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And then he adds, For if we should judge our selues, we should not be judged. If we would judge our selves, whether this be meant of the publick censures of the church, or our private censuring of our selves in order to our future amendment and reformation, is not certain. Tillotson, vol. i. Ser. 25.

It is impossible for human purity not to betray to an eye, thus sharpened by malignity, some stains, which lay concealed and unregarded, while none thought it their interest to discover them; nor can the most circumspect attention, or steady rectitude, escape blame from censors, who have no inclination to approve.-Rambler, No. 172.

While this censorial power [of the press] is maintained, to speak in the words of a most ingenious foreigner, both minister and magistrate is compelled, in almost every instance, to choose between his duty and his reputation. Junius. Preface to Letters.

Of temper as envenom'd as an asp,
Censorious, and her ev'ry word a wasp;
In faithful mem'ry she records the crimes
Or real, or fictitious, of the times.

Cowper. Truth.

Of this delicacy Horace is the best master. He appears in good humour while he censures; and therefore his censure has the more weight as supposed to proceed from judgment, not from passion.-Young. Love of Fame, Pref.

There is no kind of impertinence more justly censurable, than his who is always labouring to level his thoughts to intellects higher than his own; who apologizes for every word which his own narrowness of converse inclines him to

think unusual; keeps the exuberance of his faculties under visible restraint; is solicitous to anticipate enquiries by needless explanations; and endeavours to shade his own abilities, lest weak eyes should be dazzled with their lustre. Rambler, No. 173.

CENTAUR, n. The Centaurs, says Vossius, CENTAURY. were certain inhabitants of Thessaly, the first people who were carried by Bulls; and because they were accustomed to goad the bulls, KEVTEU Taupoυs, they had their name thence. Palæphatus says that these Thessalians pursued on horseback certain wild bulls, and threw their spears or javelins at them; which gives the same etymology, though a different reason for it.

He, as if centaur-like he had been one piece with the horse, was no more moved than one is with the going of his own legs; and in effect so did he command him as his own imbs.-Sidney. Arcadia, b. ii.

The greater centaurie is that famous hearb, wherewith Chiron, the centaure, (as the report goeth,) was cured, at what time as having entertained Hercules in his cabin, hee would needs be handling and tempering with the weapons of his said guest, so long untill one of the arrows light upon his foot and wounded him dangerously. Holland. Plinie, b. xxv. c. 6.



Fr. Centenaire ; It. Centenario; Sp. Centenar; Lat. Centenarius, from Centum, a hundred; Gr. 'Exaтov, from 'Exas, procul; quasi dicas remotissimum calculum in numerando, (the farthest or last stone in calculating,) et inde eximie Centum, (Lennep.)

Centiloquy, from Centum, and loqui, to speak, to discourse. And see CENTURION.

A hundred; a hundredth.

If we should allow but one inch of decrease in the growth of men for every centenary, (and lesse cannot well bee imagined.) there would at this present be abated almost fiue foot in their ordinary stature, which notwithstanding was held the competent height o man above sixteen hundred yeares since, and so still continues.-Hakewill. Apologie, p. 49.

Ptolomeus, in his centiloquie, Hermes or whosoever else the author of that tract, attributes all these symptomes, which are in melancholy men, to celestiall influencies. Burton. Anatomy of Melancholy, p. 190.


To her alone I rais'd my strain, On her centennial day, Fearless that age should chill the vein She nourish'd with her ray.-Mason. Palinodia, Ode 10. See SENTINEL. From the Fr. Sentinelle; It. SentiSnella, excubitor, from the Lat. Sentire, ut qui observat et sentit, (sc.)— One who observes, and perceives the approach of the enemy, (Skinner.) One who is set on watch for such purpose. A (military) watch.

Time's glory is to calm contending kings,

To unmask falsehood, and bring truth to light,
To stamp the seal of time on aged things,

To wake the morn, and centinel the night,
To wrong the wronger till he render right.

Shakespeare. Rape of Lucrece.

Whom lest some watchful centinell should spie,
And him into the garrison disclose,
His cowle about him carefully doth tie,
Creepes to the gate and closely thereat beate,
As one that entrance gladly would intreate,
Mirrour for Magistrates, p. 543.

Having set our centinels, I received a letter from Col. Norton, desiring me to send some horse to his assistance against some of the King's forces; which as I was reading, one of my centinels brought me word, that the enemy appeared at the town's end.-Ludlow. Memoirs, vol. i. p. 119. At two places, the one at our first setting out on this expedition, and the other at the end of it, we saw a horseman set, as we supposed, as a centinel, to watch us.

• Dampier. Voyages, vol. i. c. 9.

Yet there is a certain race of men that either imagine it their duty, or make it their amusement, to hinder the reception of every work of learning, or genius; who stand as centinels in the avenues of fame, and value themselves upon giving ignorance and envy the first notice of a prey.

Rambler, No. 3. At the same time four or five of the natives stepped forward to see what we were about, and as we did not allow them to come within certain limits, unless to pass along the beach, the centry ordered them back, which they readily complied with.-Cook. Voyage, vol. iv. c. 5.

CENTO. Gr. KevTpwv, originally a needle, and in a secondary sense a garment of patchwork, (sewed together by needles;) hence the word is (met.) applied to a poem composed of verses or parts of verses taken and put together from other authors.

A cento primarily signifies a cloak made of patches. In poetry it denotes a work wholly composed of verses promiscuously taken from other authors: only disposed in a new form or order, so as to compose a new work and a new meaning.-Cambridge. Scribleriad, Note 13.

From different nations next the centos crowd;
With borrow'd, patch't, and motley ensigns proud.
Not for the fame of warlike deeds they toil;'
But their sole end the plunder and the spoil.-Id. Ib. b. ii.


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Centri-petal,-seeking or

tending towards the centre.

His tables Toletanes forth he brought
Ful wel corrected,

As ben his centres, and his argumentes,
And his proportional convenientes
For his equations in every thing.

Chaucer. The Frankeleine's Tale, v. 11,589.

We heare the law truely preached, how we ought to do whatsoeuer God biddeth, and absteine from whatsoeuer God forbideth, with all loue and mekenes, with a feruent and a burnyng lust from the center.-Tyndall. Workes, p.382.

Yet strange it was, so many stars to see
Without a sun, to give their tapers light:
Yet strange it was not that it so should be:
For where the sun centres himself by right,
Her [Mercy] face, and locks did flame.

G. Fletcher. Christ's Victory in Heaven.
By him first

Men also, and by his suggestion taught,
Ransack'd the center, and with impious hands
Rifl'd the bowels of thir mother Earth

For treasures better hid.-Milton. Paradise Lost, b. i. Whereby we are well furnish'd with an answer to a further objection, that would insinuate that this emanation or efflux of the secondary substance from the central is creation properly so called, which is deemed incompetible to any crea ture.-H. More. Antidote against Atheism, App. c. 3.

The sea cannot o're swell
Its just precincts; or rocky shores repell
Its foming force; or else its inward life
And centrall rains do fairly it compell
Within itself, and gently 'pease the strife.

More. On the Soul, pt. i. b. fi. s. 3.

Now if there be but one centrality
Of th' universall soul which doth invade
All humble shapes; how come these contradictions made.
Id. Ib. pt. iv. s. 15.

Sith all forms in our soul be counite
And centrally lie there.-Id. Ib. pt. iii. c. 2. s. 33.
What needs that numerous clos'd centration,
Like wastefull sand ytost with boisterous inundation!
Id. Ib. pt. ii. b. iii. c. 2. s. 8.

