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Friend-ship, the form or fashion ; mode or manner; constituent qualities, state, con

dition, of a friend. Some, is Same: and as a ter. denotes the sameness or similarity, the coincidence or agreement; having some quality, degree, as, Venture-some,

Similar to, like, one who ventures, or that which troubles. .

, , .
Ster is applied to the person, as,

} One who spins or weaves.
Ty, from the Lat. Tas, as honestas, honesty.
It has the same force as ness, as,

Cruelness, cruelty ; frailness, frailty. Ward, may be joined to the name of any person, place, or thing, to or from which our view may be directed, as,

Home-ward, looking to, with a view to, home, (re-garding home.) These terminations are the common, legitimate, and almost exhaustless source, to which our writers and speakers ever have resorted, and to which they will continue to resort, in the formation of subderivatives.


It does not appear requisite to say more of the prefixes than has already been said of them in the third section of the Preliminary Essay; and of each in its place within the Body of the Dictionary

Both as it regards terms framed by these prefixes,t and by the suffixes or terminations, more especially the latter, f our vocabulary presents an appearance by no means regular and

• See also Hyphen in the Dictionary.
+ See above, afore, aft, &c.

See the ter. full, less, neas, &c. in the Dictionary

consistent; and, however copious we may pronounce it to be, the Lexicographer must, to use the expression of Lord Bacon," note it to be found deficient.” Within the last twenty years much has been done, but much still remains ; it is a work, however,—to continue in the language employed by the same profound observer, though upon a more solemn subject,—that “ is to bee done with wisedom, sobrietie, and reuerence, or not at all.'

It cannot be expected that in a Dictionary the novelties of cotemporaneous existence with itself should be collected and recorded.

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• Advancement of Learning, b. 2

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A, is the first letter, and first vowel of the


the prefix is dropped; e. g. in Abeodan, to bid; To band or bind, or put in bondage; to stay, or Abitan, to bite; Acelan, to keel or cool.

cause to stay, or remain in; to leave in, or give up
A per se (A by itself), as denoting pre-emi- to, a state of bondage or entire subjection.
nence, is not unusual in our old poets.

And then simply-
O faire Creseide, the floure and A per se

To resign; to quit, to desert, to forsake; and alphabet, in all the modern, and in most of the

Of Troye and Greece.

consequently, to reject or cast away: to repel or ancient languages.

Chaucer. Testament of Croscide, v. 78. drive away: to banish. B. Jonson observes, that all our vowels are Right as our first letter is now an A,

Abandonment, n. is used by Cotgrave in v. Abansounded donbtfully: in quantity (which is time), In beaute first so stode she makeles.-Id. Troilus, b. i. don. The authorities quoted are very modern : long or short; or, in accent (which is tune), sharp A, B, C, the old English denomination of the Abandoning appears also to have been a common or flat. A is long in debāting; short in stomăch- Gr. 'a, B. See Alphabet.

noun; but the old noun was Abandon: applied to ing; sharp in háte; flat in hàt. With us, he adds, A is pronounced less than the French d, as

Clerc he was god ynou, and gut, as me telleth me

the act, the thing, or the person.

He was more than ten ger old, ar he couthe ys Abece. in art, act; but when it comes before 1, in the

Robert of Gloucester, p. 266.

He that dredeth God, spareth not to do that him ought lo * end of a syllable, it obtaineth the French sound,

do; and he that loveth God, he wol do diligence to plese

ABA'CK. On back. Backwards. See Back. and is uttered with the mouth and throat wide

God by his werkes, and abandon himself with all his might

wel for to do.-Chaucer. The Persones Tale. opened, the tongue bent from the teeth, as in

So that the white was aboue, as the folk y seye,
And drof the rede al abak.-R. Gloucester, p. 131.

For he that all, small; and in salt, malt, balm, where a con

Yaue whole his hart, in will and thought, sonant followeth the l. For this latter mode of stood with hem, and whanne he seide to hem, I am, thei Iesus seith to hem I am, and Iudas that betraiede him And to himselfe kepeth right nought

After this swift it is good reason utterance, Wilkins adopts the Gr. a; and describes wenten abak and felden doun on the erthe.

He yeue his good in abandon. it to be framed by an emission of the breath be

Wiclif. Ion, c. 18.

Id. The Rom. of the Rose, fol. 127. twixt the tongue and the palate, the tongue being

And therewithall abacke she start. put into a more concave posture, and removed

Chaucer. Legend of Tisbe.

