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(Wachter.) In A. S. Cearfan, ceorfan, aceorfan, to carve, to cut, to cut to pieces, to slay, to kill. A destructive kind of gun.
What though the German drum Bellow for freedom and revenge? the noise Concerns not us, nor should divert our joys; Nor ought the thunder of their carabins Drown the sweet airs of our tun'd violins.
Carew. On the Death of the King of Sweden.
I, hearing him give good words, thought he proposed to render himself to me; and therefore stopped my horse, that I might hear him more distinctly: but he, instead of that, made ready his carabine to fire at me. Ludlow. Memoirs, vol. i. p. 132. CA'RACK, n. Fr. Carraque; It. Caracca; Sp. Caráca. Vossius, a gravitate capitis, а кара et Bapus. Skinner, perhaps, from the Lat. Carrus; (q. d.) carrus marinus. Delphino calls itA great heavy sort of ship, the Portuguese formerly sailed in to the East Indies: it was also used by the Genoeses.
Carack and Caravel had probably one origin; and that origin the cargo with which they were loaded.
And now hath Sathanas, sayth he, a tayl
Chaucer. The Sompnoures Prol. v. 7270.
And had prepared in certayne portes, such a nombre of vessels, shyppes, careekes, and gayles, suffycient to passe ouer lx.m. men of armes, with all their purueaunces.
Berners. Froissart. Cronycle, vol. i. c. 27.
The other, [ship] wherein C. Cæsar had transported the second obeliske into the river, after it had been kept safe for certain yeares together to be seene, (for that it was the most admirable carrick that ever had been knowne to flote upen the sea,) Claudius Cæsar late Emperour of Rome, caused it to be brought to Ostia, where, for the safetie and securitie
of the haven, he sunk it, and thereupon as a sure founda
tion, hee raised certaine piles or bastions, like turrets or skonces, with the sand of Puteoli. Holland. Plinie, b. xxxvi. c. 9. The fire refuses not, as well to warm the beggar as the prince; the water bears as well the carrick as the cork. Feltham, Resolve 75.
CARAVA'N, n. Į A Persian and Turkish CARAVANSARY. word. The Turks pronounce it Kervan, and it signifies a number of persons assembled to journey together. Caravansera,— from Kervan, and serai, a house; a house at which caravans sojourn, (Menage.)
Sir. What ill chance hath brought the to this place, So far from path or road of men, who pass
In troop or caravan, for single none
Durst ever, who return'd, and dropt not here
Milton. Paradise Regained, b. i. Ah sir, said the Dervise, a house, that changes its inhabitants so often, and receives such perpetual succession of guests, is not a palace but a caravansary.
-The wealthy marts
Spectator, No. 289.
Of Ormus and Gombroon, whose streets are oft With caravans and tawny merchants throng'd, From neighbouring provinces and realmes afar. Dyer. The Fleece, b. iv. Obadiah, the son Abensina, left the caravansara early in the morning, and pursued his journey through the plains of Indostan.-Rambler, No. 65.
CA'RAVEL, or Fr. Caravelle; It. Cara-
says from Carabus, (a crab.)
A light, round, old-fashioned ship, with a square poop, rigged like a galley, formerly used in Spain and Portugal.
The next day being the 10th of May in the morning, there were come to aide the said Portugals, foure great armadas or carauals more which made seuen, of which 4, three of them were at the least 100 tunnes a piece, and another not so bigge, but all well appointed and full of men. Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 63.
Isab. Who I? I thank you, I am as haste ordain'd me, a thing slubber'd, my sister is a goodly portly lady, a woman of a presence, she spreads sattens, as the king's ships do canvas every where, she may spare me her misen, and her honnets, strike her main petticoat, and yet out sail me. I ani a carre! to her.
Beaum. & Fletch. Wit without Money, Act i. sc. 1.
Lat. Carbo, carbonis, a coal.
Fr. Carbonade," a rasher on the coals; also a slash over the face, which fetcheth the flesh with it," (Cotgrave.)
To carbonado, is, to chop, cut, slice, or slash; as meat chopt or cut for cooking upon the coals.
Draw you rogue, or I'le so carbonado your flanks, draw you rascall, come your waies.-Shakes. Lear, Act ii. sc. 2. An hundred thousand Turks, it is no vaunt, Assail'd him; every one a termagaunt: But what did he, then! with his keen-edged spear, He cut and carbonaded them: here and there
Therefore he would have it his way; and our friend is to drink till he is carbuncled, and tun-bellied; after which wo
will send him down to smoke, and be burried with his an cestors in Derbyshire.-Tatler, No. 66.
-From that scene
Glover. The Athenaid, b. iv. CARCAN. Fr. Carcan; Mid. Lat. CarcaCARCANET. num. Menage says from the Gr. Kiρkivos, a kind of chain.
A kind of chain, (sc.) for the neck, or a neck
Lay legs and arms.-Massinger. The Picture, Act ii. sc. 1. lace.
Has he bespoke? what, will he have a brace,
Beaum. & Fletch. Love's Pilgrimage, Act i. sc. 1.
before Corioles, he scotcht him, and notcht him like a carbonado. Shakespeare. Coriolanus, Act iv. sc. 4.
Cimb. Hunger shall force thee to cut off the brawns From thy arms and thighs; then broil them on the coals For carbonadoes.-Massinger. The Bondman, Act iii. sc. 3.