Now deem this universall round alone,
And rayes no rayes but a first all-spread light,
And centrick all like one pellucid sun.

More. On the Soul, pt. i. v. il. a. ld
In every thing compost
Each part of th' essence its centreity
Keeps to itself, it shrinks not to a nullity.

Id. Ib. pt. ii. b. iii. c. 2. s. 20.

Our requests for future, and even our acknowledgments of past mercies, centre purely in ourselves, our own interest is the direct aim of them. But praise is a generous and unmercenary principle.-Atterbury, vol. i. Ser. 1.

If God would cause a body to move free in the æther round about a certain fixed centre, without any other creature acting upon it; I say, it could not be done without a miracle, since it cannot be explained by the nature of bodies, Clarke. Mr. Leibnitz's Third Paper.

I pass cerulian gulphs, and now behold
New solid globes their weight, self-balanc'd, bear,
And all, around the central sun in circling eddies roll'd.
Hughes. The Ecstacy.

First Ptolemy his scheme celestial wrought,
And of machines a wild provision brought.
Orbs centric and excentrick he prepares,
Cycles and epicycles, solid spheres,
In order plac'd.

Blackmore. Creation, b. it.

A real circular motion, for example, is always accompa nied with a centrifugal force, arising from the tendency which a body always has to proceed in a right line. Maclaurin. Philosophical Discoveries of Newton, b. ii. c. 1.

Though the gravity of bodies really arises from their gravitation towards the several parts of the earth, (as will appear afterwards,) yet because this power acts around in all parts, and its direction is nearly towards the centre of the earth, it is therefore called a centripetal force.—Id. Ib.

One rule remains. Nor shun nor court the great,
Your truest centre is that middle state
From whence with ease th' observing eye may go
To all which soars above, or sinks below.

Whitehead. A Charge to the Poets.

Father-Creator! who beholds thy works,
But catches inspiration? Thou the earth
On nothing hung, and balanc'd in the void
With a magnetic force, and central poise.


and plicare, to fold.

Thompson. Sickness, b. Lat. Centuplex, centuplicatus, from Centum, (see CENTENARY,) a hundred,

To fold a hundred times; to repeat a hundred times.

Say but this once,

Thou hast not done what rashly I commanded,
And that Paulinus lives, and thy reward
For not performing that which I enjoin'd thee,
Shall centuple whatever yet thy duty
Or merit challenged from me.

Massinger. Emperor of the East, Act v. sc. 3.

Jac. If the contagion

Of my misfortunes had not spread itself
Upon my son, Ascanio, though my wants
Were centupl'd upon myself, I could be patient.

Beaum. & Fletch. The Spanish Curate, Act i. sc. 2.

I wish his strength were centuple, his skill equal

To my experience, that in his fall

He may not shame my victory!

Massinger. The Unnatural Combat. Act i. sc. 1.

I perform'd the civilities you enioyn'd me to your friends here, who return you the like centuplicated, and so doth, &c. Howell, b. iv. Let. 2.

CENTURION, n. Į Fr. Centénier, centurie; CENTURY. centuria;

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Sp. Centurion, centuria; Lat. Centurio. So called from the number of soldiers, (centum, a hundred,) over which he was appointed. North uses centener from the French.

A century is a hundred of years, of men, of any. thing.


Centuriator and centurist were names given to historians, who arranged their narratives into periods of centuries, or a hundred years.

And the centurion answeride, and seide to him, Lord, I am not worthi that thou entre undir my roof, but oonly sey thou bi word, and my child schal be heelid.

Wielif. Matthew, c. 8

I proceed now (as I promised) to shew, that there were such places, as I have described, appointed and set apart among Christians for their religious assemblies, and solema addresse unto the divine majestie, through every one of the first three centuries particularly; and that therefore they assembled not promiscuously and at hap hazard, but in appropriate places, unless necessity sometimes forced them to doe otherwise.-Mede. Works, b. ii. Dis. 1

And when

With wild-wood leaues and weeds, I ha' strew'd his grave,
And on it said a century of prayers
(Buch as I can) twice o're, I'le weepe and sighe.
Shakespeare. Cymbeline, Act iv. sc. 2.
A centery send forth,
Search euery acre, in the high-growne field,
And bring him to our eye.

Id. Lear, Act iv. sc. 4.

To hide his offence in some sort, he [Silvanus] would not or durst not return into the presence of Seneca, nor speak to him: but made one of his centeners go into the house, to declare the emperor's commandment, which was that Seneca should die.-North. Life of Seneca.

But how can he know former ages, unless, according to the opinion of Plato or Pythagoras, he might exist and be alive so many centuries before he was born. South, vol. vii. Ser. 14. The poet of whose works I have undertaken the revision, may now begin to assume the dignity of an ancient, and claim the privilege of established fame and prescriptive veneration. He has long outlived his century, the term commonly fixed as the test of literary merit. Johnson. Preface to Shakespeare.

CEPHALICK. From Gr. Kepaλn, the head. Fr. Céphalique, "good for the head; curing a diseased head; of or belonging to the head," (Cotgrave.)

That with which he cured himself [of phthissical consumption] and afterwards the generality of his chief patients, was principally sulphur melted and mingled in a certain proportion to make it fit to be taken, in a pipe, with beaten amber or a cephalick herb.—Boyle. Works, vol. ii. p. 189. He the salubrious leaf

Of cordial sage, the purple-flowering head
Of fragrant lavender, enlivening mint,
Valerian's fetid smell, endows benign
With their cephalic virtues.-Dodsley. Agriculture, c. 3.
Lat. Cera, wax; Gr. Knpos,
of uncertain etymology.

CERE, v.

To cere is to wax, to smear or cover with wax.

Cere-cloth, also written Sear-cloth. In A. S. Sare-cloth, is "a sore cloth, a cloth to wind or bind up a sore;" and Ser-cloth, is, “ceratum, a Sear-cloth," (Somner.) Lye thinks the former is the original word. Skinner gives both without deciding in favour of either. The Dutch call a Sear-cloth,-Een wasche kleed, a war cloth. Junius calls it medicamentum, consisting of oils, gums, and liquid mixed with wax. The Fr. Cerot; (Gr. KnowTov; Lat. Ceratum,) Cotgrave calls "a Searcloth or plaister made of wax, gum or other cleaving simples." By cerements, Heath understandsthe wared winding sheet, in which the corpse was inclosed, and sown up in order to preserve it.

Then was the bodye bowelled, embawined, and cered, and secretly amongest other stuffe conueyed to Newcastell. Hall. Hen. VIII. an. 5. And with that, out of his bosom he took a bag of a cerecloth with writings therein.-Wyatt. To the King, 7 Jan.1540.

At night he [the bee] stores up his dayes gatherings, and what is worth his observation goes into his cereous tables, and what is not passes away at supper for table-talke.

Gayton. Festivous Notes upon Don Quixote, b. ii. c. 5.

Is 't like that lead containes her? 'twere damnation
To thinke so base a thought, it were too grose
To rib her seare-cloath in the obscure grave.

Shakespeare. Merchant of Venice, Act ii. sc. 7. The ancient Egyptian mummies were shrouded in a number of folds of linnen, besmeared with gums, in manner of sear-cloth.-Bacon. Natural History, s. 771.

O answer me,

Let me not burst in ignorance; but tell
Why thy canoniz'd bones, hearsed in death,

Have burst their cerments.-Shakesp Hamlet, Act i. sc. 4.

The body of the Marquess of Dorset seemed sound and handsomely cere clothed, that after 78 years was found uncorrupted.-Brown. Urne-Burial.