Moris hir sonne was coroned,

Whiche so ferforth was abandoned further off from the palate. The former mode of But both the fruit from hand, and floud from mouth

To Christes feith, that men hym calle Did flie abak, and made him vainely swinke. utterance of a, as in bat, bate, he describes to be

Moris the christnest of all.-Gower. Conf. Am. b. IL

Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. 7. framed by an emission of the breath betwixt the "Away there ! lower the mizen yard on deck,"

Further John a man of perfecte holines, perceyuing the tongue and concave of the palate; the upper He calls, and "brace the foremost yards aback !"

enuious affections of his disciples, to thintent that he might superficies of the tongue being rendered less con

Falconer. Shipwreck. heale their weakness, and abandone them from him and

deliver them to Jesus: he chose out of them two and sent cave, and at a less distance from the palate. The ABA'FT. On the aft or hind part; behind. them to Jesus.-Udall. Erasmus' Matthew, c. 10. adoption of the Greek character, as a mean of See Apt.

those forreiners, which came from farre, distinction, seems to be far preferable to any mark And the boteswaine of the galley walked abast the maste,

Grew great, and got large portions of land, or figure of reference, a plan generally adopted by and the mate afore the maste.

That in the realme ere long they stronger arre, modern orthoepists.

Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. ii. p. 187.

Then they which sought at first their helping hand, A, the English article, means one; in A. S. an. ABAʼLIENATE, Lat. Abalienare: used in 'And Vortiger enforc't the kingdome to aband.

Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. 16 In A. S. on means in ; and has been corrupted Abaliena'tion, writers on civil law, but has

'Tis better far the enemies t'aband in English to an before a vowel, and to a before a given way to

Quite from thy borders, to a forren soile, consonant; and in writing and speaking it has

To alienate.

Then he at home, thee and thy countrie spoile. been connected with the subsequent word: hence ABA'ND, v. Fr. Abandonner : It. Aban

Mir. for Magistrates, p. 119. a numerous race of adverbs. From On dæg, On ABA'NDON, v.

donare; Sp. Abandonar. Va- What when Severus old did vnderstand, niht, On lenge, On bræde, On bæc, On lande, ABA'NDON, N. rious etymologies have been All pleasures quite and ioyes he had aband, On life, On middan, On wihte, On twa, On weg; ABA'NDONER. suggested : -- from the Fr. Pursuing warre.--Id. p. 172. we have Aday, Anight, Along, Abroad, Aback, ABA'NDONING, N. Bandon, Liberty: from A. S. Beg. Madame wise, they say that I haue dream'd Aland, Alive, Amid, Aright, Atwo, Away. See ABA'NDONMENT. Abannan, to denounce: from And slept aboue some fifteene yeare or more. Tooke.

Lady. I, and the time seemes thirty vnto me,
Ban to curse : from à ban donner, to give up to a

Shakespeare. Tam. of S. Act i. sc. 1. a-going, admits of a similar explanation; i. e. on ter. See also Ban, Band, and Banish, infra.

Meanwhile reviv'd or in, the act of hunting, begging.

The A. S. Bannan, or Abannan, would give the Abandon fear: to strength and counsel Join'd In the A. S. the prefix a to words also in use past participle, Abanned, Aband (and so the word Think nothing hard, much less to be despair'd.

Milton. Par. Lost, b. vh. without it, is of constant occurrence. In some is written in the Mirror for Magistrates, and

See how he lies at random, carelessly diffused, words, which have descended from that language, Spenser). Upon this past participle, the English

With languish'd head unpropt, the word with this prefix is preserved; e. g. in Abandon, and also Fr. It. and Sp. appear to have As one past hope, adandon'd, Abide, Abut, Ashamed. In a far greater number 'been formed: and to Abandon is

And by himseli given ever.-Millos. Somson Agonista

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A, in such expressions, as a-hunting, a-begging, proclamation, and others. See Menage and Wacha | Being all this time abandoned rom your bed

A day

You form reasons,

Now is Berwick born doun, abaist is that cuntre.
Just ones, for your abandoning the storms

Knight. My lord, I know not what the matter is, but to Which threaten your own ruin ; but propose

R, Brunne, p. 272. my judgement, your Highnesse is not entertained with that No shelter for her honour.- Ford. Lary's Trial, Act i. sc. 1.