They make a general sally, and attack all that are so unfortunate as to walk the streets through which they patroll. Some are knocked down, others stabbed, others cut and carbonadoed.-Spectator, No. 324.
CARBUNCLE, n. Fr. Carbuncle; It. CarCARBUNCLED, adj. boncolo; Sp. Carboncol; Dut. Karbunchel; Lat. Curbunculus, diminutive of Carbo, carbonis, a coal; quod sit ignitus ut carbo. Carbunculus, by Pliny, is applied to a disease that singes and burns the eilets of the burgeons or buds; he also speaks of "the hote earth, called Carbunculus, which used to burn the corne sowne thereupon," (Holland.)
A Carbuncle is a name given to a certain precious stone; and also to certain burning spots or tumours on the face; to both, from their shining or glittering like burning coals. See the example from Pliny.
Forth right he straught his finger out,
Upon the whiche he had a rynge,
A fine carbuncle for the nones
Most precious of all stones.-Gower. Con. A. b. v.
So harde is that carbuncle, catching ones a core, to be by any meane well and surely cured. Sir T. More. Workes, p. 351. And the goutes, carbuncles, kankers, lepryes, and other lyke sores and sycknesses, whiche do proceed of blode corrupted, be to al men detestable. Sir T. Elyot. Gouernovr, b. ii. c. 4.
I find, on the one side that a great many think it no rarity, upon a mistaken persuasion, that not only there are store of carbuncles, of which this is one; but that all diamonds, and other glittering jewels, shine in the dark. Whereas, on the other side, there are very learned men, who (plausibly enough) deny, that there are any carbuncles or shining, stones at all.-Boyle. Works, vol. i. p. 790.
The infectious steams presently invaded the lower part of his leg, and produced a pungent pain and blister, which turned to a pestilential carbuncle, that could scarce be cured in a fortnight after.-Id. Ib. vol. iii. p. 676.
Unto which [Geometry and Astrology] who will thinke that the gorgeous trappings and caparisons, the brooches, collars, and carkans of riches are any waies comparable. Holland. Plutarch, p. 177.
For, said they, they have the same bows, the same rich embroidered gowns, the same golden chains and carcanets of womanish persons, hanging on their cowardly bodies and faint hearts.-North. Ib. p. 280.
My wife is shrewish when I keep not howres;
Shakespeare. Comedy of Errors, Act iii. sc. 1
Harrington. Orlando Furioso, b. vii. s. 46. CARCASS. Fr. Carquass; Mid. Lat. CarCA'RCASLIKE. casium. Perhaps immediately from the Fr. Carquois; It. Carcasso, a quiver, ob similitudinem cum pharetra; (sc.) with an empty quiver. (See Junius, Menage, Du Cange, and Wachter.) Applied to
A dead body; any thing decayed; in a ruinous state; the mere shell; the skeleton; as the carcass of a house.
Howe ca I, quoth he, be sure therof. May yr taking vp of a mannes bones, & setting hys carcas in a gay shrine, & then kissing his bare scalpe, make a mă a saint. Sir T. More. Works, p. 190.
He woulde haue commaunded the karkaslyke sycke man to be had away, and then haue all to washed himselfe with water-Udal. Mark, c. 2.
Thre times about the walls of Troy was Hector haled on ground
His carcas eke Archilles had for golde exchaunged round. Phaer. Virgile. Æneidos, b. i.
But, for our burning of the dead, by all means I am wonne To satisfie thy king therein, without the slenderest gaine Made of their spoyled carkasses; but freely (being slaine) They shall be all consum'd with fire.
Chapman. Homer. Iliad, b. vii.
Bast. Heere's a stay,
-The Red sea coast, whose waves o'erthrew
From the safe shore their floating carkases
He thinks that Providence fills his purse, and his barnes, only to pamper his owne carcass, to invite him to take his ease and his fill, that is, to serve his base appetites with all the occasions of sin.-South, vol. iv. Sei. 2.
Fast by the azure necks he held
And grip'd in either hand his scaly foes; Till from their horrid carcasses expell'd At length the poisonous soul unwilling flows. West. First Nemean Ode.
CARCERAL. Lat. Carcer, a prison; a coercendo, quod exire prohibet, (Varro.) Carceres (the barriers or starting post) are so called because horses are restrained (coercentur) from going beyond them, before the signal is given. The Goth. Karker; A. S. Carcern; Dut. and Ger. Kerker; Wachter says it may be derived from the A. S. Cark, cura, care, (of which prisons are full.)
Notwithstanding through fauour they were contented, that he should be released from his carceral indurance, in case he would put in sufficient suretie in the king's chancerie, and swere that he shall neuer holde or fauour any such opinions hereafter.- Poz. Martyrs. Hen. VI. an. 1.
Fr. Carte; It. Carta; Sp.
Carding,-playing games of hazard with cards.
Item, that no blaspheming of God, or detestable swearing be vsed in any ship, nor communication of ribaldrie, filthy tales, or vngodly talke to be suffred in the company of any ship, neither dicing, carding, tabling, nor other diuelish games to be frequented.-Hacklayl. Voyages, vol. i. p. 227.