CEREALIOUS. Lat. Cerealis, from Ceres;
which Vossius thinks is from the ancient Cereo,
quod creo, significabat. Quasi frugum creatrix,
the Creator of the fruits of the earth. Varro and
others, think-a gerendo; g changed into c.
Of or pertaining to corn.

The Greek word Spermata, generally expressing Seeds,
may signifie any edulious or cerealious grains.
Brown. Miscellaneous Tracts, vol. i. p. 16.
CEREBEL. n. Lat. Cerebellum, from the Gr.
Kapa, caput, the head; Fr. Cérébelle.

In the head of man, saith he, [Willis] the base of the
brain, and cerebell, yea of the whole skull, is set parallel to
the horizon; by which meanes there is the less danger of
the two brains jogling, or slipping out of their place.
Derham. Physico-Theology, b. vi. c. 2.
Fr. Cérémonie; It. Cere-
monia; Sp. Ceremonia;
Lat. Carimonia, ritus sanc-
Of the various ety-
mologies, which Vossius
repeats, he thinks that of
Scaliger, though not free
from doubt, the most probable. Scaliger supposes
the word to be so called from the ancient Cerus, that
is, Sanctus; unde in Saliari carmine, cerus manus,
i. e. sanctus bonusque. See also in Martinius
cerus, and ceremonia. Ceremony is now applied to-

A regular, orderly, fixed or settled form or man-
ner of doing any thing;-in religious and sacred
rites or observances; in social or civil intercourse.
Also to the religious, sacred, rite or observance

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"I never stood on ceremonies," in Shakespeare's
Julius Cæsar, is explained by Mr. Steevens-" I
never paid a ceremonious or superstitious regard to
prodigies or omens.' "Decked with ceremonies,"
i. e. ceremoniously, (sc.) with Cæsar's trophies.
Right so this god of loves hypocrite
Doth so his ceremonies and obeisance
And keepeth in semblaunt alle his observance
That souneth unto gentillesse of love.

The very river itself [Eulæus] is in much request, and the water thereof ceremoniously regarded in such wise, as the kings drink of no other, and therefore they fetch it a great way into the countrey.-Holland. Plinie, b. vi. c. 27.

Nay, and the Heathens (many of them at least) when they were to sacrifice to their greatest, and most reverend deities, used, on the evening before, to have a certain preparative rite or ceremony called by them Cona pura, that is, a supper, consisting of some peculiar meats, in which they imagined a kind of holiness; and, by eating of which they thought themselves sanctified, and fitted to officiate about the mysteries of the ensuing festival.-South, vol. ii. Ser. 8.

I remember no other points of the ceremonial, that seem less it was one particular to ourselves, who declared that we to have been established by the course of this assembly, unwould dine with no ambassador till the peace was concluded.

Sir W. Temple. Mem. from 1672 to 1679.

After this great work of reconciling the kingdom was done most ceremoniously in the Parliament, in December did another prelate, Bishop Gardner, the great Lord Chancellor of England, ascend the pulpit at Saint Paul's, and there made a sermon of the happy reconciliation of the kingdom. Strype. Memoirs. Q. Mary, an. 1554.

All have free access to him, and speak to him whenever they see him, without the least ceremony: such is the easy freedom, which every individual of this happy isle enjoys. Cook. Voyage, vol. iv. c. 13.

The next year saw me advanced to the trust and power of adjusting the ceremonial of an assembly. All received their partners from my hand, and to me every stranger applied for introduction.-Rambler, No. 109.

CERRIAL. Lat. Cerrus; Fr. Cerre. The unprofitable wild oake, tearmed the Holme Oake,

Chaucer. The Squieres Tale, v. 10,829. (Cotgrave.) Of unknown etymology. Martinius

And I asked him, why therefore haue you not the crosse with the image of Jesus Christ thereupon: and he answered: we haue no such custome. Whereupon I coniectured that they were indeede Christians: but for lacke of instruction they omitted the foresayde ceremonie.

Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. i. p. 114.

But then by what law I pray you, are they excluded? are
they excluded by the olde ceremonial lawe of Moses? No
not so, but by a newe lawe, suche as nothyng else requireth,
but a lyuyng fayth in the sonne of God.-Udol. Rom. c. 3.
Disrobe the images

If you do finde them deck with ceremonies.
Mur. May we do so?
You know it is the feast of Lupercall.
Fla. It is no matter, let no images
Be hung with Cæsar's trophees.

Shakespeare. Julius Cæsar, Act i. sc. 1.
For he is superstitious growne of late,
Quite from the maine opinion he held once,
Of fantasie, of dreames, and ceremonies.

Id. Ib. Act ii. sc. 1.

What man is there so much vnreasonable,
If you had pleas'd to haue defended it
With any termes of zeale: wanted the modestie,
To urge the thing held as a ceremonie.

Id. Merchant of Venice, Act v. sc. 1.
It seems swearing of fealty was with the Scots but a cere-
mony without substance, as good as nothing; for this is now
the third time they swore fealty to King Edward: yet all
did not serve to make them loyal.-Baker. Edw. I. an. 1283.

What is it here below that makes the Church one? One Lord, one Faith, one Baptisme. One Lord, so it is one in the head; one Faith, so it is one in the heart; one Baptisme, so it is one in the face; where these are truly professed to be, though there may be differeces of administratios and ceremonies; though there may be differeces in opinions, yet there is Columba una; all those are but diversly coloured feathers of the same dove.

Bp. Hall. Ser. The Beautie &c. of the Church. Not to use ceremonies at all, is to teach others not to use them again; and so diminish respect to himself: especially, they are not to be omitted to strangers and formal natures. But the dwelling upon them, and exalting them above the moon, is not only tedious, but doth diminish the faith and credit of him that speaks.

Bacon. Ess. Of Ceremonies and Respects.

But upon giving the apparatus of the ceremonial, he [Moses] was called up within the cloud, Ex. xxiv. 18, to signify that this law was intended to be a mystery unto the people.-Grew. Cosmo. Sacra, b. iv. c. 8.

Then again, there was their synagogical government, which seems to be differing from what either the priests had in the temple, in respect of persons clean or unclean ceremonially, or over one another; or from courts of judicature in their gates.-Goodwin. Works, vol. iv. pt. iv. p. 168.

The two sacraments of the Circumcision and the Passover, had assuredly, besides the ceremonialness annexed to them, the institution of typifying Christ to come.-Id. Ib. p. 166.

As the oath itself, when he [Eumenes] came to take it, he made show of dislike, in that it was not solemn enough for such personages as they were, who could not be too ceremonious in testifying their allegiance.

Ralegh. History of the World, b. iv. c. 3. s. 17.

asks,-An a duritie, κepas, cornu?

A coroune of a grene oke cerial

Upon hire hed was set ful fayre and mete.

Chaucer. The Knightes Tale, v. 2292,

I sie come first of all in their clokes white,
A company that ware for their delite
Chapelets fresh of okes serrial,
Newly sprong.

Id. The Flower and the Leaf.
Before the rest,

The trumpets issued, in white mantles dress'd:
A numerous troop, and all their heads around
With chaplets green of cerrial oak were crown'd.

Dryden. Ib.

Id. Ib.

Some in their hands, beside the lance and shield,
The boughs of woodbine or of hawthorn held,
Or branches for their mystic emblems took,
Of palm, of laurel, or of cerrial oak.



Fr. Certain; It. Certo; Sp. Cierto, from the Lat. Cretus, past part. of Cernere; Gr. Kpw-ew, to separate, to distinguish, to decide. Certum propriè idem sit, quod decretum ac proinde firmum, (Vossius.) See ASCERTAIN.

