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Organist of this Cathedral ” (Mon. Insc. to family, St. Oswald's Churchyard). Charles Clarke was appointed November, 1811, and went to Worcester in 1814. William Henshaw was appointed November, 1813, and retired in January, 1863. The present organist, Philip Armes, Mus.Doc. Oxon., and Professor of Music in the University of Durham, was appointed in November, 1862. – MS. Randall 60, p. 72, corrected from Treasurers' books and Chapter Acts. The notes in the text from Brimley to Greggs appear to be translated from the section “De Organistis " in Mick. MS. 32, fo. 55u.
The third pair of Organsl. See above, ch, ix. One of the smaller organs was given to Bishop Neile in 1622. “Graunted the right hono'able the lord Bpp. of Duresme one of the lesser Organes in the Church and he to make Choise of the said organe."—Chapter Order. The bishop would seem to have chosen “the Cryers,” for the White Organs were played on in 1636 and the case remained till 1650.
another great Organ was made]. Probably the one referred to in 1630 in the articles objected against Cosin and others ; “you have built a new payre of gorgius organes, which have cost at least 7ooli."— Cosin's Corresp., I, 167. This organ, which is shown on the north side of the choir in Hollar's view of the interior, was made by Robert Dallam, the famous builder; its “chair-organ " was removed to the church of St. Michael-le-Belfrey, York, in 1687, Father Smith having then built a new one for Durham.–Hopkins and Rimbault, The Organ, Lond., 1877, pp. 71, 81. In one of the letters referred to in the note just below, on Father Smith, he says, “The littell cher organ went to York . . . As for the grat organ, I will sell at anny rate as it is, for to mak it a good organ will cost monnes."
till 1641]. It is stated a little below that they remained till 1650.
Dean Balcanquail]. The Dean fled with precipitation when the Scots entered the Bishopric in 1640. Hence the local saying, “Runaway Doctor Bokanki."—The Bishopric Garland, 74. But it was a little hard on the Dean that he should become the subject of a popular saying like that, when both he and so many others were plundered, sequestered, and obliged to fly for personal safety, the Cathedral turned into barracks and wrecked, and the whole establishment broken up until the Restoration in 1660.
Bernard Smith]. Or Schmidt, the celebrated organ-builder, born in Germany about 1630, and commonly styled “Father Smith,” to distinguish him from two nephews, and in compliment to his abilities. The organ which he made for Durham Cathedral was built under an agreement with the Dean and Chapter dated August 18th, 1683 (Misc. Cart. 5990"). He was to receive £700 at three several payments, and to take Dallam's old organ. He was further to have A,50 for painting and gilding. He received £233 6s. 8d. on the day of the agreement, the same again September 21st, 1685. The receipts for the third payment and for the extra £50 have not been found. There are two very interesting letters from him, relating to this business, in Surtees Soc. Miscella nea, 1861, 186m. This fine instrument was an F organ, with quarter tones, and had nineteen stops. The case, as it stood on the choir-screen made at the same time, was a grand and stately work, surmounted by huge mitres and the arms and supporters of Bishop Crewe, now at the Castle. The pipes were richly decorated with scroll-work, cherubs, and heraldic devices. In 1747 the organ was altered by Jordan, the inventor of the swell, and was then provided with that adjunct. For the heraldic devices on the pipes, see Proc. Soc. Ant., Apr. 16th, 1874, p. 177. On January 15th, 1748–9, it was “Agreed to have the Organ New Painted, Silver'd & Lacker'd. And that Smales the lame Boy be Imployed under the Direction of Mr. Taylor to do the Same, Mr. Taylor undertakeing to gett all the Materials for the Workmanship at a Sume not exceeding Twenty pounds, and the Said Smales Undertakeing to do the Work in a compleat manner for the further Sume of Twenty pounds.”—Chapter Act Book (MS.), p. 107. Some of the armorial designs have been repainted in a very unskilful way, and it may be that Smales's work was found to be unsatisfactory, and the old decoration allowed to remain where it had not been meddled with. It was long the custom to wash Father Smith's pipes with strong ale once a year; this gave them the appearance of having been varnished. After having been repeatedly altered, and (in 1847) removed to the arch in the quire where Bishop Lightfoot's tomb now is, the old organ had become unserviceable in 1873; the present organ by Willis was then provided, and set up on both sides of the quire. the ancient Song Schools]. Previously the Sacristy or “Segresters Exchequer"; see above, pp. 18, 97. yett to be seen]. Not now to be found. an Addition of the editor John Davies]. Davies gives the date 1639, but it is 1589 in the Roll, our earliest authority, and in other MSS. and editions. collected in 1593]. There is no reason to doubt that the whole work is of this date. given by Prior Fosser). It does not appear on what authority, beyond that of its inscription, founded, perhaps, on an earlier one, this statement is made. The bell is not mentioned among Prior Fossor's many benefactions recorded in Scr. Tres and Appendix thereto. Febr. 1631–2]. There is a Chapter Order of this date for the bells to be cast by Humfrey Keyne. He belonged to a firm at Woodstock. —A. H. Cocks, Church Bells of Bucks., 165. built by Bp. Skirlaw]. It was the lantern at York, not that at Durham, which was in great part built by Bishop Skirlaw.—Scr. Tres, 144. Hugh Derlington). It was a much earlier campanile that was made by this Prior. See note above, p. 297. The present lantern was built c. 1470, and the belfry stage c. 1490. Dr Spark]. See above, p. 224. v. p. 67, 68]. I.e. of Davies's edition. came out of Lancashire]. Robert Oldfield may have been doing work in Lancashire previous to his coming to Durham, but he was doubtless the Robert Oldfield connected with the family of founders of the same name at Nottingham. See T. North's Church Bells of Beds., 70.