Imprimis, to banish swearing, dice and card-playing, and filthy communication, and to serue God twice a day with the ordinary seruice usuall in churches of England. Id. Ib. vol. iii. p. 75.
Playing at cards and tables is some what more tollerable, onely for as moch as therein wytte is more vsed, and lesse truste is in fortune, all be it therin is neyther laudable study or exercise.-Sir T. Elyot. The Gouernovr, b. i. c. 26.
This year died Lanfrank, after he had been Archbishop of Canterbury eighteen years, who had brought the monks to some good order, that before his time followed hunting and hawking, dicing and carding, to the great discredit of their profession.-Baker. William II. an. 1087.
Some enquire whether the trade of card-makers and dicemakers be lawful and the reason of their doubt is, because these things are us'd by the worst of men, and to very vile purposes; to which these arts do minister, and therefore are reasonably suspected as guilty of a participation of the consequent crimes.-Bp. Taylor. Rule of Consc. b. iv. c. 1.
I think it is very wonderful to see persons of the best sense passing away a dozen hours together in shuffling and dividing a pack of cards, with no other conversation but what is made up of a few game phrases, or no other ideas, but those of black and red spots ranged together in different figures. Spectator, No. 93.
My business has been to view, as opportunity was offered, every place in which mankind was to be seen; but at cardtables, however brilliant, I have always thought my visit lost, for I could know nothing of the company, but their clothes and their faces.-Rambler, No. 10.
Een misses, at whose age their mothers wore
Cowper. Task, b. iv.
Dut. Kaerden, obliquo lanam deducere ferro, (Kilian.) Fr. CarCA'RDER. der; It. Cardare; Sp. Cardar;
Lat. Carere, from Keipe, eKupov, to shear.
Mr. Steevens thinks, that the met. in Shakespeare's Henry IV. is taken from mingling coarse wool with fine, and carding them together, whereby the value of the latter is diminished. To card, he In adds, is used by other writers, for to mix. Ritson's opinion, the King means that his predecessor set his consequence to hazard, played it away, (as a man loses his fortune,) at cards. Dyer calls it the mingling card It seems to be
used as equivalent to-to discard.
To mix, to mingle;--(also to clear or free from,) as by the operation of carding.
The skipping king hee ambled vp and doune
It is an excellent drink for a consumption, to be drunk
Petru. But mine is such a drench of balderdash,
Beaum. & Fletch. The Tamer Tam'd, Act iv. sc. 4.
Upon these taxations
Shakespeare. Hen. VIII. Act i. sc. 2.
Fr. Cardiaque; It. and Sp.
But wel I wot, thou dost min herte to erme,
Chaucer. The Purdoneres Prologue, v. 12,347.
The leaf of balm, and of alleluia or wood sorrel, as also the roots of anthora, represent the heart in figure, and are cardiacal.-H. More. Antidote against Atheism, b. ii. c. 6.
Fr. Cardinal; It. Car-
a hinge, "that on which the door is turned
Porta suos postes sine Cardine claudere nescit,
"A Cardinal is so stiled, because serviceable to
Cardinal, adj.-pre-eminent, chief, principal. The cloke was so called, because similar to that usually worn by cardinals.
Though Spelman seems to agree that the word
So that tueie cardinals the pope him sende iwis,
A cardinall was thilke tide,
They shoote all at one marke
Out of their stronge townes
For this believe, that impudence is now
The story is famous of that cardinal (who flourished in the last age,) that said, that once indeed he had read the Bible, but if he were to do so again, it would lose him all his Latinity.-Boyle. Works, vol. ii. p. 295.
But we've no time, my dear, to waste,
Lloyd. Chit Chat.
Goth. Kara; A. S. Caru, caran. "Carian, to take care or heed, to regard, to mind, to attend," (Somner.) In A. S. are also found the compounds, Carfull, carfullice, carfulnysse, carlras. Junius thinks that the word
may have some affinity with the Gr. Knp, the heart, because men take especial care of those See CURE. things, quæ maximè ipsis cordi sunt.
To care, is generally used, as explained by Somner, i. e.
To heed, to mind, to regard, mindful, regardful or anxious. Care-ful, heedful, cautious. trouble or distress.
to be heedful, or Hence, as
Also, full of care,
In Ritson, (quoted below)— To distress, to trouble, to vex, to harass, to afflict with care.
And the noun is common in both applications of the verb, viz.
Heedfulness, mindfulness, regard, attention;solicitude, anxiety, trouble.
Care, prefixed to various words, furnishes a few powerful expressions.
I care wel harde
Sire for greate Godes loue, the graith thou me tell,
For drede gan ich quaken
Be ay of chere as light as lefe on linde,
Men shulden wedden after hir estate,
Id. The Miller's Tale, v. 2232. By the which desyre and earnest purpose he testifieth yt in all his welthe, pleasure, and quietnes, he cared for nothing more then that kynde of lyfe, and conversatio, wherin he was like a shepe in the flocke of the faithfull. Caluine. Fovre Godlye Sermons, Ser. 3.
By the daily testimonie of our subiects which trafficke in your kingdoms and dominions, we are informed, that according to the dutie of a most worthy prince, so carefully and exactly you minister iustice vnto euery man, that all men most willingly repaire vnto your highnesse, with full trast to obtaine the same.-Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. ii. p. 97.