CE'RTES, ad.


Fixed firmly, steadily; within clear and precise limits; secure or securely settled or established; sure or assured; determined or decided; placed beyond all doubt or dispute, all question or denial. Bytuene thys tucye kynges was a certeyn fourme ydo. R. Gloucester, p. 309.

My brothr delyuer thou me, my neuow thou me grante, & holde thi certeynte, & salle hold couenante.

R. Brunne, p. 69. And britheren, I my silf am certeyn of ghou, that also ghe ben ful of loue.-Wiclif. Romaynes, c. 20.

Therfore moost certeynli wite al the hous of Israel, that God made hym both Lord and Crist, this Ihesu whom ghe crucifieden.-Id. Dedis, c. 2.

But wite ye this, that if the housbondeman wiste in what our the theef were to come, certis he wolde wake and suffre not his hous to be undirmyned.-Id. Matthew, c. 24.

This Nicholas answered; fetch me a drinke,
And after wol I speke in privetee
Of certain thing that toucheth thee and mee.
I wol tell it non other man certain.

Chaucer. The Milleres Tale, v. 3492,

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For euery climat hath his dele,

After the tournyng of the whele,

Whiche blinde fortune ouerthroweth


And after, that we al of our council here, and captains of the retinue, do send a certificate signed and subscribed with our names; declareing ourselves to be contented, and con

Wherof the certaine no man knoweth.-Gower, Prologue. formable to receive the payment in form afore rehearsed.

For all must end as doth my blisse

There is none other certainlie,

And at the end the worst is hys,
That most hath known prosperitie.

Vncertaine Auctors. The Louer here telleth, &c.
And one cried this, another yt amonge the people. And
when he coulde not know the certayntie for the rage, he
commaunded him to be carryed into the castell.
Bible, 1551. Acts, c. 21.
Thou saiest, thou sawest neuer certitude in the loue of a
woma, nor end of her hate.-Golden Boke, Let. 16

He that is thy friend indeed,
He will help thee in thy need;
If thou sorrow he will weep,

If thou awake he cannot sleep,

Thus of every grief in hearte,
He with thee doth bear a part.
These are certain signs to know
Faithful friend from flattering foe.

Shakespeare. The Passionate Pilgrim, S. 18. Certainly, if it were granted, that she [Athaliah] like a new Semirimis, did march in the head of her troop, yet it had been mere madness in her to enter the place alone, when her assistants were kept out.

Ralegh. History of the World, b. ii. c. 21. s. 7.

Whereof when the king was informed, he woulde therevnto geue no credite vntill he had sent thether, and receyued the certaintie.-Grafton. Edw. I. an. 8.

Ne certes can that friendship long endure,
Howeuer gay and goodly be the style,

That doth ill cause or euill end ensure :
For vertue is the band, that bindeth harts most sure.
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. iv. c. 2.

That something therefore has really existed from eternity, is one of the certainest and most evident truths in the world; acknowledged by all men, and disputed by none.

Clarke. On the Being and Attributes of God.

What is the meaning that we are not to believe every spirit, but to try the spirits, whether they be of God. Certainly this; that we are not to believe every one that takes upon him to be an inspired man, or that would pretend to deliver doctrines to us, as the infallible truths of God: but we are to examine those that make this pretence, whether they can really produce their credentials that they come from God.-Sharp, vol. vii. Ser. 2.

But, I hope, before I have done, to make it evident, that this way of certainty by the knowledge of our own ideas, goes a little farther than bare imagination: and, I believe it will appear, that all the certainty of general truths a man has, lies in nothing else.

Locke. Of Human Understanding, b. iii. c. 4.

As when a current, from the ocean wide,
Rolls through the Cyclades, its angry tide:
Now here, now there, in circling eddies tost,
The certain tenour of its course is lost.
Each weary pilot for his safety fears
In mute suspense, and trembles as he steers.
Wilkie. The Epigoniad, b. i.
Such is the certainty of evil, that it is the duty of every
man to furnish his mind with those principles, that may
enable him to act under it with decency and propriety.
Rambler, No. 32.


Fr. Certifier, formed from the Lat. Certum, (see CERTAIN,) and fieri, to cause to be.

To be or cause to be surely or certainly known; to ascertain, to assure.

He is his lord and brother, he certifies that to the,
That no man in this werld he lufes so mykelle.

R. Brunne, p. 259.
This was certified, and sikere on ilk side.-Id. p. 249.
And whan I was certified of your name, the lenger I loked
in you the more I you goodlie dradde.

Chaucer. The Testament of Loue, b. i.

That thou with vs be not wroth,
Though we suche thyng, as is the loth
Upon our trouth certifie.-Gower. Con. A. b. ii.

Incontynent he sent messengers to Kyng Edwarde, recommendyng him to his grace with all his hert, councellyng hym to come thyther and to passe the see, certifyenge him, how the Flemmynges greatly desyred to se hym.

Berners. Froissart. Cronycle, c. 32.

She wrote letters and sent messangers to the Frenche Kynge, desyringe him not to consente that the bastarde of Spaygne shulde make her any maner of warre, seyng, that her resorte was to the court of Fraunce, certifyeng him that moche yuell might ensue, and many inconuenyentes fall. thereby.-Id. Ib. c. 239.

Strype. Records, No. 5. Sir R. Jernegan to the Cardinal. Finally he teacheth vs here, yt the tradycion of the fathers, and the common obseruance and custome of the Catholike Churche, is for the certification of a trouth a sure vndoubted authoritie.-Sir T. More. Workes, p. 801.

And thus as if he had beene wroth, he said to one of his clerkes, fetch hither quicklie, the certification that came to me from Shrewesbury vnder the bailiffes seale, witnessing the errors and heresies, which this losell [Thorpe] hath venimouslie sowne there.-Fox. Martyrs. Hen. IV.

He censures, and in censuring seems to hope it will be an
ill omen, that they who build Jarusalem divide their tongues
and hands. But his hope fail'd him with his example; for
that there were divisions both of tongues and hands at the
building of Jarusalem, the story would have certify'd him;
and yet the work prosper'd.

Milton. Answer to Eikon Basilike.
Hereupon Periander commanded Georgius presently to
arise to apprehend them and lay them up fast in close
prison, where no person might have accesse unto them, or
certifie that Arion was alive and safe.
Holland. Plutarch, p. 282.
About Playsance, is a towne situate vpon the hill named
Velleiacum, wherein six men brought a certificate that they
had liued one hundred and ten yeares apiece.
Hakewill. Apologie, p. 163.
The said secretary [Cromwell] certified him, [Pole,] that
in case his learning and judgment did not stretch to the
satisfying of the king's mind and desire, that then his
return hither to his own country would be to the king's
pleasure, and to his comfort and profit of his friends.

Strype. Memoirs. Hen. VIII. an. 1535.

When the strangers go away, their Peuns desire them to give them their names in writing, with a certificate of their honest and diligent serving 'em; and these they show to the next comers, to get into business; some being able to produce a large scrowl of such certificates.

Dampier. Voyages, vol. i. c. 18.

Lat. Caruleus, quasi cœ


I dare tell you,

To your new cerus'd tace what I have spoken
Freely behind your back, what I think of you:
You are the proudest thing, and have the least
Reason to be so that I ever read of.

Beaum. & Fletch. Spanish Curate, Act v. sc. 4,

But, sister, whether it touch you or no, it touches your beauties, and I am sure they will abide the touch; an' they do not, a plague of all ceruse, say I.

