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two dresser windowes). Ch. xxxix mentions one of these windows as "the"

dresser window, in connexion with the great feast of St. Cuthbert in Lent, p. 81, and of either this or the other as "a" dresser window, through which the novices were served on ordinary days, p. 82. A dresser window was an opening provided with a

"• dresser" or table on both sides, for the convenient passing through of dishes and other vessels, etc. Both windows have disappeared ; one does not quite see why the larger window did not serve for all days. There are two at Westminster in a fifteenth or sixteenth century wall blocking up a large fourteenth-century arch which was once open. Meat could be served more quickly through two dresser

windows used together than through one. and so up a greece). Up a flight of steps, but these have all gone, and it

cannot now be seen how the monks went up from the Frater-house

door into the Loft. another door, that went into the great Cellar]. We do not know exactly

where the “greesefoot " was, but it must have been somewhere in or near the smaller cellar under the Loft. Carter's plan shows an open doorway, now blocked, between the one cellar and the other, and a second doorway in the wall, now destroyed, that divided the Great Cellar proper from the compartment of the undercroft of the Dorter next to it on the South. “ Buttery" (a place for Butts, see N. E. D.)

appears to have been a synonym for the Great Cellar. not so great for every day). This Loft since the Dissolution of the

Monastery was made the dining-room of the Fifth Prebendaries house.- Addition, Ed. H. After the suppression of six of the Prebendaries, this same room was made, and is now (1903) the

Librarian's room. je vshers dour). See ch. XXXVII. The entry still remains, though blocked

eastward by modern alterations. ve centorie garth). The Centry or cemetery garth which has been so often

mentioned. ther did stand, etc.). This custom appears to have been something of the

same kind as the Visitatio tumuli per xxx dies prescribed in Liber Evesham. (H. Bradshaw Soc.), col. 147, a usage not mentioned in the Concordia Regularis nor in Lanfranc. There were doubtless at Durham, as in other Benedictine houses, many private practices or customs besides the common practice of the Rule, and the daily visit to the graves seems to have been one of these local usages. We find a similar custom St. Alban's. Abbot Hugh (1308–26) “concessit etiam fratribus universis, ut quibuscunque temporibus die competentibus dictum locum (coemeterium) vellent visitare, orandi causa, facultatem haberent, silentio minime relaxato."--Gesta Abb. S. Albani, Rolls edition, Vol. II, p. 125. Cornelius à Lapide in his commentary on St. Luke viii, 29, speaks of having witnessed the visitation of the tombs at Arras in Belgium, where a number of persons came to make their prayers and where lights were burnt to

keep away demons. the onelie writers of all the actes, etc.). As, for example, Symeon of

Durham, the Scriptores Tres (Coldingham, Graystanes, and
Chambre), Reginald of Durham, and Prior Wessington,


what miracles was done). Not only the miracles related by Bede, Symeon,

Reginald, and others, but much later ones. In 1410-11 we find a
payment of 6s. 8d. to one relating a miracle of St. Cuthbert (Rolls,
138), and a miracle wrought in July, 1502, is related in Scr. Tres, 152.

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XLV, pp. 88–89.
The Commone Howse). Otherwise called the Calefactory or Warming-house,

from the fire that was allowed in it (see ch. L). It was here in the
usual situation, namely in the basement of the Dorter. The Bene-
dictine Common House only occupied two or three bays.

It was
used for warming and recreation, sometimes, perhaps, for shaving
and bleeding, but at Durham there were separate shaving and
bleeding houses.--Rolls, Index. Carter's plan shows the partition
walls that bounded the Common-house and the Great Cellar,
with the passage between them that led to the Infirmary. Not
only these walls, but all traces of the fireplace have disappeared.
At Westminster the Common-house occupied two bays, at Durhain
three. At Westminster a chapel was placed on the east side of
the Common-house, opening out of it. This arrangement was
impossible at Durham by reason of other buildings occupying the
space. For much information with regard to the Common-house,
see Rolls, Index under Commoner, and Common-house. In Cistercian
abbeys, the Common-house was an independent building, adjoining

the frater. --Hope, in Yks. Arch. Jrnl., XV, 356—361. a garding and a bowlinge allie). Where these were, is now a grassplat or

bowling-green, but the doorway shown in Carter's plan as having led

to them has been destroyed.
remedy of there mrl. “Remedy" is an old term for an extra holiday or

play-time. It occurs in the Founder's Statutes of St. Paul's School,
1518, in Instructions to the Master of Merchant Taylors', c. 1560,

and it is still current at Winchester and at St. Paul's.
O Sapientia). The 16th of December is so called because on that day the

first of the anthems called “the great O's,” or “the O's of Advent,"
was sung, and it began with those words. There were eight of
them, or nine including “ ( Thoma Didyme," which was sung on the

See the Sarum Breviary, Cambr. edition, fasc. I, cols. clv,
clvi, or York, Surtees edition, Vol. I, cols. 57, 58. See further in the
note on the Commoner, ch. Xl.ix, and, for a very full treatment of the

whole subject, Archæologia, XLIX, 219-242.
a sollemne banquett]. This was in fact a "pittance," i.e. an occasional allow-

ance of something besides the common fare. For other “great O
pittances" at St. Paul's, Abingdon, Bury, and in France, see Archæ-
ologia (ubi cit.). As to Durham, see Rolls, Index under Pittances.

