Obrázky na stránke

The people, when once infected, lose their relish for happiness, saunter about with looks of despondence, ask after the calamities of the day, and receive no comfort but in heightening each others distress.

Goldsmith. Citizen of the World, Let. 68. Mr. Banks set out without delay; and found his Indian friend leaning his head against a post, in an attitude of the utmost languor and despondency.

Cook. Voyage, vol. i. b. i. c. 11. Swift, without a penny in his purse, was despondingly looking out of his window to gape away his time. Sheridan. Life of Swift.


Lat. Desponsum, past part. of Despondere, to pledge, to betroth. See Cockeram has desponsated, betrothed.

Of the same name there was also another Ethelbert of the East Angles, a good prince, who by the aduice of his councell persuaded to marriage (though against his will) went peaceablie to King Offa for desponsage of Athilrid his daughter. Fox. Martyrs, p. 103.

Yet she was a person of a rare sanctity, and so mortified a spirit, that for all this desponsation of her according to the desires of her parents, and the custome of the nation, she had not set one step toward the consummation of her marriage, so much as in thought.

Bp. Taylor. The Great Exemplar, pt. i. s. 1.

Insomuch that afterwards, upon the news from Rome that the dispensation was granted, the Prince having left the desponsorios in the hands of the Earl of Bristol, in which the Infanta Don Carlos was constituted the Prince's proxy to marry the Infanta on his behalf, &c. 36.

Clarendon. Civil War, vol. i. p. 2

That in case the said Earl should insist upon the delivering of the desponsories, he would hold himself freed from the treaty by the said Earl's infringing of the capitulation. State Trials. The Duke of Buckingham, an. 1626.

[blocks in formation]

What Kings decree, the soldier must obey
Wag'd against foes: and when the wars are o'er,
Fit only to maintain despotick power.

Dryden. Sigismonda & Guiscardo.

This liberty is best preserved when the legislative power is lodged in several persons, especially if those persons are of different ranks and interests; for were they all of the same rank, and consequently have an interest to manage peculiar to that rank, it differs but little from a despotical government in a single person.-Spectator, No. 287.

To their favourite sons or brothers, they imparted the more lofty appellation of lord or despot, which was illustrated with new ornaments and prerogatives, and placed immediately after the person of the emperor himself.

Gibbon. Roman Empire, c. 53.

As virtue is necessary in a republic, and in a monarchy, honour, so fear is necessary in despotic government; with regard to virtue, there is no occasion for it; honour would be extremely dangerous.

Montesquieu. The Spirit of Laws, b. iii. c. 9.

What torments then must curse their guilty hours,
Who live immur'd in citadels and towers?
Who think, mistrustful of their menial band,
Each slave conceals a dagger in his hand!
Such chastisements the Gods for those ordain
Who uncontrol'd despotically reign.

Fawkes. Fragments of Menander. Despotism, sincere, unalloy'd rigid despotism, is the only form of government which may with safety to itself neglect the education of its infant poor.-Bp. Horsley, vol. i. Ser. 10.

DE-SPREAD, v. To spread abroad.

Her ivorie forehead, full of bounty braue
Like a broad table did itself dispred.

Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. 3.

Her yellowe locks crisped like golden wire,
About her shoulders weren loosely shed,
And when the wind amongst them did inspire,
They waved like a penon wide dispred.-Id. Ib.

[merged small][merged small][ocr errors]

The fluids of the body appear to possess a power of separating and expelling any noxious substance which may have mixed itself with them. This they do in eruptive fevers, by a kind of despumation, as Sydenham calls it, analogous in some measure to the intestine action by which fermenting liquors work the yest to the surface. Paley. Natural Theology, c. 26. DESSERT. Fr. Dessert, from Lat. Deservire. A word in Skinner's time but lately introduced. The last course or service at table; of fruits, comfits, sweetmeats, &c.

We shall, to make amends, endeavour afterwards, in our following miscellany, to entertain him again with more chearful fare, and afford him a dessert, to rectify his palat, and leave his mouth at last in good relish,

Shaftesbury. Miscel. Reflec. vol. iii. Misc. 4.

'Tis the dessert that graces all the feast,
For an ill end disparages the rest :

A thousand things well done, and one forgot,
Defaces obligation by that blot.-King. Art of Cookery.