B. Jonson. Every Man in his Humour, Activ. sc. 8.
Others make posies of her cheeks,
Where red and whitest colours mix;
In which the lily and the rose

For Indian lake and ceruse goes.-Hudibras, pt. ii. c. 1.

CESS, v.
Cess, n.

Junius thinks is a-kin to Bar. Lat.
Saisire, to seize upon.
It is pro-

bably no other than Sess or Assess; from the It. Assessare, to impose a tax, (assesso,) which never is imposed unless by an assize (nisi ab assessu) of men appointed for that purpose. See ASSESS. See the two first quotations.

A subsidy we call that which is imposed upon every man, being cessed by the pole, man by man, according to the va luation of their goods and lands.-Camden. Eliz. an. 1563.

Eudox. But what is that which you call cesse? It is a word sure unusual among us here, therefore, (I pray you) expound the same.

Iren. Cesse is none other than that which yourselfe called imposition, but it is in a kind unacquainted perhaps unto you.-Spenser. View of the State of Ireland, p. 227.

To count the particular faults of private men, should be a worke too infinite; yet some there be of that nature, that generall hurt, as the extortion of sheriffs, and their subthough they be in private men, yet their evill reacheth to a sheriffs, and bayliffes, the corruption of victuallers, cessors, &c.-Id. Ib. p. 230.

CESSE. Out of all cesse. Cotgrave says, sans cesse, ex-cess-ively, immoderate, out of all cesse

CE/RULE, adj.lules. For it is properly and cry.


(Vossius.) See BLUE.
H. More.

that colour of which the
skye (cælum) appears to be,
See the quotation from

Then gan the shepheard gather into one
His stragling goates, and draue them to a foord,
Whose cærule stream, rombling in pibble stone,
Crept vnder mosse as greene as any goord.

Spenser. Virgil. Gnat.
For the danger of these waters is apparent to the eye, this
ceruleous or blue coloured sea, that overspreads the dia-
phanous firmament being easily discern'd through the body
thereof.-H. More. Litteral Cabbala, c. 1. p. 7.

And, therefore, I allow myself to guess at the strength of
the liquors examined by this experiment, by the quantity
of them, which is sufficient to destroy or restore the ceruleous
colour of our tincture.-Boyle. Works, vol. i. p. 734.

rubifick, cerulifick, and others, are by refraction separated
I say then, that while the several species of rays, as the
one from another; they retain those motions, which are
proper to each of them.-Grew. Cosmo. Sacra, b. ii. c. 2.
Let the bulky wain

Through dusty roads roll nodding; or the bark
That silently adown the cerule stream
Glides with white sails, dispense the downy freight
To copsy villages on either side,
And spiry towns.

Dyer. The Fleece, b. ii.
Behold yon steepy cliff; the modern pile
Perchance may now delight, while that rever'd
In ancient days, the page alone declares,
Or narrow coin through cerulean rust.

Id. The Ruins of Rome.
CE'RUSE, n. Į Fr. Cérusse, céruse; It. Ce-
CE'RUSED. rusa; Lat. Cerussa, a kind of
paint or ointment, which females laid upon their
faces to produce fairness. The name seems to
denote that it had some similarity to wax,

The preparation commonly called white lead,
also bears the name of ceruse.

Ther n'as quicksilver, litarge, ne brimston,
Boras, ceruse, ne oile of tartre non.

Chaucer. Prologue, v. 662.
And the breath stincketh, and the teeth rust, and an euill
ayre all the body ouer, both by the reason of the ceruse and
quickesiluer.-Vives. Instruct, of Christian Women, c. 4.
The college of physicians have not sat,
As they were used, in counsell, how to fill
The crannies in your cheeks, or raise a rampire
With mummy, ceruces, or infants' fat
To keep off age and time.

Massinger. The Bondman, Act iii. sc. 4.


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in the point: the poore jade is wrung in the withers, out of
1 Car. I prethee Tom, beat Cut's saddle, put a few flockes
all cesse.-Shakespeare. 1 Part Hen. IV. Act ii. sc. 1.

CESSATION. Į Lat. Cessare, cessatum, to
CE'SSANT, adj. cease, (qv.)

A leaving, quitting, or discontinuing; a desisting or forbearing to do, or from doing, any thing.

by a civil death, to contrive a justifiable intermission of
In this engaged estate of my life, God has been pleased,
secular duties, and by such a way, as renders even this
cessant state in some sort active, and discharging my obli-
gations.-Mountague. Devout Essays, Ep. Ded.

affirming no cessation of arms, unless the king in person
To whom Jack Cade gave very good language, but directly
princely word for the reformation of their wrongs.
would hear the grievances of the subject and pass his

Baker. Hen. VI. an. 1450.

And therefore make Pythick truce, (as they say) for the while with vice and wickednesse, which you are ever wont to chastice and rebuke, in all your speeches, and come and sit down here by us again, that together with us you may search out some other cause of this general eclipse and cessation of oracles, which now is in question.

Holland. Plutarch, p. 1078.

A cessation of all hostilities was to begin within two months, and to continue till all was concluded by a complete treaty, and ratified: provided the Spanish monarchy was then entirely restored.-Burnet. Own Time, an. 1709.

I am far from supposing that the cessation of my performances will raise any enquiry, for I have never been much a favourite with the public, nor can boast that, in the progress the liberal, the caresses of the great, or the praises of the of my undertaking, I have been animated by the rewards of eminent.-Rambler, No. 208.

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CEST, n. Lat. Cestus; Gr. KeOTOS. Cingulum
acu pictum, and so called a Kevrew, i. e. pungere,
quia acús compunctionibus elaboratum; because
worked by the prickings of a needle.
Lat. is most commonly used. Applied to
The girdle or zone of Venus.

Young Fancy thus, to me divinest name,
To whom, prepar'd and bath'd in heaven,

The cest of amplest power is given,

To few the god-like gift assigns,

To gird their blest prophetic loins,

And gaze her visions wild, and feel unmixt her flame.
Collins. Ode on the Poetical Character,


CETACEOUS, adj. Lat. Cete, of uncertain origin: a whale;

Of the kind or class of whale.

In cetaceous fishes, or as the Latins call them, sea-beasts, the tail hath a different position from what it hath in ali other fishes, for whereas in these it is erected perpendicular o the horizon, in them it lies parallel thereto partly to supply the use of the hinder-pair of fins, which these creatures lack, and partly to raise and depress the body at plea sure.-Ray, On the Creation, pt. i.

Notwithstanding the many parts and properties which cetaceous fishes have in common with land animals, yet there still remain others, that in a natural arrangement of the animal kingdom, must determine us, after the example of the illustrious Ray, to place them in the rank of fishes; and for the same reasons, that first of systematic writers assigns.-Pennant. Zoology, Class 4. Fishes.




Fr. Chauffer, from Calfare, formed by contraction from Calfacere, (Menage.) To warm, CHAFING, R. or cause to be warm. says, by rubbing or friction; and also, translato longius sensu ;-to chafe, is used for to kindle with anger. And as now used it is

To warm, heat, or inflame; to kindle, (sc.) with rubbing, friction, or attrition; (to rub,) and (met.) to warm, to kindle, with vexation, with anger. Chufer is used by Baker simply for

A vessel; a dish or bowl.

To chafe or warm, (sc.) perfumes; to incense; to perfume.

Medle we nat moche with hem. to meeven any wratthe Leste cheste chaufe ous so.-Piers Ploukman. Vision, p.232. Ne for no harme that men do ne say, he ne chafeth not ayenst reson.-Chaucer. The Persones Tale.

