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white canvas. There are three locks, and arrangements for two padlocks besides. At either end is an iron ring, attached by two long iron loops. The next is a few inches smaller every way,

is not lined, and has no end rings. It is plated with iron outside like the last, and has in the lid four coin-slits placed over four compartments into which the chest was divided by three partitions now gone ; the grooves in which they were fixed remain, as also grooves for saddle-backed contrivances, one under each coin-slit, to make it impossible to get the coins out by means of hooked wires or anything of that sort. There are two locks, and provision for three padlocks The four compartments may have been for the separate funds of the Bursar, the Sacrist, the Almoner, and the Hostillar, and the five keys for the Prior or Subprior and those four officers. The third chest is little more than half the size of the largest one. It is made of fir boards 2/2 to 3 inches thick, and is not iron plated. The lid is coved and crescent-shaped in section, 3/2 inches thick in the middle, and made of a single piece of wood. On the top is an iron plate, five or six inches square, with a coin-slit in the middle. This chest has one lock, and provision for two padlocks. There is at the Castle an ancient iron-bound chest similar to those above described, and which has long been said to be “the chest in which St. Cuthbert's body was deposited"; there is a woodcut of it in Allan's “View of the City of Durham," etc., 1824, p. 199. It was probably a chest made to contain the charters, plate, or other valuables of the bishops, and it is very unlikely that St. Cuthbert's body was ever

placed in it. There are two other ancient chests at the Castle. a fair great stall, etc.). All these arrangements have disappeared. on their bookes). There is a list of the books found in the common almery

of the novices within the cloister in 1395, in Catalogi Veteres, 81. the same use and purpose). Hunter, p. 99, here adds “ A little South of the

Treasury is a convenient Room, wherein is established the Songschool, for the Instruction of Boys, for the Use of the Quire ; the Song-school in the South Isle of the Lanthorn, being decently furnished with a reading Desk, convenient Seats, and all other laudable Decencies, is appropriated to the Service of God; where Morning Prayer is daily celebrated at Six in the Morning throughout the whole Year, except on Sundays and Holydays." With regard to these 6 a.m. prayers, the following notices have been found. At the end of the Treasurer's book of 1633-4 is a list of stipends, etc., newly granted pro beneplacito, afier 1620, and paid annually. Among these we find : Minoribus Canonicis pro lectione Matutinarum ad Hor. 6, 51. s. od." There is a Chapter Order of 1621, “That the prayers at six of the Clocke in the morning shall henceforth be redd in the Quire of this Church.” In 1630 it was objected to Cosin and other members of Chapter, You have built a new payre of gorgius organes, which have cost at least 700li., which you command to be played upon not only at the 6 o'clock prayer in the morning (wherby you have driven away from the church all schollars and artificers, which were wont to frequent that morning prayer, when it was short, and playnly said, so that they might understand it), but

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also, etc. ; and again, “as yf you could never have chaunting ynough, you and your fellows have taken away the plain morningprayer al 6 of the clocke, ordained by the Statutes for scholars and artificers, and have turned it all in manner into chaunting and piping." There is no such order in the Statutes. In 1633-4 we find the £5 45. paid “ Minoribus Canonicis Matutinarum Lectoribus Hebdomadariis extra Chorum," so that the order of 1621 had been rescinded. The payment of two minor canons as Readers of the Morning Prayers continued until 1857 and 1864, when, the service having long ceased to be held, the offices of the two last readers were not filled up. In the eighteenth century there were payments to the vergers, or to the sub-sacrist, “pro præparatione oratorii pro prec. matutin., 1l.There is a good deal of information on this subject in Walcott's Traditions, etc., of Cathedrals, 1872, pp. 97-102. See also a letter of Dean Whittingham in Strype's Parker (1821), I, 267-8, or Camden Misri, VI, 231. Walcott's statement, that “in Defoe's time 500 people attended the 6 o'clock service," relates not to Durham, but to Exeter. “ It is no uncommon Thing to see 500 People here in a Morning ; which is at least five Times as many as usually attend at St. Paul's, or any other Six o'clock Chapel I was ever at ; and it is commendable, that the Reader doth not here curtail the Morning Service, by leaving out any Part of it, as in other Places they do. Here are two Morning Lectures preached weekly ; viz., Tuesday and Friday Mornings."-Daniel Defoe, A tour, etc., 7th edition, 1769, Vol. I, p. 370, note, referring to the “daily Prayers at Six in the Morning."