By suche manoure of figuratiue speakynges called of the Grekes hyperbole, his entente was to plucke oute of his disciples myndes (who were as yet grosse and rude,) all Gower. Con. A. b. ii. carefulnesse for those thynges that are wont to be an hinderauce or let vnto the minde, whe it goeth about any heauenlye enterpryse.-Udal. Mark, c. C.
The shal! they be in carefulnesse, whyche nowe hane abused my wayes: and they that haue cast them onto Skelton. Why come ye not to Court, dispytfullye, shal dwell in paynes.—Bible, 1551. Esdras, c.
O Lord my hope behold, and for my helpe make haste
Therefore it stondeth you in hande by all meanes, that that daye fynde you not sluggishly napping, nor carelessly snourting by riot and slothfulnes.-Udal. 1 Pe.er, c. 14
Therfore euyll mote she fare,
For euer she dyde the lytell boye care,
As ferforth as she dorste.
The shore at this place seem'd to form several bays, into one of which I proposed to carry the ship, which was become very foul, in order to careen her, and at the same time repair some defects, and recruit our wood and water. Cook. First Voyage, b. ii. c. 6.
The King of France used him, [the Duke of Buckingham,Į in so particular a manner, knowing his vanity, and caressed him to such a degree, that he went without reserve into the interests of France.-Burnet. Own Time, an. 1671.
Nay, I have known men, grossly injured in their affairs, depart pleased, at least silent, only because they were injured in good language, ruined in caresses, and kissed
CAREER, v. I Fr. Carrière; It. Carriera;
(Junius.) From-to carry, (Skinner.) Fr. Car
The Frere & the Boye. Ritson. Anc. Pop. Poetry, p. 36. rière, Cotgrave well explains
His trust was with th' Eternal to be deem'd
Car'd not to be at all.-Milton. Paradise Lost, b. ii.
IIereupon I have chosen that kind of life which is most free from the troublesome cares of the world, that I might attend the service of God alone.-Camden. Eliz. an. 1559.
With as much care and little hurt, as doth a mother use, And keepe off from her babe, when sleepe doth through his powers diffuse
His golden humour; and th' assaults of rude and busie flies,
She still checks with her carefull hand.
Chapman. Homer. Iliad, b. iv. My wife more carefull for the latter-borne, Had fastned him vnto a small spare mast, Such as sea-faring men prouide for stormes To him one of the other twins was hound, Whilst I had beene like heedful of the others.
Shakespeare. Comedy of Errors, Act i. sc. 1.
And I would wish you to abstayne from iudging too farre, when you see a man that hath mo liuings, vse himselfe prightly and carefully in them all, and otherwyse profitably to the whole churche.-Whitgift. Defence, p. 247.
Jehoiada then occupied the priesthood, an honourable, wise and religious man. To his carefulness it may be ascribed, that the state of the church was in some slender sort upheid in those unhappy times.
Ralegh. History of the World, b. ii. c. 20. s. 4.
All thy fellow birda do sing,
Shakespeare. Passionate Pilgrim, s. 18.
O change beyond report, thought, or belief;
As one past hope, abandon'd.
And by himself given over.-Milton. Samson Agonistes.
Therefore, for Coriolanus neyther to care whether they Joue or hate him, manifests that true knowledge he has in their disposition, and out of his noble carelessnesse lets them plainly see it.-Shakespeare. Coriolanus, Act ii. sc. 2.
I care not, fortune, what you me deny;
Thomson. Castle of Indolence, c. 2.
There arose a marvellous schism and variety of factions, in the celebrating the common seruice; some followed the kin's proceedings; others admitted them, but did patchingly temned all, and would exercise their old wonted popish Inass.--Strype. Memoirs. Edw. VI. an. 1547.
use but some part of the book. But many carelessly con
I wish that might befall the French to temper a little such an overgrown greatness; but I doubt it much, from the present King's dispositions, among whose qualities those of care essness or lavishing his treasures, I am afraid, are none. Sir W. Temple. To Lord Arlington.
The priest, whose office is with zeal sincere
Cowper. Expostulation. CARE/EN. Fr. Carene; It. Carena; Sp. Caréna, carena; Lat. Carina, (a currendo dicta,) the keel of a ship.
To lay a vessel with her keel upwards, for the purpose of repairing, of calking her. See CALK.
We had no worms till we came to this place; for when we careen'd at the Marias, the worm had not touch'd us; nor at Guana, for there we scrubb'd. Dampier. Voyages, vol. ii. c. 13.
"An highway, a road or street; also, a career on horseback; and, (more generally,) any exercise, or place for exercise, on horseback; as a horserace, or a place for horses to run in; and their course, running, or full speed therein."
To career, to move at full speed, swiftly; as if in display of skill or grace.
As with starrs thir bodies all And wings were set with eyes, with eyes the wheels Of beril, and careering fires between. Milton. Paradise Lost, b. vi. Lie. I am glad you are here; but they are all i' th' pound, sir, They never ride o'er other men's corn again, I take it, Such frisking, and such flaunting with their feathers, And such careering with their master's favours. Beaum. & Fletch. Humourous Lieutenant, Act ii. sc. 2. He stops, when he should make a full careire, He runs or trots, when he would have him rest At last to throw his rider in the tire, He plungeth with his head beneath his breast. Harrington. Orlando, b. ii. s. 7. The Count de Alanson in a great rage cries out, On, on, let us make way upon the bellies of these Genoueses, who do but hinder us: and instantly pricks on with a full career through the midst of them.-Baker. Edw. III. an. 1346.
