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ensure purity and cleanliness. “Frater qui ferra in quibus coquuntur tenet manus chirothecis habeat involutas.” And while the “ hostiæ are being made and baked, the brethren employed are to say the regular hours, with those of the Blessed Virgin, the penitential psalms, and the Litany. The servants assisting are to recite psalms. On the fire-place in the south transept, see note on ch. XVI, p. 218, Proc. Soc. Ant. Lond., Dec. 18, 1902, and Rolls, Index under Altar

breads, Hosts, Obleys, Obley-irons, Wheat. seggersten hewgh). Called on the spot Seggerston hyuff," and in the rolls

Clivus Sacrisle, le Hough, le Hogh, le How, etc., heugh in the north being a level space at the top of a steep declivity, and to be distinguished from haugh, a flat between rising ground and a river, liable to be overflowed. See Rolls, Index under Sacristonheugh, for

much information concerning the Sacrist's establishment there. St Margarettes waird). St. Margarets Ward, L., C. ; St. Margarets wood,

H. 45; St. Mary's Cubard, Cos. ; St. Mary's Cupboard (over an erasure), H. 44, and all the printed editions. Nothing has been

found in the Sacrists' Rolls to throw any light on this matter. leathering). Providing with new baudericks when the old ones were worn

On the old method of hanging the clappers by bauderick and busk-board, retained and in use in Devonshire in many cases in 1872, see H. T. Ellacombe, Church Bells of Devon, 17. The banderick was a stout thong of whitleather, i.e. horse hide prepared without

See Rolls, Index under Bawdricks, Bell, Bells, etc., Whilleather. ye aumbrie standing wth in ye north quer dour). It probably stood,

like the great relic aumbry at Canterbury, opposite to the throne in

the quire. Allso yei went to ye chapter house, etc.). The reference is to the daily

meeting of the whole Convent in the Chapter-house after Prime in summer and after Terce in winter. Then took place (1) A reading from the Martyrology of the day, with suitable versicle, collect, etc. ; (2) The reading of the local Necrology or list of names of the faithful departed benefactors, bishops, and other friends, with prayers for them ; (3) The distribution of work to each monk, with versicles, collect, etc. ; (4) The reading of a chapter in the Rule of the Order, with an exposition or sermon upon the portion read ; (5) Self-accusation, the denouncing of notorious offenders, and penance. In minor details the usages varied in different orders, places, and times. See Martene, Mon. Rit., lib. I, cap. v; Grancolas, Brev. Rom., lib. I, cap. xxxvi ; Liber Eveshamensis, H.

Bradshaw Soc., col. 10. alwaies at ye heighe alter). This was the custom in many churches, but not

in all. — Wordsw., 21. his Memento). The portion of the Canon of the Mass beginning

"Memento, Domine, famulorum famularumque tuarum," at which period in the service in ancient times the Diptychs, or lists of saints and others to be prayed for, were recited ; hence the Memento was called Oratio super Diptycha. See references in W. Maskell, Ancient Liturgy, 1846, p. 84n., and Bona, Rerum Liturg., lib. II, cap. xiv.

the one halfe . . . did say masse). That is, each said his private mass

while not assisting at the Chapter mass or High mass. ye high mess tyme). Probably about 10 a.m., the Chapter mass having

been sung at nine. ther duble furnitures]. So in the case of the High Altar, ch. III, p. 9.

L, pp. 99–102. Dane Robert Bennett). After the Dissolution he became first prebendary of

the 11th stall, May 12th, 1541. His mother was a sister in the Hospital of St. Mary Magdalene, Durham, in 1532 and 1534.Memorials of St. Giles's (Surtees Soc.), 245, 246. His account-book from 1530 to 1534 is printed in Vol. 18 of the Surtees series, and there are Bursars' rolls of his predecessors and himself for many years from 1278 to 1541.Rolls, 484—707. On the title “ Dane” (dominus)

see p. 93n., and N. E. D. The Bowcers checker). There is a small blocked doorway just on the left as

we enter the passage from the College to the Cloisters ; this seems

to have been the entrance to the Bursar's Office. cole garth). The coal-yard. The coal house is frequently mentioned in