St. Margarettes bell]. The bells were all recast in 1693, and the inscriptions of that date are given in Hutchinson's Durham, II, 238m.
Unguis Griffonica]. Now in the British Museum (not at Kensington). It is the horn of an ibex, 3 ft. 11 in. long, and 8% in. round the base, on which is a silver band with the inscription SK GRYPHI vNGvis Divo CVTHBERTO DVNELMENSI SACER. This band, which seems to have been made in the sixteenth century, probably replaces an earlier one.—Proc. S. A. Lond, Feb. 22, 1883. Among the treasures in charge of the Feretrar were “duo ungues griffonis.”—Rolls, 426 ; see above, p. 276.
buried it at the foot of the Stairs]. This is one version of “the secular tradition,” which led to a thorough exploration being made in 1867, when nothing was found. On the traditions, see Archaeologia, LVII, 17–19, and above, p. 285, last note.
very probably his Effigie). Nothing of the kind. It is the effigy of a woman, and the “purse" in her hand is perhaps a glove (Raine, Brief Account, 64n.). It is more likely that it is a part of her dress. On the legend of Hobb of Pelaw, see Metr. Life of St. Cuthbert, Intr. xii. Bishop Philip “extra septa ecclesiae in loco non consecrato a laicis sepultus est.”—Scr. Tres, 26.
Appendix X, p. 171.
jpaxbrede]. See above, p. 200.
Appendix XI, pp. 172–191.
albis paratis]. With appareled albes. “Alba parata, alba phrygio opere intexta ; brodée ; ol. parée.”—D'Arnis. cum psalmis familiaribus). With the usual psalms ? in fine libri). At the end of this Durham missal. See above, p. 179; MS. ff. 486v., 487. in ordinali). “Ordinale, i.e. Librum, in quo ordinatur modus dicendi et solemnizandi Officium Divinum.”—Lyndwood, Provinciale, Lib. III, Tit. 27, Ut Parochiani. “Ordinale Sarvn, sive Directorium Sacerdotum (Liber, quem Pica Sarum vulgo vocitat clerus)" has been reprinted by the H. Bradshaw Society in two volumes, 1901, 1902. incenset cereum). The Paschal candle. “Hic accendatur cereus de novo igne, nec extinguatur usque post Completorium diei sequentis. Et ardebit cereus Paschalis continue per hebdomadam Paschalem ad Matutinas et ad Missam et ad Vesperas. Similiter fiat in Octavis Paschae,” etc.—Sarum Missal, Burntisland, 1861–83, col. 341+.
NOTE ON THE SUN DAY PROCESSION.
By W. H. St. John Hope, M.A.
The Sunday procession took place before high mass after the benedictio aqua", and consisted in visiting and sprinkling with holy water all the altars in the church, and the various buildings grouped round the cloister, concluding with a “station " before the great rood in the nave.
During the procession, in which the whole convent took part, an anthem was sung, and at the station before the rood the bidding prayer was said, followed by the Lord's Prayer, etc. and prayers for the dead. The procession then passed on to the quire, singing a respond the while ; and the whole was concluded with a collect said in quire.
We have no information how the Sunday procession was done at Durham, but the minute directions in the Salisbury processionale and the Cistercian consuetudines help us to understand what was the usual practice. The route here suggested can therefore only be regarded as a possible one.