-On with speed we fare
All to the heart return again;
Must from the heart sincerely flow.-Whitehead. Variety.
CARE/NE. Low Lat. Carena, carentena, CA'RENTANE. quasi, quarentina; a quarantine, (qv.) See in Du Cange.
A Carene, was a fast for forty days on bread and water. A Carentane or quadragene,-a Lent, or forty days of Lent; any space of forty days.
You have with much labour and some charge purchased to yourself so many quadragenes or lents of pardon: that is, you have bought off the penances of so many times forty days. It is well; but were you well advis'd? it may be your Quadragenes are not Carenes, that is, are not a quitting the severest penances of fasting so long on bread and water. Bp. Taylor. Diss. from Popery, pt. i. s. 4.
In the church of Sancta Maria de Popolo there are for every day in the year 2800 years of pardon, besides 14,014 Carentanes, which in one year amount to more than 1,000,000.-Id. Ib. s. 3.
CARE'SS, v. Į Fr. Caresser; It. Carezzare; CARE'ss, n. Sp. Acariciar. Not from Kappeew, to soothe, nor from Xagiereas, but from the Lat. Carus; q. d. Caritia, carities, i. e. Caritas, And and thence Caritiare, caresser, (Skinner.) Menage says, de carisciare, formed from carus. Carus, cari, cariscus, cariscius, carisciare.
To touch, to treat with gentleness or fondness, to fondle; to treat endearingly, soothingly, flatteringly.
His business [was] about setling a peace with Tangier ; much respected he was here, carress'd at court, and at both the Universities; and he seemed to express no less esteem for our nation.-Baker. Charles II. an. 1683.
He, she knew, would intermix Grateful digressions, and solve high dispute With conjugal caresses; from his lip
Not words alone pleas'd her.-Millon. Par. Lost, b. viii. Do not instantly upon your return from church, return also to the world, and secular thoughts and employments; but let the remaining part of that day be like a post-communion or an after-office, entertaining your blessed lord with all the caresses and sweetness of love and colloquies, and intercourses of duty and affection. Bp. Taylor. Holy Living, s. 10. No. 14.
South, vol. viii. Ser. 7.
Thus must he steer through Fame's uncertain seas,
W. Winitehead. Danger of writing Verse.
CARGO. ? Fr. Cargaison; Sp. Cargaship; Fr. Carguer, charger; It. Caricare, to lade CARGASON, n.çon; the freight or lading of a or load. All (says Skinner) from the Lat. Carrus. (See CAR.) And Menage, Charger, from Carricare, formed from Carricus, the diminutive of Carrus. Sir Thomas North writes Cargued.
The load carried, the goods or wares carried, or conveyed.
The brokers came to the water side, and these merchants as soone as they are come on land, do giue the cargason of all their goods to that broker, that they will haue to do their business for them, with the marks of all the fardles and packs they haue.-Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. ii. pt. i. p. 217. Which did not hurt the Grecian galleys, being made low and snug, but greatly offended the Persian galleys, being high cargued, heavy, and not yare of steredge. North. Plutarch, p. 105.
So in the mild contentions of the muse,
Cowley The Adventures of Five Hours.
These words are in common use. To charge, to overcharge; to load, to overload; and thus, to colour too highly, to exaggerate, to distort.
From all these hands we have such draughts of mankind as are represented in those burlesque pictures, which the Italians call caracaturas; where the art consists in preserving, amidst distorted proportions and aggravated features, some distinguishing likeness of the person, but in such a manner as to transform the most agreeable beauty into the most odious monster.-Spectator, No. 537.
The painter exhibited a caricatura of the writer. (Wilkes) Churchili then wrote his epistle to Hogarth.-In revenge for this epistle, Hogarth caricatured Churchill under the form of a canonical bear, with a club, and a pot of beer.
Walpole. Anecdotes, vol. iv. c. 4.
CARK, v. A. S. Carc, caru, care; car-ian, CARK, n. car-ic-an, carcan, be-carcan, acCA'RKING. take care of. Cearig, is full of care and fear; curare, to carke, or care for, to and also moaning, grieving, complaining, lamenting. (See Somner.) Cark is applied toAnxious care, anxiety, solicitude, trouble. Shal nothr kyng ne knygt. constable ne meyre. Over cark the comune.-Piers Plouhman. Vision, p. 62. In house, for wife and child, there is but cark and care, With trauel and with toyl ynough in fields we use to fare. Vncertaine Auctors. Man's Life.
If thou dost meane to haue vs pen
Drant. Horace. Ep. b. ii. To Augustus. Ryght semblablye, this carkynge kynde of men doe neuer eye The route, that they haue ouerrun in goodes, but haste and hye To retche the resydue.
Id. Ib. Sat. 1.
Ger. Kerl; A. S. Ceorle; Dut. Kaerle. Carel, karl, in the ancient language of Gerand signifies robust many, a rustick, A carle is a robust, strong man; labouring man; uncivilized, unpolished, rude, brutal. See CHURL.
The miller was a stout carl for the nones,
Chaucer. Prologue, v. 547.