XLIII, pp. 85-86. ye Dorter). There was an earlier dormitory in Norman times on the east

side of the cloister-garth ; the cellarage under the Dean's hall and dining-room probably represents the original Common-house with Dormitory over it ; some blocked Norman windows, and the cloisterdoorway and remains of the stairs of the latter may still be seen. Early in the twelfth century these were found to be too small; the new Chapter-house not only occupied much of the space, but cut off direct access from the dormitory to the church, and the Prior, wanting a great house, worked into it what was left of the old dormitory and cellars, adding to them eastward, notably by the erection of the thirteenth century Prior's Chapel and its crypt. The Western range would usually have the great cellar below and the cellarer's hall above, and this may have been the case here in Norman times. The great doorway of the later dormitory, perhaps that of the original Parlour, and other Norman portions remain, but that dormitory was almost wholly rebuilt in the thirteenth century as the Great Dormitory, for which purpose it would be secluded enough after the Galilee had cut off access from the north. The cellarage was then reconstructed as Treasury, Common-house, Great cellar,

Nothing is left of the superstructure first placed over the present cellarage, unless some portions of the walls, and a shouldered doorway that opened into the church under the S.W. tower, on a level with the dormitory floor, belonged to it. This doorway may have led to wooden stairs for access to the church by night. The dormitory referred to in the text, and still existing as the New Library, was begun in 1398 and finished in 1404. The contracts for the work are printed in Scriptores Tres, App. Nos. clx, clxiv. For notices of it, and of contributions to it, see Rolls, Index, under


Dormitory. a litle chamber of wainscott). All the original fittings have disappeared, but

some idea of the arrangements may be gained from the present

windows, which, to a great extent, occupy the places of the old ones. there was no windowes). There are still no windows on the east side

towards the south end, because there the Loft abuts on the Dormitory wall. On the opposite wall some part of the Infirmary probably abutted in like manner, the modern windows there having

apparently been inserted where none had existed previously. a dosen cressettsl. Cavities wrought in the four-square stone. See above,

ch. 1, note ; ch. Xuli, and note. a faire large house).

This was

a substantial building found in all monasteries, constructed with no attempt at concealment. The plan of or for St. Gall in the ninth century (Arch. Journal, Vol. V, p. 85) shows six of these necessaria provided for different places in that great monastery, besides some smaller ones, and the chief or Great Vecessarium connected with the Great Dormitory. The seven large ones are shown as isolated buildings connected by narrow passages with the apartments that they served. The Necessarium had many different names. At Canterbury it was called the Third Dormitory to distinguish it from the Great and from the Second (officers') dormitory, “Dormitory” probably in playful allusion to the monks dozing in its recesses ; see Lanfranc, quoted in note below on “privy searche.” Elsewhere the Privy Dorter, the Rere Dorter, or, as here, the Privies, or as in Rolls, 603, Secretum Dormitorii. Wherever it could be managed, a watercourse flowed through the pit below, or was held up and occasionally allowed to rush through for Aushing purposes.

This could not be done at Durham in the usual way, owing to the peculiarity of the site, and some method of Aushing from the conduit must have been adopted. There are considerable remains of the Rere-dorter at Kirkstall, St. Agatha's by Richmond, Castle Acre, Netley, Canterbury, Worcester, and at Lewes, where it was 158 feet long, with 61 compartments, in a row against the south wall, over the watercourse. The pit exists at Westminster and elsewhere. For Canterbury, see R. Willis, Conv. Buildings, p. 82 ff. ; for Castle Acre, Hope, in Norfolk Archæology, XII, 132-4; and for Lewes, Hope in Sussex Archæol. Collections, XXXIV, 98, and Arch. Journal, XLI, 26. At Worcester much has come to light since Willis wrote in Arch. Journal, Vol. XX, 83-133. At Durham the pit remains, with an outlet westward, but it has not been fully explored, else the two great pillars might have been seen. The south wall is standing up to the sills of the little windows, and now forms the north wall of the stables over the Lying-house (ch. xlvi); these have a hayloft over them, in which the window sills are visible. In an oil-painting at the Castle, probably of the sixteenth or seventeenth century, the Rere Dorter and a larger building to the south (“the Master of the Fermerey's chamber") are shown as standing in juxtaposition at right angles to the Dorter, roofed, and with windows of late character, as if they had been adapted to later


litle wyndowes]. See the last note. At Worcester, a stretch of the south

wall of the corresponding building is standing, with five very narrow Norman slit windows widely splayed inside. Between the windows are the holes where the wooden partitions were fixed, and on the Aoor-level, over the pit, holes for joists. A small piece of the front

wall of the pit remains. there is iij fair glass wyndowes). Both these and the original “litle