For the blessing of the water, a procession had already entered and taken its place before the high altar, consisting of the priest for the week, with the gospeller and epistoler, the censer and the two taperers, and an acolyte bearing the cross, together with two boys, one carrying salt and the water to be hallowed, the other the book for the priest to read from. The monks and novices occupied their places in quire.
After the blessing of the water, which was done in the presbytery before the altar-steps, the priest went up to the altar and sprinkled it. He then passed through the north door of the “French Peere" into St. Cuthbert's Feretory, and, after sprinkling the little altar at the head of the shrine, returned into the presbytery through the south door. In descending the altar steps the priest sprinkled the ministers and others who had entered with him, beginning with the cross-bearer; then coming down to the quire step he sprinkled the convent. During the giving of the holy water, an anthem was sung by the monks.
The procession then went out in the appointed order with the priest attended by the ministers in front, followed by the novices and monks, through the north quire door, and turned westward down the aisle into the north transept. Here the three altars were sprinkled," beginning with that of SS. Nicholas and Giles on the north, then that of St. Gregory, and lastly St. Benedict's altar. The procession then returned up the aisle, passing (i) beneath the porch at its west end, (ii) the altar of St. Blaise at Bishop Skirlaw's tomb, and (iii) under the Anchoridge on the north of St. Cuthbert's shrine. That St. Blaise's altar was duly sprinkled there can be no question, but whether the priest mounted to the two little altars up aloft is uncertain. Descending the steps into the Nine Altars, the procession
* It is open to question whether these altars were visited at the beginning or the end of the procession. I am inclined to think they would be visited first, seeing what ample space there is in the transept for the procession to turn round.
visited each of the altars in turn, and finally turned westward again under the Black Rood of Scotland, down the south aisle, by Bishop Hatfield's altar, which was sprinkled in passing (perhaps the priest included also the vestry altar in passing), and so on to the south transept. Here the three altars of Our Lady of Houghal, Our Lady of Bolton, and SS. Faith and Thomas were duly sprinkled, and then the procession continued westward into the south aisle of the nave and passed out into the cloister through the eastern door. It traversed in turn the east, south, and west alleys of the cloister, the priest sprinkling on his way the entries of (i) the parlour, (ii) chapter house, (iii) prior's lodging, (iv) frater, (v) common house, and perhaps (vi) the passage to the farmery, and lastly (vii) the dorter. The procession then re-entered the church by the western cloister door, and turning to the left between the sanctuary grate and the altar of the Bound Rood, passed into the Galilee, the last place visited before returning. Here the shrine and altar of the Venerable Bede, the altar of Our Lady in the middle, and that of Our Lady of Pity were visited in turn ; and perhaps a short station made before the principal altar." The procession, now returning, left the Galilee by its north-east doorway, traversed the aisle past the altar of the Saviour on the left hand and that of Our Lady of Pity on the right, and then turned into the nave.” Here the station was made before the great Rood above the Jesus Altar, the convent standing in files on either side with the ministers in a row down the middle. The stones marking the places of this station remained at York, Lincoln, and Wells, until displaced by eighteenth-century repavings, and they still exist under the turf in the nave of Fountains Abbey. 3 Before the station was ended, the priest sprinkled the Jesus Altar and that in the Neville Chapel. When the procession was continued, it passed straight on through the doorways right and left of the Jesus Altar, “called the two roode dores, for the Prosession to goe furth and comme in at," and uniting under the crossing," re-entered the quire by its western door, when every member of the convent took his own place again.
It will be seen from the plan that if the above be the way in which the Sunday procession was actually carried out at Durham, every altar would be visited in turn, and the whole of the church and cloister was traversed. The places of the various doorways and screens are also fully accounted for.
* See note on Galilee, p. 229. * It is, of course, quite as likely that after leaving the Galilee the procession turned to the right and passed up the nave between the altars of the Bound Rood and Our Lady of Pity, which would then be respectively sprinkled. 3 See plan in Hope's paper in Poks. Archaeol, Jrml., vol. XV, p. 402 ; and his note, ib., p. 308. At Canterbury there were two parallel lines cut in the pavement for the same purpose. References given are, Drake's Eboracum, 1736, pp. 493, 519; Camden's Britannia, ed. R. Gough, 1789, ii, pl. viii, p. 256, and second edition, 1806, ii, pl. xi, p. 368; an unpublished plan of Wells Cathedral made for the Society of Antiquaries by John Carter in 1799: Gostling's Walk in Canterbury, second edition, 1777, p. 203. * If the three north transept altars were not sprinkled until the end of the procession, they would be visited at this point of the proceedings before the convent re-entered the quire.