All good smelles are more odoriferous, if they be well medled and chanfed togither-Golden Boke, Let. 3.

The tyme went ouer forwarde and the sonne mounted, and the dayes chafed maruayiously, for it was aboute mydsomer, whan the sonne was in his strength, and specially in Spayne and Granada, and in the farre countreyes of Septentryon.-Berners. Froissart. Cronycle, vol. ii. c. 103.

But when as her he by no means could find, After long search and chauff he turned backе nto the place where me he left behind.

Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. vi. c. 2.


It were a short beyete

To winne chaffe, and lese whete.-Gower. Con. A. b iv

How might I do to get a graffe

Of this vnspotted tree?

For all the rest are plaine but chaffe
Which seme good corne to bee.

Vncertaine Auctors. A Praise of his Lady.

For whose sake I let all go to losse, and count the as chaffe or refuse (that is so say, as thinges which are purged out, and refused, when a thing is tried and made perfect) that I might win Christ.-Tyndall. Workes, p. 219.

If the eares be bolted by themselves alone for goldsmiths
worke, the chaffe comming thereof is called in Latine, Acus;
but if it be threshed and beaten upon a paved floore, eare,
straw, and all together (as in most parts of the worlde they
use to doe, for to fodder cattaile or give provender to horses)
then it is tearmed Palea; but the refuse or chaffe remaining
after that Panicke or Semama bee cleansed, they call in
Latine Appluda, however in some counties it be otherwise
named.-Holland. Plinie, b. xviii. c. 10.

The careful plowman doubting stands
Least on the threshing floore his hopeful sheaves
Prove chaff.
Milton. Paradise Lost, b. iv.

The loue I beare him
Made nie to fan you thus, but the gods made you
(Valike all others) chaffelesse. Pray your pardon.
Shakespeare. Cymbeline, Act i. sc. 7.

The most slight and chaffy opinion, if at a great remove
from the present age, contracts such an esteem and venera-
tion, that it outweighs what is infinitely more ponderous
and rational of a modern date.

Glanvill. Vanity of Dogmatizing, c. 15.
Some birds. you know, Lindamor, we usually beguile
with chaff, and others are generally drawn in by appropriated
baits, and by the mouth, not the eye.
Boyle. Occasional Reflections, Ref. 10.
And the poor husbandman, with folded arms,
Surveying his lost labours, and a heap

Of blasted chaff.-the product of the field
Whence he expected bread.

Akenside. Pleasures of Imagination, b. ii.
'Till swoln to tempests they outrage the thunder,
Winnow the chaffy snow, and mock the skies
Even with their own artillery retorted.

Armstrong. Imitations of Shakespeare.
CHAFFER, v. Lye (in Junius) has no
from the
In Goth.
CHA'FFERING, N. Chauphen, emere.
CHAFFERY. Kaupon; A. S. Ceapan, cy-
pan; Ger. Kauffen, to traffick, to cheap, to buy
In Luke xix. 13,-Goth. Kaupoth; A. S.
or sell.
As now used—
Donne. Letter to Mr. J. P. Ceapiath; Wiclif,-Chaffare ye.
Those, who do not give the price asked, or
who do not take that offered, but make repeated
offers or repeated refusals, with a view to greater
gains, are said to chaffer.

Heaven's sun, which stay'd so long from us this year,
Stay'd in your north (I think) for she was there,
And hither by kind nature drawn from thence,
Here rages, chafes, and threatens pestilence.

Chor. His giantship is gone somewhat crest-fall'n
Stalking with less unconsci'nable strides,
And lower looks, but in a sultrie chafe.

Milton. Samson Agonistes. Then the yeoman of the scullery, with a pan of fire to heat the irons, a chafer of water to cool the ends of the irons, and two forms for all officers to set their stuff on. Baker. Hen. VIII. an. 1541. Mingle the powder of these spices with it, and heat them in a platter upon a chafing-dish of coales together, stirring them well that they doe not burne.

Burton. Anatomy of Melancholy, p. 389.

I strok'd his neck and shoulders bare,
And squeez'd the water from his hair,
Then chaf'd his little hands in mine,
And cheer'd him with a draught of wine.

Hughes. Anacreon, Ode 3.

A strange and supernatural instance of which we have in our Saviour, in the sad preliminaries of his passion. The inward chafings and agitations of his struggling soul forcing away through his body, by a sweat even of blood, and opening all his veins, by an inward sense of something sharper than the impression of any lance or spear from without. South, vol. ix. Ser. 1. Ang with helris,

With spears and bucklers, grating o'er the bed
Of loosen'd stone, with limbs and trunks of men,
The turbid current chafes.-Glover. Athenaid, b. xxii.



A. S. Ceaf; Dut. Kaf; Ger.

Kaff. Skinner and Lye think from the A. S. Caf, light, swift; because chaff, on account of its lightness, is moved swiftly in the air. Wachter prefers the Ger. Kaw, hollow, empty, light;-est enim folliculus sine grano.

See the quotation from Pliny.

For so the at the first, in poudre as dos the chaf,
Fleand fast thei thrist, & fled bothe rii and raf.
A. Eranns, p. 277.
Me list not of the chaf ne of the stre
asca so long a taie, as of the corn.
Chaucer. The Man of Lawes Tale. v. 5121.


Mathew maketh mencion of a man that lente
Hus silver to thre menne, and menynge that thie sholde
Chaffare and cheve thr with. in chele and in hete
And he that best laborede. best was alowede.
Piers Plouhman, p. 141.
And whanne hise ten seruantis weren cleped, he gaf to
hem ten besauntis and seyde to hem, chaffare ye til I come.
Wiclif. Luke, c. 19.
He comaundede hise seruantis to be clepid to whiche he
hadde gyue money; to wite how myche ech hadde wonne
by chaffarynge.-Id. Ib.

Hir chaffaire was so thrifty and so newe,
That every wight hath deintee to chaffare
With hem, and eke to sellen hem her ware.

Chaucer. The Man of Lawes Tale, v. 4557.

My gold is yours, whan that it you leste,
And not only my gold, but my chaffare:
Take what you lest, God shilde that ye spare.

Id. The Shipmannes Tale, v. 13,215.

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From these to the Troglodites, in the south-west coast, is foure days journey, with whom they chafer and trafficke onelye for a certaine precious stone or gem, which wee call a carbuncle, brought out of Ethyopia.

Holland. Plinie, b. xviii. c. 10.

Now, as the place whence he came was so dry, that, as
Malmsbury saith, miserabili commercio, ibi aqua veneat;
"by sad chaffer they were fain to give money for water;" so
he removed to one so low and moist, men sometimes (upon
my knowledge) would give money to be rid of water.
Fuller. Worthies. Wiltshire.
A thousand patrons thither ready bring
Their new-faln churches to the chaffering:
Stake three yeares' stipend; no man asketh more.
BD. Hall, b. ii. Sat. 5.


Of the third [so.t] is merchandise or chaferie, that is buying and seiling. Spenser. On Ireland.

For curate he had none.

Nor durst he trust another with his care;
Not rode himself to Paul's, the public fair,
To chaffer for preferment with his gold.

Dryden. The Character of a good Parson, CHAGRIN, v. Not in our eld Dictionaries. CHAGRIN, n. Fr. Chagriner, the origin of which Menage confesses to be entirely unknown to him; he suggests, however, Carchinus, qui signifie un cancer, mauvaise humeur, a cancer or ill humour. Cotgrave explains it ;

"To vex, disquiet, grieve, trouble, perplex, fill with care, heauinesse, melancholy, anguish."