Rolls ; see Index, s.v. all other ... mayde there accoumptes to him). See above, on the Obedien

tiaries, p. 274. ye Cellerer of the house). The Cellarer is one of the officers mentioned in

the Rule of St. Benedict, and was always an important person in the management of a monastery, though in some places his duties were more extended than they seem to have been in Durham. It is to be noted that the word cellar (Lat. cellarium, set of cells) originally meant a storehouse or storeroom, whether above or below ground. The monastic cellarium was usually in more or less of the vaulting under the western range of the cloister. For Durham, see note on the Great Cellar, ch. xxxix, p. 259. At Canterbury the “Cellarer's domain was very extensive, and included not only the usual Cellarium, but Prior Chillenden's Guest-chambers, and the Cellarer's Hall or Guest-hall. While the “North Hall was used for the lodging of the lov est class of pilgrims, that also would probably be included. See R. Willis, ch. vi, and ch. vii, 3. There is a good deal about the Cellarer in Lanfranc; he is to be “pater totius congregationis,” to look after the sick as well as the whole, and, on the day when the sentence of the Rule which relates to him is read in Chapter, he, having been warned beforehand by the Precentor, is to make a feast for the brethren in the frater, preceded by an act of

reparation for his own shortcomings, while all are in Chapter. The Cellerers checker). William Todd, D.D., was the first prebendary of the

fifth stall, and the Cellarer's checker, assigned to him as a prebendal residence, must have been over two apartments shown in Carter's plan as being on the west side of the kitchen, and each covered in by a waggon-vault running east and west. Some part of the Cellarer's stores may have been kept in these. These buildings were swept away in 1819, but the roof-mark of the chamber over them, and other indications, may still be discerned.

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a longe greece : ouer ye fawlden yeattes). This greece or flight of steps

must have run east and west and have been carried over the folding gates by an archway; it cannot have run north and south, as did the later stairs shown in Carter's plan. The gates would lead from the Curia (now the College) in the direction of the bowling-green, and were probably situated at the south-west corner of the Dormitory, whence a road led northward by the side of the same and under the bridge between it and the upper storey of the Rere

dorter, shown in Carter's plan. His office was, etc.). All this is amply borne out by the extant Cellarers'

Rolls, many of which, of dates between 1306 and 1535, have survived.

Copious extracts from them are printed in Rolls, 1--112. Dane Roger Watson). First Prebendary in the second stall, May uth,

1541. ye Terrer of ye house). “ The Terrer " does not appear to be mentioned by

this name in connexion with other English monasteries, but Du Cange gives some quotations under Terrarius and Terrerius. He was properly and originally an officer in charge of the lands, but in Durham the Bursar and the Keeper of the Garners received the rents and corn, while the Terrer and Hostillar together discharged the duties of Guest-master. The Terrer's Checker or office cannot now be identified. There are Terrers' Rolls between 1400 and 1512.

-Rolls, ye geste chambers]. We have a full account of the names and furniture of

these chambers in an inventory dated June 8, 1454. The chambers named are, the king's chamber, the knights' chamber, Barry, the water chamber, the new chainber, and the clerks' chamber, besides

the summer hall and the winter hall. See Rolls, Introduction, xxxii. two hogshedes of wyne). These were probably kept in the cellarage now

used as the kitchen of the house formerly assigned to the third stall. Among other expenses in the Hostillar's Roll of 1528-9 we find mention of ten hogsheads of red wine at 3os. and 359., as well as “in vino Malwaset et claret empt. in villa diversis vicibus pro Justiciar' d'ni Regis, d’no Episcopo, et aliis extraneis et hospitibus,"

In 1523-4, “in vino empto pro multitudine adveniencium tempore gwerræ."-Rolls, 162, 161. provender for there horses). It is not known where the stables were, or

where the hay was stored. The Hostillars' rolls regularly mention expenses of “falcacio et lucracio feni” at various places in the neighbourhood, as well as for oats, pease and beans for præbenda or

provender for horses.-Rolls, 113–164. ye kepper of the Garneres). A necessary officer in every monastery, but

not often mentioned. See Rolls, Introduction, liii. Mr Pilkingtons haule doures). Leonard Pilkington, D.D., fourth pre

bendary of the seventh stall (1567-92), is said to have rebuilt the Granary, which had been made into a dwelling house by Rob. Dalton, B.D., the first prebendary (1541-60). But the original substructure remains.


Mr Bonnies house). Francis Bunney, A.M., was the fifth prebendary of the

eighth stall (1572–1617). llis office was, etc.). So at Worcester, the Granetarius received grain for

flour and mal and kept account thereof.—Noake, Worcester, 258. There are Rotuli Granatoris at Durham of various dates between

1 295 and 1534. where mr Bennettes lodging was). Robert Bennett, first prebendary of the

eleventh stall (1541-58), having been previously monk and bursar ;

see above, p. 280. The precise site of the maltkiln is unknown. Dane Thomas Sparke). First prebendary of the third stall (1541-71). As

he was consecrated bishop suffragan of Berwick in 1537, that he might exercise chorepiscopal authority through the whole diocese of Durham, he probably had a deputy to attend to the humbler functions of the Chamberlain of the Abbey. See above, p. 224. There was

a regular allowance“ pro duabus tunicis furrur' empt. pro camerario et ejus socio, 20s. ; eidem camerario pro botis,

6s. 8d."--Rolls, 197 ; see Index under Tunics, furred. ye Chamberlayne). The Chamberlain (camerarius) is not mentioned in the

Rule of St. Benedict, but has an important place in Lanfranc and in all accounts of monastic officers. He always looked after bedding and clothes, sometimes also after other matters ; thus at Worcester he managed the horse-shoeing, and lighted and put out the lamps in the dormitory. Lanfranc directs that he shall supply horse-shoes for the abbot, prior, and guests. The rolls mention “ferrura equorum et mariscalcia,” provender, summer pasturage, harness,

etc., of horses.Rolls, 165–198. The chamberlaynes checker). This was over the tailor's work-room, some

where about the site now occupied by the first house on the right after passing through the great gateway.