For thi beo nat a baihsshed, to bydde and to be neody

ceremonious affection as you were wont; there's a great Sithe he that wrouhte al the worlde, was wilfulliche needy. dependants,

as in the duke himselfe also, and your daughter.

abatement of kindnesse appeares as well in the generall Emil. Oh sacred, shadowy, cold, and constant queen,

Piers Plouhman, p. 394.
Abandoner of revels, mute, contemplative.
And anoon the damysel roos and walkide : and sche was

Shakespeare. Lear, Act i. sc. 4.
Bean. & Fletch. Two Noble Kinsmen, Act v. sc. 1.

of twelve yeer, and thei weren abayschid with a great What is it that Sathan can despaire to perswade men stoneying.-Wiclif. Mark, c. 5.

Will come (hear this, and quake, ye potent great ones) unto, if he can draw them to an unnatural abandoning of And as the new abashed Nightingale,

When you yourselves shall stand before a judge, life, and pursuit of death.--Hall. Occasionall Medit. 117. That stinteth first, whan she beginneth sing

Who in a pair of scales will weigh your actions,

Without abatement of one grain. Then thought hee it also time to send an ambassage

Whan that she heareth any heerdes tale, unto Archduke Philip, into Flanders, for the abandoning Or in the hedges any wight stearing,

Beaumont and Fletcher. Laws of Candy, Act. V aud dismissing of Perkin.-Bacon. Henry VII. p 126. And after siker dorth her voice out ring.

Impiety of times, chastity's abator, Ror. I see no crime in her whom I adore,

Choucer. Trojius, b. iii. fol. 173.

Falsehood, wherein thyself thyself deniest;

Treason to counterfeit the seal of nature, Or if I do, her beauty makes it none :

Certes (quod she) that were great a maruayle and an The stamp of heaven, impressed by the highest. Look on me as a man abandon'd o'er

abashinge, without ende.-Chaucer. Boecius, b. iv. p. 1. To an eternal lethargy of love.

Daniel. Complaint of Rosamond.
The kynges doughter, whiche this sigh,
Dryden. Spanish Friar, Act iv.

If we could arrest time, and strike off the nimble wheels
For pure abasshe drew hir adrigh,
Nor let her tempt that deep, nor make the shore,

And helde her close ynder the bough,

of his chariot, and like Joshua, bid the sun stand still, and Where our abandon'd youth she sees, And let hem still ride enough.-Gower. Con. A. b. iv.

make opportunity tarry as long as he had occasion for it; Shipwreck'd in luxury, and ost in case.Prior. Ode (1692).

this were something to excuse our delay, or at least to mitiThe town restlesse with furie as I sought,

gate or abate the folly and unreasonableness of it. He that abandons religion must act in such a contradic- Th' unlucky figure of Creusaes gbost,

Tillotsort. Works, vol. i. Ser. 14. tion to his own conscience and best judgment, that he abuses Of stature more than wont, stood fore mine eyen. and spoils the faculty itself.- Watts. Sermons.

The trall hereof (whether men weigh heavier dead than Abashed then I waxe: therewith my heare

alive) cannot so well be made on the body of a man, nor wil -Cities then

Gan start right up: my voice stuck in my throte. the difference be sensible in the abate of scruples or dracms. Attract us, and neglected nature pines

Surrey. Virgile, b. ii.

Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. iv. c. 7. Abandon'd, as unworthy of our love. -Cowper. Task. b. ii. But the water kepte his course, and wette, at length the

The greatest tyrants have been those, whose titles were When thus the helm of justice is abandoned, an universal kynges (Canute) thyes; wherwith ye kynge adasshed, sterte abundoning of all other posts will succeed. backe and sayde, all erthly kynges may knowe that theyr becomes too predominant and superstitious, it is abated by

the most unquestioned. Whenever the opinion of right Burke. On Reg. Peace. Let. 4. powers be vayne, and that none is worthy to have the name

breaking the custom : thus the revolution broke the custom of a kynge, but he that has all thynges subiecte to his They amount (says he) to the sacrifice of powers, that hestes.-Fabyan, C. 206.

of succession.-Paley. Moral Philosophy, b. vi. c. 2. have been most nearly connected with us; the direct or indirect annexation to France of all the parts of the conI saie to the, thou hast put me in a more greatte adesshe

ABAWED, i. e. Abashed. Fr. Esbahi. linent, from Dunkirk to Hamburgh; an immense accession ment, than the feare of myne enemies.-Golden Boke, Let. 15. I was abawed for marueile of territory; and, in one word, the abandonment of the

Why, then, (you princes)

For euer the fairer that it was independence of Europe.-Id. ib. p. 81. Do you with cheekes abash'd behold our workes,

The more I am bounden in loue's laas. ABA'SE.