Hear me, and touch Belinda with chagrin.
That single act gives half the world the spleen.

Pope. The Rape of the Lock, c. 4.
But friends, and favourites, to chagrin them,
Find counties, countries, seas between them:
Meet once a year, then part, and then,
Retiring, wish to meet again.

Shenstone. The Progress of Taste, pt.1.

Oh! trifling head, and fickle heart
Chagrin'd at whatso'er thou art;

A dupe to follies yet untry'd,
And sick of pleasures, scarce enjoy'd!

Warton. The Progress of Discontent

The closest connection had been formed between him and Feenou, in testimony of which they had exchanged names; and therefore he was not a little chagrined, that another person now put in his claim to the honours, which his friend had hitherto enjoyed.-Cook. Voyage, vol. v. b. ii. c. 6.

I hid myself a fortnight in the country, that my chagrin might fume away without observation, and then returning to my shop began to listen after another lottery. Rambler, No. 181 CHAIN, v. Fr. Chain; It. Catena; Sp CHAIN, R. Cadena; Lat. Catena; Gr. Ka Onua, monile dependens, from Kabicσða, demittere descendere. Gesner explains,-Catena, vinculum ex ferreis annulis, a ligature of iron rings. tinius, -connexus annulorum; i. e. a connected series of rings or links. Applied (met.)—


To a connexion of ideas or arguments; to any connected succession or series.

To chain is to fasten, bind, or confine with a chain; to reduce to the state or condition of those chained; and, hence, to enslave, to enthral,

Chain is written prefixed to-shot, pump, &c.
Thorgh Edward long trayne Gascoyn is born down,
Non defendes his chayne, but only Bayoun.

R. Brunne, p. 264.
Which man hadde hous in birielis and noither with cheynes
now myghte ony mon bynde hym. For ofte tymes he was
bounden in stokis and cheynes, and he hadde broke the
cheynes and hadde broke the stockis to small gobetis.
Wiclif. Mark, c. 5.
Which [man] hadde his abydyng among ye graues, and no
man coulde bynde him: no not with cheines because yt whe
he was often bounde wt fetters and cheynes, he plucked the
chaines asundre and breke the fetters in peces.

Bible, 1551. Ib.

Beforn his triumphe walketh she [Zenobia]
With gilte chaines on hire necke honging,
Crouned she was, as after hire degree.

Chaucer. The Monkes Tale, v. 14,362. Lastly ye kynge aduertysyng in his mynde, that he myght nothynge dere ye Sarazeyns without he might passe that riuer of Thanoys, concluded by aduyce of his maryners, to make a brydge of shyppes. [so that finally he cheyned and fastened his shyppes.] togyder in such wyse, that a passage was made for his knightes.--Fabyan, an. 1273.

Our captaine and master perceiuing their pretence, caused our gunners to make all our ordinance readie with crosso barres, chaineshotte and haile shot.

Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. ii. pt ii. p. 63.

And he made two heed peces of molten brasse, to set on the toppes of the pyllars, of fyue cubytes long a pece, wt garlandes of brodred worcke, and whopes of chayne-worcke for the heed peces that were on the pyllars, vii. for the one, and vii. for ye other.-Bible, an. 1551. 3 Kinges, c. 7.

What is this knowledge? but the sky-stoln fire,
For which the thief still chain'd in ice doth sit?
And which the poor, rude, satyr did admire,
And needs would kiss, but burnt his lips with it.
Davies. The Introduction.

In the entrance of philosophy, when the second causes, which are next unto the senses, do offer themselves to the mind of man, if it dwell and stay there, it may induce some oblivion of the highest cause; but when a man passeth on farther, and seeth the dependence of causes, and the works PP

of providence; then, according to the allegory of the poets, he will easily believe that the highest link of nature's chain must needs be tied to the foot of Jupiter's chair.

Bacon. On Learning, b. i.
The melting voice through mazes running,
Untwisting all the chains that tie

The hidden soul of harmony.-Milton. L'Allegro, v. 143.

The standers by admire her passing forces,
And chiefe their wives that saw them killed so,
For as a chain-shot sweeps all in the way,
So with those nine Marsisa then did play.

Harrington. Orlando, b. Ix. s. 55.

When the rice is ripe and gathered in, they tread it out of the ear with buffaloes, in a large round place made with a hard floor fit for that purpose, where they chain three or four of these beasts, one at the tail of another, and driving them round in a ring, as in a horse-mill, they so order it that the buffaloes may tread upon it all. Dampier. Voyage, an. 1687. For he that so breaketh one command is guilty of all; he breaks the chain in pieces, and shows contempt of the lawgiver, and want of inward sincerity towards God. Stillingfleet, vol. iii. Ser. 2.

An habitual sadness seizes upon the soul, and the faculties are chained to a single object, which can never be contemplated but with hopeless uneasiness.-Rambler, No. 47.

The sides of the bay are white cliffs of great height; the middle is low land, with hills gradually rising behind, one towering above another and terminating in a chain of mountains, which appear to be far inland.

Cook. Voyages, vol. i. b. ii. c. 1.

CHAIR, n. From the A. S. Cyran, acyran, CHAIR, V. to turn, to turn about, to turn packwards and forwards. A chair is a species of seat. It is not a fixed, but a movable seat, turned about and returned at pleasure; and from that circumstance it has its denomination. It is a chaer-seat, (Tooke, ii. 190.)

Chair is used in old writers as we now use car, or chariot.

To chair, is a common expression used at elections for members of parliament, when the triumphant candidate is carried about in a chair.

As he wende aboute by the see, & such poer adde an honde,
Up achaere he sat adoun, al vp the see sonde,
An enresonede hys men, as hii byuore him stonde.
R. Gloucester, p. 321.
For the quene he sent & scho did dight hire chare.
R. Brunne, p. 332.

Anon he ful of sorowe
Fro h' chaire thare he sat. & brak hus necke atweyne.
Piers Plouhman, p. 6.
And thei loven the firste syttynge places in soperis, and
the firste chaieres in sinagogis.-Wiclif. Matthew, c. 23.

And he turnyde aghen sittinge in his chare & redynge Jaaie the prophete, and the spirite seide to Philip, neighe thou and ioyne thee to this chare.-Id. Dedis. Ib. c. 8.

God daunted all his pride, and all his bost,
For he so sore fell out of his chare,
That it his limmes and his skinne to tare,
So that he neither mighte go ne ride;
But in a chaire men about him bare.

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The Scithes sware only by the chayre or throne of theyr kyng, which othe if they brake, they therefore suffer death. Sir T. Elyot. Gouernovr, c. 7.

And stroue to match, in royall rich array
Great Junoe's golden chaire, the which they say
The gods stand gazing on, when she does ride
To Joue's high house through heauen's brass-paued way.
Spenser. Faerie Quecue, b. i. c. 4.

At last agreed they call'd him by consent,
Before the queen and female parliament.
And the fair speaker rising from the chair
Did thus the judgment of the house declare.

Dryden. The Wife of Bath. To this end, it was agreed by Mr. Rouse, chairman to that assembly, and the rest of Cromwell's junto, to meet earlier in the house than was usual.-Ludlow, Mem. vol. ii. p. 32.

But, give him port and potent sack,

From milk-sop he starts up Mohack;

Holds that the happy know no hours;

So through the streets at midnigh scowers,
Breaks watchmen's heads and chairmen's glasses,

And thence proceeds to nicking sashes.-Prior. Alma, c. 3.

