« PredošláPokračovať »
fygges and walnutes). Dried fruits, especially raisins, will to some extent
compensate for the absence of flesh from a dietary. Dane Will’m Watson). Mentioned above, ch. xlix, p. 94, as Vice Prior.
The two distinct offices of Vice Prior and Prior's Chaplain appear to
have been held by the same person at the time referred to. over the staires). The Dean's (formerly Prior's) hall is still reached by a
Alight of stone stairs. at the Bowcers handes). It may be noted that the Bursar's checker was
situated close by that of the Chaplain. See above, p. 280. named after this sorte). It would seem that novices as well as monks were
named “Dane"; so Bachelors in our Universities are styled “Ds.” for Domnus.
LI, pp. 102-103. before mentioned). Ch. II, p. 3. ye visitacion). The Visitation at Durham is not mentioned in the Letters
on the Suppression of the Monasteries published by the Camden Society, the subjects of which do not extend further north than Yorkshire. Dr. Legh, Ley, or Lee was one of the most active of the Commissioners employed. He was described as “a doctor of low quality,” and his proceedings seem to justify the description. See Dictionary of National Biography. He was at Selby on the 8th of December, 1537, as was Walter Hendle or Henley. Blythman was at York 15th December, 1537.—Letters on Suppr. Mon. (Camden Soc.), 166, 168. They were probably at Durham during the same year, for 1537 is printed in the margin of Harpsfield's Hist. Eccl. Angl. (1622), p. 105. The shrine at Bridlington was ordered to be taken down in that year, but the general order was given in the middle of 1538. The sheriffs, magistrates, and other laymen then received commissions to take down shrines and other monuments that were regarded as superstitious and afforded plunder. Wilkins prints the commission for taking down St. Richard's shrine at Chichester.-Conc., III, 840. There are good accounts of the whole business in R. W. Dixon's History of the Church of England, II, 69–74, and in F. A. Gasquet's Henry VIII and the English
Monasteries, 1889, II, 402—413. woorthie & goodly jewells). See the lists in Rolls, under Status Officii
Feretrarii. one pretious stone). The Emerald, valued, with five rings and silver chains, at £3,336 135. 4d. in 1401.-- Rolls,
454 pe chiste . . . bound wth Irone). This iron-bound chest is not mentioned by
Raine as having been found in 1827. It had probably been discarded
when a new chest was made in 1541-2. ye goulde smyth). Probably one whom the Commissioners took about
with them to assist them in dealing with the plunder. a great fore hammerl. “ The large hammer which strikes first ; a sledge
hammer.”-N. E. D., where see quotations 1543–1894. vncorrupt). Doubtless in what is called a “mummified" condition, as bodies
have often been found, e.g. those of our kings Edward the Confessor, Edward I, and Charles I, of Thomas Gray Marquis of
Dorset, and of Bishops Lyndwode the canonist, Braybroke of London, and Thirlby of Ely. Several bodies of Capuchin friars in the same dried-up state are now exhibited at their monastery in
Rome, and others like them elsewhere. a forth netts growthe). Or probably more. It is not likely that St. Cuthbert
would pay any attention to his beard during his last sickness. his vestmentes). Found in 1827 and still preserved. See Raine, St. Cuth
bert, 194 ff. and Plates. his met wand of gould). The term metewand is usually applied to a
measuring rod, but here it must mean a crosier, which, if of gold or silver-gilt, would be carried off by the Commissioners of 1537, and so
would not be found in 1827. when he did breake vpe ye chiste). He must have broken up three chests,
viz. the iron-bound chest above mentioned, the “chest covered with hides ” that was opened in 1104, and the innermost chest, covered with carvings, opened at the same time. The two latter were found in 1827, but the outermost chest then found would be one made for the burial in 1541-2, and described as “a new coffin of wood ” in a tract written about 1559.--Raine, St. Cuthbert, 76, 175; Brief Account, 58; Rolls, quoted in note below. The greater part of the chest covered with carvings is now to be seen in the Cathedral Library, and is described in the Catalogue of Sculptured Stones, etc., Durham, 1899, pp. 134--156, and Plates 9–13. The broken pieces were taken out of the grave in 1827, and fitted together, as far as possible, in 1898. The cover, sides, and ends exhibit rude but spirited outline carvings. On the cover, Christ with the symbols of St. Matthew and St. Mark over the head and of St. Luke and St. John under the feet. On one end, the Blessed Virgin with the Infant Jesus, on the other St. Gabriel and St. Michael. On one side, the twelve Apostles with St. Paul, and probably St. Barnabas, in two rows ; on the other, one row of six Archangels. The figures have their names lightly cut on the wood, some in Roman and others in Runic