He woulde not seeme Like one of carlish abiecte minde,
so vyle a thing t' esteme.-Drant. Horace, b. i. Sat. 2. Full of ache, sorrow and griefe, children againe, dizards, they carle many times as they sit, and talke to themselves.
Burton. Anatomy of Melancholy, p. 60.
So vp he rose, and thence amounted streight,
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. i. c. 10.
By whose brave carriage in so hard a thing,
Drayton. The Baron's Wars, b. v.
What news, what news! thou noble king,
The Marriage of Sir Gawayne, pt. ii. Percy.
Sil. Not very well, but I haue met him oft, And he that bought the cottage and the bounds That the old carlot once was master of.
Shakespeare. As You like It, Act iii. sc. 5.
Coarse Bothnick locks are not devoid of use;
Dyer. Fleece, b. ii.
I deem that carl, by beauty's pow'r unmov'd,
Thompson. Hymn to May.
CARMINATIVE. Fr. Carminatif; from Lat. Carminare, to cleanse from gross parts; or from Carmen; as if acting by charm or enchantment. Arbuthnot calls carminatives-expellers of wind; and further says:
Carminative are such things as dilute and relax at the same time; because wind occasions a spasm or convulsion in some part. Whatever promotes insensible perspiration is carminative.-Or Aliments, c. 5.
Carminative and diuretic
Will danip ali passion sympathetick:
Swift. Strephon & Chloe. Lat. Caro, carnis, flesh, a carendo, eò quod careat animâ, because it is without life or breath. (See Vossius.) Carnal, as applied generally, is
Of or pertaining to the flesh; to the lusts of the flesh; fleshly; opposed to spiritual.
Carnage, the slaughter of flesh; flesh slain or slaughtered.
It is not unusual to write carnal prefixed to minded and mindedness. Carneous,fleshy, having qualities of, or resembling those of, flesh.
Carnify,--to cause to be or to become flesh, rests on the usage by Sir Mathew Hale who uses it more than onee.
Carnivorous, devouring flesh. See CARNIVAL,
The loue & amitie of christen folke should be rather
By which device they encountered and fought with even
There is no talking to such, no hope of their conversion, they are in a reprobate sense meere carnalists, fleshy minded men.-Burton. Anatomy of Melancholy, p. 685.
There he affirmeth of himselfe, that when he did behold the Christians in their torments and suffrings to be so constant in their profession, he [Justine] was therewith marvellouslie moved: after this maner reasoning with himselfe, that it was impossible for that kind of people to be subiect to anie vice or carnalitie, which vices of their owne nature are not able to sustaine anie sharpe aduersitie, much lesse the bitterness of death.
Fox. Martyrs. Persecutions of the Church.
God is on our side, and therfore we fear not what the Pope
Anderson. Exposition upon Benedictus, 1573, p. 76.
Yea, and otherwise it is good for the old maine bough to
that it should remaine and carry a length with it.
I would the consciences of men were such, as oyl and butter might supple them. But I see they are for the most part overgrown with so hard a carnosity, as it requireth strong and potent corrosives to make an entrance into them. Spelman. English Works. An Epilogue, p. 18.
About an age ago it was the fashion in England, for every
Spectator, No. 494.
Gaspar Bartholine hath observed that where the gullet perforates the midriff, the carneous fibers of that muscular part are inflected and arcuate, as it were a sphincter, embracing and closing it fast.-Ray. On the Creation, pt. ii.
The muscle whereby he [the hedge-hog] is enabled to draw himself thus together, and gather up his whole body like a ball, the Parisian academists describe to be a distinct carnose muscle, extended from the ossa innominata, to the ear and nose, running along the back bone, without being fastened thereto.-Id. Ib. pt. ii.
Such birds as have crooked beaks and talons are all carnivorous; and so of quadrupeds, kapxapodovтa, carnivora omnia. All that have serrate teeth are carnivorous. Id. Ib. pt. i.
Our nobility was wont to applaud the Italians, as the best examples of elegancy: may we not with good pretences to sobriety, reduce our carnivorous tables to their patterns of salads.-Boyle. Works, vol. vi. p. 376. Letter from J. Beale. But the practice of these [the dog and cat] is nothing, to what the animals of the forest endure. As these mostly live upon accidental carnage, so they are often known to remain without food for several weeks together. Goldsmith. Animated Nature, pt. ii. c. 6. But if in this inconsiderable part of the globe, such a carnage [2,000,000] has been made in two or three short reigns, and that this great carnage, great as it is, makes but a minute part of what the histories of that people inform us they suffered; what shall we judge of countries more extended, and which have waged wars far more considerable ? Burke. Vindication of Natural Society. Lat. Caro, carnis, flesh; CARNATION, n. Į Fr. Incarnadine; It. CarCARNA'TIONed. nadino. Color carnis, colour of flesh, (Skinner.) Mr. Steevens says, carnardine is the old term for carnation. And quotes the old comedy as below. Hopkins uses carnation as incarnation, (qv.) See the quotation from Wilkins.
After the same manner are the several varieties of colours
Court, gentle Zephyr, court and fan,
Lovelace. Lucasta at the Bath.
(So of his colour call'd, although a July flower,)
She here me first perceiv'd, and here a morn
Drummond. Sonnets, &c. pt. i. s. 60. Some profess'd florists make them their constant study and employment, and despise all fruit; and now and then a few fanciful people spend all their time in the cultivation of a single tulip, or a carnation.-Spectator, No. 455.