XLVI, p. 89.
The Fermerye). For more about the Infirmary, see above, ch. xxiii.
the mo of ye fermeryes chamber). This was a usual appendage to the

Infirmary. At Canterbury, Prior Hathbrande (1338–70) built the hall
called “ Mensa Magistri Infirmatorii” (or Table Hall ” at the
Reformation) as the Refectory for those who were able to quit their

2 ist.

chambers or were relieved from strict observance of the Rule. Its walls remain, projecting northward from the Infirmary:—R. Willis, Conv. Buildings, 55. At Peterborough it stands just detached from the N.E. corner of the Infirmary chapel. At Ely it remains as a canon's house, projecting northward from the Infirmary aisle and chapel. It was called the "

Gent Hall,” probably from the entertaining of gentlefolk therein. The admission of seculars to the Infirmary became an abuse against which regulations had to be issued. See Cott. MSS. Claud. E. IV, 245; Jul. D. II, 1586 ; Nero A. XII, 1586, quoted in Fosbrooke, British Monachism (1817), 324nn. The Farmery fare is satirized by Langland in Piers Plowman (Skeat's edition, 1886, I, 392). Of the Infirmary itself nothing is left in Durham, nor have we any description of it in our text. The monastic Infirmary, generally speaking, resembled the nave of a church, with side aisles, columns, and arches, and clerestory windows above; to the east was the chapel, like a chancel in situation, but having a real chancel of its own. The main portions of the Infirmary remain at Canterbury, Ely, Peterborough, Gloucester, and elsewhere. At Durham there was hardly room for such buildings as those were ; the peculiarities of the site must have required an Infirmary somewhat different in design, and it probably stood, as at Fountains, north and south, with the chapel, as well as the master's “chamber,camera, or house, at right angles to it. Its west side may have stood on the ancient retaining and supporting walls that yet remain at the back of one of the canons' houses. On the master's chamber, see the next note. In the Rolls, see Index under Infirmary, will be found a great deal of information connected with this part of the Abbey. But references to pp. 199–258 in the Rolls Index belong to the Infirmary without

the gates. pe lynghouse). In Carter's plan, as also in his Plate III, is well shown a

Norman building running east and west, marked B and described as "ancient building,” in a line with the passage between the great cellar and the common house described above, p. 270. It is also shown in an old painting ; see above, p. 266. This building has been greatly altered and made into stables ; under these is a vaulted room that was cleared out in 1890-95 ; its floor is 23 feet beneath the present level of the ground. It is 24 feet 3 inches long from east to west, 14 ft. 5 in. wide, and 19 ft. 2 in. high. Entrance was obtained through a doorway on the south side with a door opening outwards and secured by a wooden bar that slipped back into a hole in the jamb. The doorway leads from a vaulted passage at the foot of a newel staircase descending from the upper storey, now stables, but formerly, no doubt, “the master of the Fermeryes chamber," Carter's "ancient building," which still retains a round-headed window in its west gable. It may safely be assumed that the vaulled apartment beneath, which is provided with two latrines and a door closed on the outside, has been the Lynghouse. See further in Greenwell, 89, note 2; Rolls, 265, 271. At Ely there was camera in Infirmaria quæ

Helle."-Sacrist's Roll, 1322–3, in Stewart's Ely Cathedral, 275.


a trap Dour]. The vaulting fell in (and with it the horses of Dr. Wellesley, then Canon) many years ago.

When the fallen stones were taken out as above stated, there were found among them three which had been so cut that they might have formed parts of a square opening in the vault, one showing two internal angles and the others one each. And in the Rolls, p. 271, we find mention of “ligatur' pro hostio vocato trapdure supra lynghouse."

