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Blabb-ed, blabd
Lapp-ed, lapt
Logg-ed, log'd

In the pronunciation of b, g, d, z, v, and also in the Fr. J, there is

an almost imperceptible motion or compression of or near the Lock-ed, lockt

larynx. In p, k, t, s, f, and sh, there is not this compression: and Maz-ed, maz'd

if the e be omitted in pronunciation after any of these latter, the d Miss-ed, mist

must be changed into t.
Liv-ed, liv'd
Puff-ed, puft

The reason for doubling the consonant in blåb-bed and also blåb-bing, rồb-bed, rob-bing, &c. is that the b is heard in conjunction both with the o preceding, and the e or i following: in rõbed, rõbing; whether pronounced rõ-bed, or rõb-ed ; only one b is heard. In appāl-led; two I's are heard distinctly: in equalled, travelling, not so

distinctly, as the accent does not fall upon the l. At-e, et-e, it-e, ion, from the Lat. at-us, et-us, it-us, and are equivalent to our own termination ed.

We also form verbs upon this Latin past participle, as upon others ; thus, to animate, from animat-us; from which by suffixing ed, we form a new participle: giving more energy; as animate, animated, from this prep. we have also some nouns, Reprobate.

Our nouns in ation, etion, ition, are immediately from the Latin ;—they are equivalent to our own termination ing, from the A. S. ung; (see Ing.) They denote action or the effect

of action. And, end, und, from the Lat. andus, &c. we have


few. Multiplicand, that ought to be, must be, multiplied.

Subtra-hend, that ought to be subtracted. Al, from the Lat. al-is (so alius, an or one other, was antiently written): it denotes some

quality or thing attached or added ;-and, thus, appertaining or belonging, relating to, appertaining to such relation : according to, affected by, subject or subjecting to.

Natural, appertaining to, according to, nature.

Mortal, affected by, subject or subjecting to, death. (mors.) Am, em, im. Him, the pronoun is, he-im; them, (formerly also hem), is the or thei-im : whom,

is who-im. Im is equivalent to man (Lat. Hom-o). An, en, in, un. Our English termination en, (or un as antiently written), in A. S. an, i. e. one,

as an adjective termination, denotes that the noun to which it is suffixed, is to be un-ited or joined to another noun : as a golden (antiently gold-un) sc. ring.

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Christian, adj.-sc. religion, to be un-ited, to be expressed. A Christian, n. (sc. man, understood.) En is also added to verbs to augment the force; as to haste, to hasten; to black, to blacken.

From the Lat. ter. an-us, en-us, in-us, we have our ter. ane or an, ene, ine : humane, human, terrene, canine :- An-us, enus, by contraction are ans, ens, and hence are our ant, ance, ancy ;—ent, ence, ency. The Latin ans we should write ant, and ens, ent : yet it is the common usage to write defendant, from defendens. And there are other violations of this

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Ignorant, ignorance, ignorancy.
Innocent, innocence, innocency.

The ter. ant, ent, are equivalent to our own ter. ing; as, accordant, according ; con-
sistent, consisting
, The quality, the state, of being ignorant, or innocent.

, . Innocence, S Ar, er, or, our. Ere, is a common English word, Ere day, Before day. It means before ;

relative to the human figure, the fore part, the front of the person : generally, the person, and also priority in space, time, quality, &c.

Er, added to an adj. as, just, just-er, denotes a priority, a superiority ;-in comparison.

Added to verbs it forms nouns, and denotes the person who, the thing that.: as Beggar, robber, sailor ;-the person who,-begs, robs, sails. Cutter, that which cuts.

The ter. or, in names of persons immediately from the Lat. we usually preserve,--as factor, doctor ; auctor, aucthor, author; but in other nouns from that language, we introduce the vowel u, as labour, honour, splendour;-with which our pronunciation conforms.

In very many words or and er were written indiscriminately; and no general rule can now distinguish them; it is not the custom, nor is it necessary, to make any difference in the pronunciation.

In nouns formed by ourselves from Latin verbs, we now usually write er, as defender, continuer, observer, enquirer.

Also in words of our own growth :-do-er, cutler, dealer, draper; and by adding y to certain of these, we have nouns designating the habitual acts, the employments, trades, &c. as cutlery, drapery. From the I at. Aris, arius, orius, we have both nouns adjective and substantive Auriliar,

Giving aid, one who gives aid.

Mercenary, taking hire, one who takes hire.

Giving admonition or consolation.

Dormitory, a room or apartment for sleeping.
Ous, from the Lat. us, Anxius, anxious.
Ouse, ose, from the Lat. os-us ;—the article reduplicated—and thus denoting a something more
than the single us, as ebrius, ebriosus—but custom makes little difference with us.
Anxious, Lat. Anzius, A man who feels, who acts with, is actuated by, anxiety

s or ambition. Eous, in Righteous, is a corruption of wise.