Chaucer. The Rom. of the Rose, p. 132. Fr. Abbaiser; It. Abbasare ;

And thinke them shame, which are indeed) pought else,

But the protractiue trials of great Ioue, ABA'sing, n. Sp. Abazar. See Base, and

A'BBACY, n. Abbas was introduced (says To finde persistiue constancie in men.

A'Bless. ABA'SEMENT. » Abash, infra.

Shakespeare. Tro. & Cres. Act i. sc. 3.

Skinner) into Europe from Syria

A'BBEY. To put or bring low, to lower, to depress; to Yet all that could not from affright her hold,

with the Christian religion. It degrade, to humble, to disgrace.

Ne to recomfort her at all prevailid,


is derived from the Syriac Abba, For her faint heart was with the frozen cold

Father. The application of this name to persons Our kynge hath do this thing amisse,

Benumb'd so inly, that her wits nigh fail'd,

in monasteries was resisted by St. Jerome, as an So to abesse his roialtee ;

And all her senses with abashment quite were quail'd. That euery man it might see,

Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. 8. infringement of the command to “call no man And humbled him in such a wise To them that were of none emprise.-Goroer. Conf.Am.b.i. Basenesse of birth is a great disparagement to some men,

Father, upon the earth.” especially if they be wealthy, bear office, and come to pro

An abbot; the chief or head of a religious This example was shewed to teache vs, howe the teachers motion in a common-wealth : then, if their birth be not order, house, monastery. of Gods worde should not grutche to descend from their answerable to their calling, and to their fellows, they are highnes or perfection, and abase themselues even to the much abashed and ashamed of themselves.

Doztren he adde al so, Cecyly het that on lowlines of the weake, thereby to wynne very many to theyr

Burton. Anatomy of Melancholy, p. 310.

The eldeste, that was at Carne nonne and abbesse. Lorde.- Udall. Erasmus, s. Marke, c. 2.

R. Gloucester, p. 370 Bu when he Verus view'd without disguise, At this tyme also, the kinges maiestie, with the aduice Her shining neck beheld, and radiant eyes;

To chyrche and to pouere men he zef vorst, as he ssolde, of his privy counsaile, did now purpose not onely the aba- Awed and abash'd he turn'd his head aside,

To abbeyes and to prioryes largylyche of hys golde.

Ib. p. 383. cyny of the sayd copper moneys, but also ment wholly to

Attempting with his robe his face to hide. reduce them to bollion, to the intent to deliuer fine and

Congreve. Homer. Hymn to Venus.

For the abbot of Englond, and the abbesse ye nece, good monies for them. The peece of ix pence was abaced And barsh austerity, from whose rebuke

Shullen have a knok on here crownes, and incurable the to sixpence.-Grafton. Chronicle. ED. VI. an. 5. Young love and smiling wonder shrink away

wonde.--Piers Plouhman, p. 84. And will she yet abase her eyes on me, Abash'd and chill of heart, with sager frowns

And in this time was geuen vnto the kyng by the consent That cropt the golden prime of this sweet prince, Condemns the fair enchantment.

of the great and fatte abbottes, all religious houses that were And made her widdow to a wofull bed ?

Akenside. Pleasures of Imagination, d. iil. of the value of three hundred marke and vnder, in hope,
Shakespeare. Rich. III. Act i. sc. 2.
ABA'TE, v. Fr. Abbatre; It. Abbatere; Sp. but euen at that tyme one sayde in the parliament house,

that their great monasteryes should haue continued still : Il he that abases the prince's coin deserves to die, what is

ABA'TE, n. his desert, that instead of the tried silver of God's word,

Abatir; A. S. Beatan, to beat. that these were as thornes, but the great abboties wero stamps the name and character of God upon base brazen

ABA'TEMENT. The word exists also without the putrifyed old okes, and they must needes folowe. stuff of his own!--Hales. Remains, Ser. 1. ABA'TER.

Grafton. Chron. Hen. VIII. an. 26.

prefix A; though more limited There is an abasement because of glory, and there is that by modern usage in its application. See Bate. The abbot was elected by the monks of the monastery, at lifteth up his head from a low estate.-Écclus. XX. 2.