XLVII, p. 89-90. The gest hall). The canon's house formerly attached to the third stall, and

now occupied by the Professor of Divinity, stands on the site of the
Guest-hall, with which it corresponds very nearly in length and
breadth. These dimensions are thus given in Arundel MS. 30, at
the Coll. of Arms, fo. 214 (13th century), Latitudo aule hospitū ibid.
lv. ped. Longitudo iiijxx viij ped.' It retains Norman walls north,
south, and west, with round-headed openings, and a noble cellar
under part of it, in a vaulted basement with nine columns and round
arches, now used as the kitchen. Hunter's remark, appended to
this note, does not imply that the whole of the substructure was
demolished, nor, perhaps, that all the chambers were. This hall
seems to answer to the Cellarer's hall or Guesten hall at Canterbury,
and the Terrer and Cellarer at Durham appear to have shared the
duties that fell to the Cellarer elsewhere (see ch. XLIX). Yet there
was a Hostillar as well. -See Rolls, Index under Camera, Guests,

Guest-hall, Hostillar.
The following passage, omitted in p. 105 of Hunter's editions, is

added at the end, after p. 168 : --“ The Houses belonging to the Four
following Prebends, viz., the Second, Third, Fourth, and Tenth,
enjoyed by the Rev. Dr. Benson, Mr. SECKER, Mr. FALLE, and Dr.
SHARP, were prepared out of the apartments and other offices
belonging to the Guest's Hall, the Hall itself being wholly
demolished, nothing thereof remaining except a Part of the Western
Wall : But nothing remains to let us know, what was in the Sixth
and Twelfth Prebendaries Houses, at present enjoy'd by the Rev.
Dr. Watts, and Dr. Rundel." Much more than the west wall still

remains ; see note above. pillers supporting yt]. The other English guest halls, of which we have

sufficient knowledge to enable us to speak positively, were simple

halls without pillars. The chambers & lodginges]. Several of the chambers are mentioned by

name in the Rolls, e.g. in pp. 147-149. These may have been over the great hall, or else beside it on the same level. There is a chamber with a fine oak roof, to the west, which may well have been the “King's Chamber." We find in 1416-46, “reparacio cameræ australis Hostillariæ, vocatæ Camera Regalis,” and “* factura

Cameræ Regalis."-Scr. Tres, pp. cclxxiv, cclxxv. a seller appertayninge, etc.). There is a good deal of cellarage yet

remaining ; see note above,

there neaded no geist haule). The Prior had his own great hall in his house,

answering in its uses to the later Prior's hall at Canterbury called Meist’omers, the Homors, etc., which succeeded to the Nova Camera Prioris of Norman times ; that is to say it served for the more private hospitalities of the Prior, as distinct from those of the Convent.–See Rolls, Index under Prior, and Introduction, p. ii. Sometimes, as at Worcester, the Prior's great hall served also as

the Guesten hall of the Convent. the Benevolence therof]. In the Cosin MS. all has been omitted in the

copying from these words to “ that no thinge should be wantinge for any stranger,” etc., in ch. XLIX, paragraph on Dane Roger

Watson, but that and other omitted portions are added at the end. two porters). The Hall door has been destroyed or concealed, but the

Usher door remains in its original state. See above, on ch. XXXVII.

XLVIII, pp. 91–92. Je childrine of ye aumerey). There was a question whether the monastic

Eleemosyna possit distribui in usus Scholarium proficere volentium in studio Grammaticæ, prout fieri solet in quibusdam monasteriis, in quibus de remanentibus Monachorum in Eleemosynaria exhibentur tales Scholares in magno numero ?” The conclusion was,

“ videtur quod non, quia tales aliunde laborando, possunt sibi vitæ necessaria quærere, maxime si occasione talium substrahatur Eleemosyna ab egenis, et pauperibus magis indigentibus qui seipsos relevare non possunt.”—Lyndewode, Provinciale, 1679, p. 209. Notwithstanding this adverse judgment, there were children of the Almery not only at Durham, but at St. Augustine's, Canterbury, and no

doubt elsewhere. over ye gates). Those of the stable, apparently, under the stairhead. See

the next paragraph. Mr. Steph : Marleys lodginges]. Stephen Marley, B.D., was one of the

monks who were made prebendaries on the new foundation in 1541. He had been sub-prior, and when the Almery was abolished its buildings were assigned to him. Great parts of the original walls remain, but it has been much altered since his time, and served as the house attached to the sixth stall until it was vacated under the Act for the reconstitution of the Chapter in 1840, since

which time it has been used for Chapter offices. ye fermory chamber wthowte ye Abbey gates). Apparently the same as the

Farmery without the South gaits,” mentioned a little below, and the infirmaria extra portam abbathiæ, the expenses of which occur annually in the Almoners' Rolls.—See Index to Rolls, under Infirmary, outer, and Infirmary, reff. 1994-258. The principal gates may have been called the South gates with reference to the North gates at the end of the Bailey. The Priors appear to have maintained an Infirmitorium sæcularium outside the gates, with its own chapel. No traces of this Farmery or of its chapel are known to exist. They probably occupied the site where are now the stables of No. 1, South Bailey, and where an old road, now disused, leads down to

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