characters such as were used in England in Eata's time. alas I haue broke one of his leigges). He may only have caused a knee-joint
partly to come asunder, which would consist with the bones being found “perfectly whole" in 1827 (Raine, St. Cuthbert, 213) and again
in 1899 (Archæologia, LVII, 19 ff.). ye synewes & ye skine heild it). As they easily might do in the case of a
dried-up body. And when the bones were examined in 1899 some of them showed “much ligamentous matter still adherent,” others showed remains of periosteum, and there were further indications that the body had not decayed in a grave in the usual way (Archæo
logia, LVII, 20). close and saiflie keapt]. An iron-bound chest now at the Castle, mentioned
above, p. 264, is shown as that in which St. Cuthbert's body was kept, but the tradition may be quite modern and destitute of foundation. It has been argued with great ingenuity by the Rev. W. Brown that, during its sojourn in the Revestry, St. Cuthbert's body was hidden away somewhere in the church, and a
• sham St. Cuthbert ” made up by swathing a skeleton
and placing on it episcopal robes which may have been taken from the stores of the feretory if not from the very body of the Saint ; that by such a pious fraud the real body was secured from profanation, while the counterfeit was buried in St. Cuthbert's coffins in 1541-2, and that the Roman Catholic traditions of the hidden body rest on a sound foundation.—(Where is St. Cuthbert buried? Durham, 1897). But the examination in 1899 made the identification of the body, to say the least, highly probable, and this probability was much strengthened by the discovery with it of parts of a skull which was all but certainly St. Oswald's.--Archæologia, LVII, 24.
Mr. W. H. St. John Hope calls attention to another important point, namely that the cross found on the body in 1827, “deeply buried among the remains of the robes which were nearest to the breast of the Saint " (Raine, St. Cuthbert, 211), must have been there, but overlooked, both in 1104 and in 1537, for Reginald does not mention it, and it would hardly have been put on the body at the later date. Therefore the body seen in 1104 was, in all probability, that which was seen in 1537, 1827, and 1899. There is an almost contemporary notice of the opening of the shrine in the tract, c. 1559, printed 1799, on the Origin and Succession of the Bishops
of Durham, p. 27, in George Allan's collection of local tracts. the prior and the mounckes buried him). The original bill of expenses
connected with this burial (1541-2) is now hanging in the Library, framed and glazed. For a printed copy and translation, see Raine, St. Cuthbert, 179, 180; it is printed also in Rolls, 742, 743. Nails and iron bands are mentioned, and were probably for the new coffin, the wood for which would come from the capitular store, and so not be specified. There are entries relating to the marble stone, and the sewing of a sheet, indicating that the interment was carefully and decently conducted. On January ist, 1542, George Skeles was paid 15d. for 2/2 days “circa facturam putei S. Cuthberti.”—Rolls, 742. Harpsfield says that Bishop Tunstall gave the directions for the grave.-Hist. Eccl. Angl. (1622), p. 105. The marble base-course of the shrine was used in the sides of the new grave. -Archæologia,
LVII, 14, 16. where his shrine was exalted). The marble substructures of the shrines of
St. Cuthbert and St. Bede were removed in 1542 ; “solut. Johanni Symson pro ablacione tumbæ S. Cuthberti et tumbe S. Bedæ pro quatuor diebus ijs. per me Robertum Dalton.—Raine, St. Cuthbert, 178n. ; Rolls, 742.
LII, pp. 103-104. defaced by ye said visitors). “ Paid to Rayffe Skelus and iij fellows for
takyng away Sanct Bedes Tumbe, 15d.”— Raine, St. Cuthbert, 178n. ;
Rolls, 742. his bones being interred). The plain tomb in the Galilee was probably
made at this time. The ground under it was examined in 1831, and at a depth of about three feet below the floor were found a good many human bones arranged in their respective places in a coffin of full size, but by no means the whole number belonging to a perfect skeleton, This was not to be expected, for many of Bede's bones,
real or reputed, had been acquired for other churches, and, indeed, some may have been left at Jarrow when the rest were brought to Durham by Elfred Westou, c. A.D. 1022. For an account of the
examination of the grave, see Raine, Br. Acc., 79-82. the said stones). These stones are now in the floor between two of the
piers near the door to the N.W. corner of the cloisters.