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Ble, Able, and ible, (Goth. Abal, strength, power, force, see Ble in the Dictionary.) The Lat.
Bilis was, with few exceptions, used passively, and thus distinguished from iv and ic; as,

Arable, that may be ploughed.
Audible, that may be heard.

Able, or ible,-according to the Lat. word, from which we take ours.
Ile, Docile, that may be taught:-contracted from Docible.
Fragile, that


be broken. But we have a large list of words in this ter. used actively, as, Conducible,--properly – that can or may be conduced, or conducted, is used indiscrimi

nately with conducive, conducent, or conducing, that can or may, that does, conduce. Dom, A. S. Dom: from dem-an, to deem, or judge,

King-dom, the territory, which a king dooms or judges, rules, or governs.

Freedom, the doom, judgment, will of the free. Pull, Fear-ful,-full of the feeling of fear.

full of that which causes the feeling.

• Wallis. Dominium regis. See p. 139. Gill — Regnum ubi rex jus aut sententiam dicit, p. 32.


Thus a fearful man, may be either a timid man, who feels fear,-or a daring man, who

causes others to fear. The context must decide. But
A fear-ful thing, as a fearful storm ; is a thing which, a storm which causes fear.
A hand full, a mouth full ;-written handful, mouthful,- always refer to some other

thing; as full of gold, meat, &c.
Many old words in this ter. have grown into disuse, e. g. { Amaze

5 Advice

}full, and many

Ize, Ism,

new ones have been, and will yet be, formed. Fy, from Lat. fi-eri, to be, or become, or cause to be; to make.

To terri-fy, to cause to be afraid.

mollify, to cause to be soft. (mollis.)

Such words are formed as they are wanted, e. g. codify, codification ; acidify, acidifi

cation ; silicify, &c. Hood, means raised; something raised; sc. to a certain rank, degree, state, or condition, quality or kind. It is also written head.

Priest-hood, the state or rank of priest.
Maiden-hood, or head; the state or condition of a maiden.
Likeli-hood, the state or condition of being likely.
These term. are borrowed from the Gr. The verbal term. ize scems to have been

intended to express the future effect, the continuance of an action commenced in Ist, present time, and is so far emphatic.

Thus, to civil-ize, to bring to a civil state (progressively.)
Particularize, to continue to state particulars.
Baptize, (emphatically Bartelv) to dip ceremonially.

It seems also to denote-to continue a custom—to do as others usually do, as to Hellenize, to Atticise,—to do as the Greeks, or as the Athenians do; and thus it implies imitation, whence the ter.

Ist, is not unfrequently applied as a diminutive,-Grammaticist, is an imitator of the

A Grammaticaster is inferior still. But
Ist is commonly used as—the person who, as,

Dogmatist, | dogmatises.
Catechism, that which the catechist teaches.

Catechist, he who

he who catechises.

Dogmatism, that which the dogmatist practises,—the habit, the manner, of a dogmatist.

The writing of this ter. is not uniform: when from this Gr. origin, it should be written ize; to distinguish it from ise, in such words as advise, prise, &c. unless we

we were constantly to write 2, when we pronounce it.
Kin, a diminutive; man-kin, or mani-kin; of the kin or kind, of man: a little man.
Less, i. e. loose, or dismiss, as,

Hope less, Dismiss, hope, or rest, and, consequently, become destitute or devoid, in
Rest-less, want, of hope or rest.

Our vocabulary is continually receiving additional compounds of this termination. Let, a diminutive ; from A. S. Lyt, little, as,


; } A little or small Ham, or Ring.


Our modern poets have made some additions to words of this kind. Ling, denotes long-ing, or belonging, or pertaining : applied to progeny or offspring, (in proper names) as Edmund, Edmund-ling; and, thence, used as a diminutive.

Goose, gos-ling. Dear, dearling, or darling, Ly, antiently written lich; corrupted from like ;-suffixed to nouns forms adjectives as love,

lovely :—to adjectives, forms adverbs, as stif, stiffly. Men, Ment,

Lat. Men, ment-um, monium; (Lat. Mens, monere):

Regi-men, any thing meant, or intended, or designed, as a rule or regulation.
Monu-ment, any thing meant, or intended, or designed, to keep in, put in, mind.

Testa-ment--Ali-ment 2 Anything meant or intended to testify ; to nourish, support, or

Testi-mony-Ali-mony S maintain. Ness ;-in A. S. Ness is a promontory; and ness, the ter. denotes the prominent, or distinguishing, or characteristic quality, or, generally, the quality, as, White-ness, } The quality of being white or good.

. Good-ness, Ship, D. Schap; Schape; from the A. S. verb Scipp-an, to shape, to form, or fashion, or figure. Thus,

Landskıp, is Land-shape, the form or figure of the land, or country.

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