But restless was the chair, the back erect Distress'd the weary loins, that felt no ease The slipp'ry seat betray'd the sliding part That press'd it; and the feet hung dangling down, Anxious in vain to find the distant floor. Cowper. Task, d. i. CHAISE. Fr. Chaise, for Chaire, says Duchat, by the change of s into r, common in our language. Applied to-

A light carriage drawn by one horse or more. One question more comes into my mind to ask you, and that is, whether the back of those that fall down so flat, are so made that, when it is up, one may lean and loll against it at one's ease, as in a coach or chariot; for I am grown a very lazy fellow, and have now three chairs to lean and loll in, and would not be without that relief in my chaise.

Locke. To Anthony Collins.

Every body here hires a carriage, and Mr. Banks hired two. They are open chaises, made to hold two people, and driven by a man sitting on the coach-box; for each of these he paid two rix dollars a day. Cook. Voyage, vol. ii. b. ii. c. 10. CHA'LDRON. A large measure, particularly of coals, containing 2000 pounds. I know not whether from Fr. Chauderon, caldarium, so many coals as are sufficient for heating (calfaciendo) a large cauldron! (Skinner.)

Coals were bought at Newcastle for two shillings and twopence a chaldron, and sold again in France for thirteen nobles.-Strype. Memoirs. Edw. VI. an. 1552.

CHALICE, n. Į Fr. Calice; Sp. Caliz; Lat. CHALICED, adj. Calix; Gr. Kvλig, and so called Tapа TO KUλieoba, from its roundness. Usually applied to

A cup used in religious rites.

This is a fouler thefte than for to breke a chirche and steale away the chalice.-Chaucer. The Persones Tale.

And therefore he saith that in their time thei had treen chalices & golden prestes, and now haue we golden chalices and treen prestes.-Sir T. More. Workes, p. 114.

And the grave clergy had with them been set,
To warrant what they undertook was just,
And as for monies, that to be no let,

They bade the king, for that to them to trust:
The church to pawn would see her chalice laid,
Ere she would leave one pioneer unpaid.
Drayton. The Battle of Agincourt.
Hearke, hearke, the larke at heauen's gate sings,
and Phoebus gins arise,
His steeds to water at those springs,
on chalic'd flowers that lyes.

Shakespeare. Cymbeline, Act ii. sc. 3. Saying, that the lifting up of the host betokeneth nothing, death for man: and the lifting up of the chalice signified, but the sending down of the Son by the Father to suffer

that the Father of heaven sent down his Son to shed his blood in earth for man's salvation.

Strype. Memoirs. Hen. VIII. an. 1556.

The same merry gentleman represented the office thus: "They get them a tankard (as though they refused the use of a chalice) and one saith, I drink, and I am thankful. The more joy of thee, saith the other." Id. Memoirs. Q. Mary, an. 1554. O'er the horns Th' inverted chalice, foaming from the grape, Discharg'd a rich libation.-Glover. Leonidas, b. xii.


Lat. Calx, calcis, from Gr. xax, a or the fragments of stone, of CHALKSTONE. which cement or mortar is made. Scheidius observes, that from Kλaew, frangere, (pp.) кекλака, KλаKOS, which might give the contracted κλαξ, whence καλξ. See CALCAREOUS.

To chalk, is to cover, or spread over with chalk; to mark out a tract or course, as if with chalk. He toke the chalk, and shope it in the wise Of an ingot, as I shal you devise.

Chaucer. The Chanones Yemannes Tale, v. 16,690. Lo how thei feignen chalke for cheese.

Gower. Con. A. Prologue.

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And accordingly he hath chalked out a new way of loving also; he gave his life for us; yea, himself, and all his glory; and so it follows that in John, xv. 12, Love one another, as I have loved you.--Goodwin. Works, vol. i. pt. i. p. 239.

The wheat of Campaine is reddir, but this of Pisa whiter: and more weightie it is, if it come from a chalkie ground, or have chalk mingled among.-Holland. Plinie, vol. i. p. 563. Terrible apprehensions and answerable to their names, are raised of fayrie stones and elve's spurs found commonly with us, in stone, chalk, and marl-pits.

Brown. Vulgar Errours, b, ii. c. 4.

In that room, up one pair of stairs, which was hung with a rusty green, he found John Milton sitting in an elbow chair; black cloths and neat enough; pale but not cadaverous; his hands and fingers gouty, and with chatk-stones. Richardson. Life of Milton.

When rusty weapons with chalk'd edges
Maintain'd our feeble privileges.-Hudibras, pt. iii. c. 2.
Cole, whose dark streams his flowery island lave;
And chalky Wey, that rolls a milky wave.

Pupe. Windsor Forest I shall pursue the plan 1 have chalked out in my letters that follow this.-Burke. On a Regicide Peace, Let. 1.

The calumny is fitter to be scrawled with the midnight chalk of incendiaries, with "no popery," on walls and doors of devoted houses, than to be mentioned in any civilized company. Id. Speech at Bristol previous to the Election.

There is as much expression in the Susanna as perhaps can be given, preserving at the same time beauty; but the colour is inclinable to chalk, at least it appears so after looking at the warm splendid colours of Rubens: his full and rich composition makes this look cold and scanty. Sir Joshua Reynolds. Journey to Flanders, &c. Already British coasts appear to rise, The chalky cliffs salute their longing eyes; Each to his breast, where floods of rapture roll, Embracing strains the mistress of his soul.


Falconer. Shipwreck, c. 1.

Dut. Kalangieren; Fr. Chalanger, calanger. Chalonger or chalenger, Meage thinks is derived from Calumnier, from the Lat. Calumniari. Wicif renders calumniam sustineret, he might be chalengid; calumniantur, chalenge falsli. Neque calumniam faciatis, nether make ye fals chalenge.

"To claim, challenge, demand, make title unto; also to challenge, accuse, appeach, complain, charge with, call in question for an offence, crime, or trespass," (Cotgrave.)

The emperesse to Engelond com,

To calangy after hyre fader, by rygte the kynedom.
R. Gloucester, p. 451.
Grante him conquere his right Gascoyne and Normundie,
That the kyng of France chalanges falsly.
R. Brunne, p. 235.
And wele it was to witen no chalange ageyn.-Id. p. 87.
Somme serven the kynge, and hus silver tellen
In the chekkere and the chauncelrie. chalengynge hus
Of wardes & of wardemotes.-Piers Plouhman, p. 5.

A charter is chalangable. byfore a chief iustice.-Id. p 221 For the tribune dredde lest the iewis wolde take him bi the waie and sle him, and aftirwarde he myght be chalengid as he hadde take money.-Wiclif. Dedis, c. 23.

Hauynge good conscience, that in that thing that thei bacbiten of you, thei ben confoundid which chalenge falsli youre good conuersacioun in Crist.-Id. 1 Petir, c. 3.

And he seide to hem, smyte ye no man wrongfully, nether make ye fals challenge and be ye a payed with your soudis. Id. Luke, c. 3. God oftentymes by clere examples and bodely delyuerances chalengeth to himself the glorye of his owne name. Joye. Exposicion of Daniel, c. 3. Not that I chalenge any thing of right Of you, my soveraine lady but of grace.

Chaucer. The Frankeleines Tale, v. 11,036. Then the thirde daye came in an other knyght of Henaude as chalenger, to whom, as defendaut, came in sir John Cornewayll, knyght, and so well bare him, that he put the straunger to the worse.-Fabyan, an. 1509.

Antonius on the other side bravely sent him word againe, and challenged the combat of him, man for man, though ha were the elder: and that if he refused him so, he would then fight a battle with him in the fields of Pharsalis, as Julius Caesar and Pompey had done before.

North. Plutarch, p. 776.

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