LIII, p. 104. Sacte Marks Day). Gregory the Great appointed that the “Greater
Litany" should be sung in procession on St. Mark's day on the occasion of a pestilence in Rome, and this observance continues in the Church of Rome to this day. The Greater Litany is to be found in the Roman Breviary next after the Penitential Psalms, and it is used also on the Rogation days. See also Brev. Sarum (Cambridge),
Fascic. II, col. 250, and Brev. Ebor. (Surtees), vol. I, col. 931. commonly fasted]. The penitential character given to the day superseded
its observance as a festival, But if St. Mark's day fell on a Sunday or in Easter week there was, in some places at least, neither fast nor procession that year. G. J. Aungier, Hist. Syon, 1840, p. 353. For
an English rule see Sarum Missal (Burntisland), col. 739. ye Bowe church). That of St. Mary in the North Bailey.
LIV, p. 104. ye iij Cross daies). The Rogation days, or three days next before the Ascen
sion Day. The term Cross-days appears to have been connected with the processional crosses and banners bearing crosses that were carried in “beating the bounds,” perhaps also with the boundary crosses that were visited in these perambulations. See Ellis's Brand's Pop. Antiq., I, 201 ; Popish Kingdome, Englyshed by Barnabe Googe, R. C. Hope's reprint, 1880, p. 53. The Litanies sung on these days were the same as on St. Mark's day.
LV, pp. 105-107. Sacte Cuthb: Baner). In 1536–7 we find a payment of 5s. pro emendacione
vexilli Sci Cuthberti per communes Dunelm. fracti.”—Rolls, 483. his crutch . . . with a rich myter). The Priors of Durham had used the
crosier and mitre from the time of Prior Berrington. See above, ch.
Sacte Beedes shrine). Ch. LII. the picture of Sacte Oswald). “Ymago S. Oswaldi argentea et deaurata
cum costa ejusdem inclusa in pectore ymaginis " (1383). — Rolls, 426. Sacte Margarettes Crosse). Probably the smaller of the two Black Roods of
Scotland. See above, pp. 18-19. “Una crux que vocatur Sancte
Lyegaitel. Formerly Lykegate, Rolls, Index under Durham, streets, and
p. 933 ; Likyate in Scr. Tres, 117 (1333); Lyegate layne, H. 45; Lidgate, Cos. and H. 44 ; Ly-gate, Dav. ; Lidgate, H. editions ;
now Bow Lane," MS. addition. Now called Dun Cow Lane. south baley). “South in all the MSS. and editions. But read “North,”
to the South Bailey." ye abbey garth). The Curia or great court, now the College. Image of Sacte Aidan). Perhaps the head only ; “ Caput Sci. Aydani
ornatum in cupro deaurato et lapidibus preciosis" (1383). — Rolls, 433.
But an image of the whole figure may have been acquired later. the goodly riche Jewelles and Reliques). Some status or lists of various
dates, printed with the Feretrars' Rolls, fully bear out what is here
stated. kyng Richard). Richard III made oblations at the high altar on St.
Brendan's day, 1483.-Rolls, 414. the historie of the church). The History of the Church at large.-Davies.
Apparently some unpublished work now lost.
LVI, p. 107–108. The place grene). Now called the Palace Green. the towle bowth). Bishop Tunstall built a Toll booth“ of eslier worke"
(ashlar) in the Market Place, and the suffragan bishop Sparke set up a cross, also in the Market Place, where the old Toll booth had stood, namely, near the middle of the “square."-Scr. Tres, 155,
156 ; Raine, Auckland, 64n. ; Hutchinson, Durham, II, 295. Wyndshole yett]. There was probably a gate at the top of the lane or path
that leads down from the S.W. corner of the Green to the Banks,
now called “Windy Gap.” sytting on there kneys). Kneeling, as above, p. 52. The prior did sence yt]. He censed it, of course. The absurd reading “fetch " is in all the editions as well as in Cosin's MS., but L. and C.
sence." ye Banners of ye occupac'ons). Those of the various trade guilds. ye Revestriel. That of St. Nicholas' church. Docter Harvye and Docter Whitbyl. See p. 251. For documents relating
to this visitation in the first year of Edward VI, see Wilkins, vol. iv,
he dyd tread vpon it). And so did Doctor Horne, the dean of Durham,
according to Ch. xxxii, p. 69.