wyndowes" appear from this passage to have remained till about

1593. a privy searche). Here the Subprior performed the duty assigned to the

Circa or Circumitor in Lanfranc's Constitutions, in accordance with a direction in the Rule of St. Benedict, ch. xlviii, that one or two seniors “circumeant monasterium horis quibus vacant fratres lectioni,” lest any should be slothful or a hindrance to others. In later times it was found desirable that these rounds should be extended thus : accensa candela in absconsa, unus eorum in dormitorio debet circumire lectos omnium, et omnia sedilia in necessariis, solicite considerans ne forte aliquis frater dormiens ibi remanserit . . . vero cum dormientes invenerit non eos quocunque modo tangat, sed modeste atque ordinate sonitum tantummodo, quo

excitentur, faciat.”—Lanfranc, c. 1072. paved wth fyne tyled stone). If any of this pavement remains, it is concealed

by the present boarded floor of the New Library. The Supprior dyd alwaies dyne, etc.). The Prior commonly taking his

meals in his own hall or private apartment. praier & deuocion). “ Mox ut surrexerint a cæna, sedeant omnes in unum,

et legat unus Collationes, vel Vitas Patrum, aut certe aliud quod ædificet audientes."-Reg. S. Bened., cap. xlii. These conferences may have been held in the chapter-house at Durham, and they may

be what the writer is referring to. they went to ye Salvi]. The meaning probably is that they went to

Compline, and that this office was sometimes called the Salve from the antiphon Salve Regina, the earliest antiphon of the Blessed Virgin commonly recited in the Church. In the Roman Breviary it is directed to be said after Lauds and Compline from Trinity Sunday to Advent. According to Zaccaria, it had no place in that Breviary till Cardinal Quignon introduced it, and it has often been said that it was transferred from Quignon's Breviary to that of Pius V. There are, however, early printed Roman Breviaries with this anthem in them at Compline. It is not in the Old English Breviaries, but nevertheless it was recited after Compline by the Franciscans as early as 1249, and by the Benedictines earlier than 1343. It was ordered to be sung with special solemnity, and so might easily give its name to the whole of the service at which it was used. It was, indeed, the great musical effort of the quire, sung in pricksong in many parts, even a dozen or more. It was sung in the richer parish churches and was very popular. It lent its name to other anthems similarly used, and was the parent of the anthem now sung after Mattins and Evensong. In a modern monastery the Salve sung at the end of Compline commonly impresses the lay mind much more than the office itself, See a constitution in Reyner, Appendix, 153 ; B. Gavanti, Comm. in Rubr. Breviarii, & V, cap. xxii, 5; Addis and Arnold, Cath. Dict., 742 : J. Wickham Legg, Principles, etc., of

Prayer Book, 33. zij of ye clocke). After Compline and Salve, the monks went to bed, but it

must be remembered that they rose at midnight for Mattins. See ch. XIII, at the end.

XLIV, pp. 86--88. The Lofte). So called in Durham as being on a higher level than the

Frater. It corresponded with the Misericorde at Westminster and elsewhere, called Deportum at Canterbury, a subsidiary Frater where certain monks dined who for infirmity or other reasons were allowed to take their meals outside the Frater proper, and with indulgences that could not be permitted there. Hence it may well have been called, as it appears to have been in Durham, Solarium Caritatis, under which head see the Index to Rolls. At the beginning of the fourteenth century Winchelsey's Statutes provide for the additional masses to be attended by those who in their turns were taking their Deportum. See further in R. Willis, Conv. Buildings, 59–61, and, with reference to St. Agatha's by Richmond, Hope, in Yks. Arch. Jrnl., X, 144. It appears that at Durham, in the sixteenth century, all the monks regularly dined in the Loft, and the novices only in the Frater, except on festival days (ch. xxxix, XLIV). In a statute of 1444 it is strictly forbidden that any but growing youths dine in the Frater from September 13 to Ash Wednesday, save on Sundays and festivals. See Reyner, Appendix,

129. Cf. Reg. S. Bened., cap. xli. The mounckes dyd all dyne together). This is perhaps not quite accurate.

We find some of the obedientiaries having their “meat," which may have included their dinner, served from the kitchen to their checkers (ch. xlix). And according to MS. H. 45, L., and Davies, it was the old monks that dined and supped in the Loft. The old discipline

may have become much relaxed at the last. aboue ye seller). The small cellar, that is, under the northern portion of the

Loft. It has a square opening in the centre of the vault, as if for letting down and drawing up vessels, and beside the door leading to it from the covey or pantry is a small opening which has had a little door and fastenings, as if for serving drink from the cellar to the covey without opening the great door. The internal dimensions of this cellar are about 28 ft. by 10 ft. Between it and the cellarage under the Dorter, “the great cellar," was another doorway, now

blocked. ye said great kitchinge seruinge, etc.). Nevertheless there may have been

smaller kitchens for minor cookeries, as in the Infirmary, Guest-hall, etc.

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