So, in a garden bath'd with genial show'rs,
Jenyns. Art of Dancing, c. 2.
Grograms, sattins, velvet fine,
Any Thing for a Quiet Life.
This festive season, which is particularly observed at Venice, continues from the Epiphany till the first day of Lent.
They had their Baccanalia; we had our wakes, answering to them: they their Saturnalia, and we our Carnivals, and Shrove-Tuesdays, liberty of servants.
Hobbes. Of the Kingdom of Darkness, c. 45. The carnival of Venice is every where talked of. The great diversion of the place at that time, as well as on all These disguises give other high occasions is masking. occasion to abundance of love adventures; and I question not but the secret history of a carniral would make a collection of very diverting novels.—Addison. On Italy. Venice.
Moreover, that during all the time of his empire, he neither tooke up any man to sit with him in his carroch, nor admitted any private person to be his companion in the honourable estate of consull, as princes have been wont to do.-Holland. Ammianus, p. 63.
Car. She, I assure you, madam,
Her doctor, chaplains.-Massinger. Renegado, Act i. sc. 2. Spun. Old honour goes on crutches, beggary rides caroched.-Id. The Virgin Martyr, Act iii. sc. 3.
All this, quoth Ralph, I did, 'tis true, Not to preserve myself, but you: You, who were damn'd to baser drubs Than wretches feel in powdering-tubs; To mount two wheel'd caroches, worse, Than managing a wooden horse.-IIudibras, pt. iii. c. 2. CAROL, v. Fr. Carolle; It. Carola. MeCA'ROL, n. nage says, Choreola, a diminuCAROLING, n. tive of Chorea. Somner produces the word Kyrriole, and thinks it probable that such a word may have been corrupted from Kupie eλentov, (Lord, have mercy,) so frequently repeated in morning prayers. And hence he conjectures our carol to be a hymn, (sc.) usually sung on the Nativity. In Fr. Carolle is the name of a kind of dance, and so it is used in Robert of Gloucester. See the quotation from Warton. Aftur mete, as rygt was, the menstrales geode aboute, And knygtes and sweynes in carole gret route.
R. Gloucester, p. 53.
What ladies fayrest ben or best dancing,
Chaucer. The Knightes Tale, v. 2205.
And if so befalle amonge,
Whan I it here, I am so fedde,
As though I were in Paradice.-Gower. Con. A. b. vi.
There was great myrth on all side,
Ne nightingale in the seson of May Was never non, that list better to sing Ne lady lustier in carolling.
Id. Ib. b. i.
Chaucer. The Chanonnes Yemannes Tale, v. 16,813. The same season the princesse, mother to kyng Richarde, lay at Wynsore, and her doughter with her, my lady Maude, the fayrest lady in all Engläde: therle of saynt Poule, and this yong lady, were in true amours togyder eche of other, and somtyme they met togyder at daunsynge and carollyng. Berners. Froissart. Cronycle, c. 394.
There, on a day, as he persew'd the chace,
Spenser. Humne of Heauenlie Beautie.
Why do the Delian palms incline their boughs,
Rise, sons of harmony, and hail the morn,
Beattie. The Minstrel, b. i.
In the year 1521 Wynkyn de Worde printed a set of Christmas carols; these were testal chansons for enlivening the merriment of the Christmas celebrity; and not such religious songs as are current at this day with the common people under the same title, and which were substituted by those enemies of innocent and useful mirth, the Puritans. Warton. English Poetry, vol. iii. s. 26.
CARO USE, v. CARO USE, n. CARO USER.
Fr. Carousser; Sp. Carau, from the Ger. Gar ausz, empty it entirely, (prorsus deple vel exhauri,)
in a word, all out, (Skinner.) Lye thinks it may be from Reuse, or ruse; and Ruse, Junius derives from the Dut. Ruyschen, strepere, perstrepere, sonore tumultuari, to make a roaring noise, an uproar. Menage is to the same purport as Skinner ;— Ger. Garauss, which signifies toute vuide.
Mr. Gifford-without any authority-asserts, that rouse was a large glass, ("not past a pint," as lago says,) in which a health was given, the drinking of which by the rest of the company formed a carouse. There could be no rouse or carouse unless the glass was empty. A rouse or two, in the language of the present day, would be a bumper or two." (See Gifford's Massinger, vol. i. p. 239, Note.) To carouse is
he supposes the word to have been introduced from the Lat. Carpere, to cull, by the monkish writers. For carping, the Scotch also use catchy.
To Conscience he tolde
And Conscience to the kyng. carped it after.
Piers Plouhman, p. 34 By clothynge ne by carpinge. knowe shall thou hym nevere. Id. p. 282
In felawship wel coude she laughe and carpe
Chaucer. The Prologue, v. 476.
And whom it liketh for to carp
Gower. Con. A. b. viii. The one of these he carped, as a man of no witte and uerie meane learninge: the other for his verbositie and negligence in penning his history.-Holland.Suetonius, p.139. Then for his phrase he carpeth at it in infinite places,
As Britons, that so long Have held this antique song,
To drink freely, copiously, with much jollity. Carousel, (see the quotations from Dryden,) both for obscure and licentious.-Hobbes. Life of Thucydides (Fr. Carrousel, from the It. Carrosello, Menage;) a pageant in which chariots (carosses) were much employed, is ascribed to a different source; viz. Carosse, a chariot.
