury is occupied by the vestries of the Minor Canons and the King's Scholars, the next two being used by the lay-clerks and

choristers. a fair Ivory squared table ... great chests). Ivory" only in MS. L.

The table was probably inlaid with squares of ivory and of some black or dark material, so as to form a checkered board to calculate upon.

Hence our term “ Exchequer," a literary corruption of the old form “escheker."...See N. E. D. There are now in the Library three “great chests ” that came from the Treasury. The largest is 6 ft. 8 in. long, 1 ft. 1o in. wide, and 2 feet high outside. It is made of oak, 2 in. to 3 in. thick, and entirely covered by iron plates 2%2 to 3/2 in. wide and nailed firmly on. Inside it is lined with coarse

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