There are many Chamberlains' Rolls between 1333 and 1532, in which, under

' Empcio pannorum,” occur the annual purchases of large quantities of different sorts of cloth, white and black thread, cost of

sewing (perhaps put out), etc.-Rolls, 165-198. Mr fte]. Robert Swyft, LL.D., was third prebendary of the first stall,

1562—6. 1599. stammyne, otherwaies called lyncye wonncye). Stamine is from the old

French estamine, late Lat. staminea from stamen, warp, thread, used of woollen cloth for monastic garments (Du Cange, s.v. Staminea, etc.), or, as here, of linsey woolsey, cloth of linen and wool in combination, used for sheets and shirts. The term was also applied to a shirt

made of this material. they dyd neuer weare any lynynge). It was said that St. Etheldreda from

the time that she came to Ely would never use linen, but only woollen garments. Bede, Eccl. Hist., lib. IV, cap. xvii (xix). This was “a recognised feature of the ascetic life.” See Plummer's note in his edition of Bede, vol. II, p. 237, and references there given. At a visi. tation of Tavistock Abbey in 1373 the monks were strictly inhibited by Bishop Brantyngham lest any should use lintheaminibus vel camisiis lineis." —Reg. Brantyngham, Pt. I, ed. Hingeston-Randolph,

312. Linen would be more costly, and thought too luxurious, and would want washing oftener than linsey Woolsey. The Rule prescribes that the monks' clothes shall be such as can be found in the country where they live, or what can be bought at a cheaper rate. In 1471 Prior Bell sent a circular lelter to the various cells expressly prohibiting the use of linen shirts and woollen calige

closed, after the manner of lay-folk.-Scr. Tres, p. ccclii. one of the servauntes). From there being at first as few servants as possible,

there came, as time went on, to be a great many. At Evesham there were fifty-nine at the Dissolution, while at Durham there must have been at least a hundred. See App. V, p. 144. A hundred or more was the usual number in the larger monasteries. At Worcester, the Chamberlain had a staff of tailors under him in their work-room to the west of the church, and at Durham he had a cissor

under him.-Rolls, Index under Tailors. the common house). See above, ch. XLV ; p. 270. The Commoners checker). Constructed by partitioning off some part of the

vaulted undercroft, probably by wooden screens. There are several rolls of the Commoner (communiarius) between 1416 and 1535, iu

which we find mention of the fuel, figs, raisins, etc.-Rolls, 285-298. spices against lent]. Spices and savoury herbs would enable the monks

better to relish and digest their food on fast-days. We find that at Winchester the fraterer's valectus provided, at the Collation on vigils, when they fasted, sage, mint, and parsley, in lieu of spices, from the Invention to the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, May 3rdSept. 14th, during which time these herbs would be flourishing in the garden. See Consuetudinary, ed. Kitchin, 1886, pp. 24, 47 ; Rolls,

Index under Spice, Garlic, Onions, etc. for the keaping of his O). It was usual for each of the principal officers in

a monastery to “keep his O" by singing one of the “ great O's" or Advent anthems (see above, p. 270) and providing a pittance or feast. There are several references to these in the Winchester Rolls edited by Dean Kitchin ; we there find the O Prioris, Curtarii et Berthonarii, Custodis, Coquinarii, and Hordarii. The same “O" was not always assigned to the same officer. The custom at Fleury was for the Abbot to have 0 Sapientia, the Prior 0 Adonai, the Gardener O Radix Jesse, the Cellarer O Clavis David, the Treasurer O Oriens, the Provost o Rex Gentium, the Librarian O Emmanuel, the Master of the Works, who was also Sacrist, O Virgo Virginum. Elsewhere the Treasurer usually had Clavis (Archæologia, XLIX, 231). The solemn and moderate little banquet may have been a sort of set-off against any fasting that was observed on these last days of Advent. The person of greatest dignity took 0 Sapientia ; “Excellentior persona quæ in choro præsens fuerit incipiat Antiphonam . .

post illum ..

gradatim per singulas personas descendendo, usque ad Vigiliam Natalis Domini.”—Brev. Sarum, Cantab., cliv, clv. At Durham, however, the first "O" fell to the lot of the Commoner, unless the author of Rites be confounding some other “O” therewith, which is not impossible, considering the time at which he wrote. See above, ch. XLV.

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