To beat or press down; to cast down; to lower,

least in the greater part of abbacies.

Smith. Wealth of Nations, b. v. c. 1. It is a point of cunning to wait upon him with whom you to depress; to lessen; to diminish; to reduce.

ABBREVIATE, v. speak with your eye; as the Jesuits give it in precept;

It. Abbreviare; Sp. Abrefor there may be many vise men that have secret hearts The kyng did samen his men, to abate Gryffyn's pride. ABBREVIATE, n.

viar :- from Lat. Brevis ; and transparent countenances : yet this should be done with

R. Brunne, p. 63.

ABBREVIA'TION. For that abatement he chalenges thorgh right.-Id. p. 278. a demure abasing of your eye.-Bacon. Essay on Cunning.

the Gr. Bpaxus ; A. S.

ABBREVIA'TOR. Bracan, to break. See Let the example of our Lord's humility bring down the As God saith, the horrible divels shul gon and comen

ABBRE' VIATURE. ABRIDGE. haughtiness of men ; and when we consider how he abased

upon the hedes of dampned folk : and this is, for as moche himself, let us be vile in our own eyes, and abhor ourselves as the higher that they were in this present lif, the more

To break or make short, concise; to shorten, to in dust and ashes.-Tillotson. Works, vol. iii. 217. Ser. 135. shul they be abated and defouled in helle.

abridge; to bring or reduce to a smaller space or

Chaucer. Personnes Tales, vol. ii. p. 291. Absorb'd in that immensity I see,

compass by breaking off, or removing parts. Ishrink abas'd, & yet aspire to Thee.-Cowper. Retirement.

The kynge of Scottes wyth all hys hoste and power entered into England:-and planted hys siege before the castell of

In all theyr wrytynge, (the Frenshe) when they come to Heaven was to be earned only by penance and mortifica Norham, and sore abated the walles.-Hall. Hen. VIII. an. 5. wrytten in the longest and mooste shewynge manoure to

any mater that soundyth any thynge to theyr honour, it is tion; by the austerities and abasement of a monk, not by the liberal, generous, and spirited conduct of a man.

He [the horsse) breaketh the groude wyth the hoffes of theyr honour and worshyp. But if it sounde any thynge to Smith. Wealth of Nations, b. v. c. 1.

his fete chearfully in his strength, inneth to mete the theyr dishonoure, than shall it be abreuyatyd or hyd, that

harnest men. He layeth asyde all feare, hys stomack is the trouthe shall not be knowen.- Fabyan. #en. III.an. 26. ABA'SH, v. The past tense and past part. not abated, neither starteth he abacke for any swerde. ABA'SHMENT. S of Abase was anciently written

The epistles do conteyne counsayles and aduertisementes Bible, London, 1539. Job, c. 39.

in the fourme of orations, recytynge diuers places, as wel Abaisit, Abayschid; whence the word Abash ap- O happie Cato Censorine, who with suche as haue fo- out of the olde testament, as the gospels, as it were an pears to be formed, and is applied to

lowed his waies, are now sure fro the abatementes of fortune. abbreuiate, called of the Grekes and Latines, Epitoma. The feelings of those who are abased, depressed,

The Golden Boke, ch. XXV.

Elyot. The Governor, b.iii. c. 23. disgraced, humbled.

Hel. O weary night, O! long and tedious night,

of this Joseph, Trogus Pompeius, and also his abreviator Abate thy houres, shine comforts from the East,

Justine do write in this manner: Joseph was the yongest In Wicliff it is applied to That I may backe to Athens by day-light,

among the brethren, whose excellent wif they fearing, solde The feelings which overpowered, subdued, the From these, that my poore companie detest.

him vnto straynge marchauntės, by whore he was brought witnesses of the miraculous restoration of the

Shakespeare. Mid. Night's Dream, Act fil. sc. 2. into Egypt.--Grafton. Chron. The Third Age. damsel by Christ.

Post. I know you are more clement than vilde men, The Egyptians indeed did teach religion by symbolical Abasshe is found in Gower, used as a substan- Who of their broken debtors take a third,

figures, and in the eastern empire their laws were written A sixt, a tenth, letting them thrive againe

with characters and abbreriatures. tjve. See Basu. On their abatement.-Id. Cymbeline, Act v. SC. 4.

Bp. Taylor. Rule of Conscience, b. ii. o 4.

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