When lately Pym descended into hell, Ere he the cups of Lethe did carouse, What place that was, he called loud to tell; To whom a Devil-" This is the lower house." Drummond, Epig. 8. And that monarch, whom even a siege could not reduce below a condition of feasting, though he were carouzing in the consecrated cups, had such a brimmer of trembling put into his hand, as both presaged, and, perchance, began, the destiny approaching him under the ensigns of the noble Cyrus.-Boyle. Occasional Reflections, s. 5. ref. 3.
As if he [Benhadad] had drawn together such a numerous and mighty army, headed by so many princes, only for the glorious and warlike expedition of carousing in their tents, or to fight it out hand to hand, in the cruel and bloody encounters of drinking healths.-South, vol. vi. Ser. 10.
The bold carouser and advent'rous dame,
Lansdowne. To Dr. Garth in his Sickness.
But I have probable reasons, which induce me to believe, that some Italians having curiously observ'd the gallantries of the Spanish Moors at their Zambras or Royal feasts, where musick, songs, and dancing, were in perfection, together with their machines, which are usual at their Sortias, or running at the ring, and other solemnities, may possibly have refin'd upon these Moresque divertisements, and produe'd this delightful entertainment, by leaving out the warlike part of the carousels, and forming a poetical design for the use of the machines, the songs, and dances. Dryden. Albian & Albanius, Pref. This game, these carousels Ascanius taught, And, building Alba, to the Latins brought. Id. Virgil. Eneid, b. v. The sun was set-they had done their work; the nymphs had tied up their hair afresh,-and the swains were preparing for a carousal;-my mule made a dead point. Sterne. Tristram Shandy, vol. vii. c. 43.
CARP, v. CA'RPER, n. CARPING, adj. CARPING, n.
Fr. Charpir; It. Carpire; Lat. Carpere, to shear, to crop, to carve, (perhaps from the A. S. Cearf-ian, to carve,) to tear to pieces; and thus
CARPINGLY. To pull or pluck out, to catch at, (sc. met.) small faults or errors; to find fault, to detect or expose faults, to cavil. In our old writers;-to hold up to ridicule, to jest, to scoff at.
And it appears also to have been used as Dr. Jamieson interprets it; 1. to speak, to talk, to relate verbally or in writing; 2. to sing. And
And let all our carpers Forbear their fame to wrong, Th'are right skilful harpers.
Drayton. To Himself and the Harp
Shakespeare. Timon of Athens, Act iv. sc. 3. The answere is fit for so friuolous an obiection; and a little true reason voyde of malicious carping, would haue taught you that this is rather a ciuill manner and custom to our country, than a ceremonie of the church.
Whitgift. Defence, p. 537. But it is always thus with pedants, they will ever be carping, if a gentleman or man of honour puts a pen to paper. Tatler, No. 17.
Lay aside, therefore, a carping spirit, and read even an adversary with attention and diligence, with an honest design to find out his true meaning; do not snatch at little lapses and appearances of mistake, in opposition to his declared and avowed meaning. Watts. Improvement of the Mind, pt. i. c. 8. CARPENTER, n. Low. Lat. CarpentaCARPENTRY, n. rius; Fr. Charpentier ; It. Carpentero; Sp. Carpintero. Menage thinks from Carpentum; Vossius, quod ligna carpit, i. e. cædit, because he cuts wood. We must by no means omit, observes Junius, that Hesychius, Kuprev exp. #ANTтei, ferire, to strike. And Tooke remarks, that "the translation of the New Testament, which is ascribed to Wicliffe, (he alludes probably to his own MS.) proves to us that at that time, smith, (sc. one who smiteth,) and carpenter were synonymous."
A wright, or worker in wood.
And tho Sir Maci was inome, & hii withinne come, An carpenter, that hii sede that sset the ssute, hii nome, And ladde him vpe the tour an hee, & made him huppe to grounde. [shot the shot.-R. Gloucester, p. 537. What is the wisdom that is goven to him, and siche vertues which ben maad by his hondes, wher this is not a carpenter, [a smith, ether, a carpentere, as quoted by Tooke.] the sone of Marye.-Wiclif. Mark, c. 6.
What wisdome is this that is giuen vnto him: and such virtues that are wrought by his handes. Is not this ye carpenter Maries sonne.-Bible, 1551. 18.
Whereas the tenth day I sent our pinnesse on shoare to be mended because she was leaky and weake, with the carpenter and three more to help him, the weather chanced so, that it was Sunday before they could get aboord our ship. Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. i. p. 276.
A firm house, though the carpenter
Donne. To Mr. J. W.
B. Jonson. An Expostulation with Inigo Jones. CARPET, n. Dut. Karpet; It. Carpetta; "Fr. Cairin, a Turkie carpet; such a one as is brought from Caire in Egypt," (Cotgrave.) Skinner suggests that the Italian Carpetta may be from Cairo, and tapets, (q. d.) tapes Cairicus seu Memphiticus.
Carpets were formerly used as covers for tables. See the examples from B. Jonson, and Mr. Gifford's notes upon them. Now applied toA covering for the floor.