[blocks in formation]

To stand, set or place, (sc.) any fixed or certain end or purpose; to ordain, to appoint, to doom, to adjudge, to determine, to devote.

Thei don men deye thorgh here drynkes. er destyne hit wolde. Piers Plouhman, p. 143.

Wherfore it is none inconuenient if in that manner bee said, God to forne haue destenied both badde; and her badde werkes, whan hem ne their yuell deedes neither amedeth, ne therto hem grace leaueth.-Chaucer. Test. of Loue, b. iii.

Lo, herof cometh & herof is doen this miracle of the order destinable.-Id. Boecius, b. iv.

And all be it so, that these things ben diuers, yet neuerthelesse, hanged that one on that other, for why, the order destinably procedeth of the simplicitie of purueighaunce.

Id. Ib.

But I aske if there by any liberty of free wil, in this order would weten if that the destinall chaine, constraineth the of causes, yt cleaué thus togither in himselfe, or else I mouing of the courages of men.-Id. Ib. b. v.

And if so be thou wilt not do me grace,
Or if my destinee be shapen so,
That I shall nedes have on of hem two,
As sende me him that most desireth me.

Id. The Knightes Tale, v. 2325.

But nowe I am nothyng agast,
I thank God for Lachesis.
Ne Cloto, whiche hir felawe is,
Me shopen no suche destinee,
Whan thei at my natiuitee

My wordes setten as thei wolde.-Gower. Con. A. b. iv. When the chylde is borne, thou as the father shalt geue it a name, not a name after thine own fantasie, but that name that God, agreeably vnto the thyng, did destinate and appoynt vnto hym, before the creation of the worlde. Udal. Matthew, c. 1.

suffrages of the church doo auaile the dead, either to lesse They hold moreouer, to be no purgatorie, nor that the glorie of them that be ordeined to saluation. the paine of them that be destinat to hell, or to increase the

Fox. Martyrs, p. 170. Articles of the Greek Church. Neuertheles these fortuned not vnto me either by myne owne peculyar destenye, neyther yet for any euill that I dyd. Udal. 2 Timothye, c. 3.

The King [Edgar] inflam'd with her [Elfrida] love the more for that he had been so long defrauded and robb'd of her, resolv'd not only to recover his intercepted right, but to punish the interloper of his destin'd spouse.

Milton. History of England, b. v.

Stage-playes-they had their rise from Hell; wee Christiang our natiuite, and descent from Heauen: they were at first deuoted (yea. yet continue destinated) vnto Satan: we were at first baptized into, yea. consecrated wholy vnto Christ. Pryane. Histrio-Mastix, pt. i. Act Ii.

For 1. they might both die and be damned too, or if as Volkelius saith, the word Koovтai, obdormiscunt, sleep, be never used in the New Testament, of those that are destined to eternal destruction, then still may this be very reconcileable with our interpretation that many for this cause are weak and sickly and many others sleep. Hammond. Works, vol. i. p. 315.

For in this terrestrial state there are few things transacted, even in our intellectual part, but through the help and furtherance of corporal instruments; which by more than ordinary usage loose their edge and fitness for action, and so grow inept for their respective destination. Glanvill. The Vanity of Dogmatizing, c. 12.

It is vndoubtedly true that the destinating, and deuoting of vnprofitable, pleasureable, heathenish, scandalous, and indiuidualls; but likewise the whole kinde it selfe, vnlawvnnecessary inventions, doeth make not onely the denoted full vnto Christians.-Prynne. Histrio-Mastix, pt. i. Act ii.

For the destinie whereof they were worthy, drew them unto this end, and made them forget the things that had already happened, that they might fulfil the punishment which was wanting to their torments.-Bible. Wisdome, c.19.

But who can turne the streame of destinie,
Or breake the chaine of strong necessitie,
Which fast is tide to Joue's eternall seate?

Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. i. c. 5.

Mark well the place where first she lays her down,
There measure out thy walls, and build thy town,
And from thy guide Boeotia call the land,

In which the destin'd walls and town shall stand.
Addison. Ovid. Metam. b. iii.

[Who can withhold love from one] resembling him not in temper of body or lineaments of face, but in conformity of judgment and practice; partner of the one inheritance, and destinated to lead a life with him through all eternity, in peacefull consortship of joy and bliss?

Barrow, vol. ii. Ser. 3.

Those temporary parts appear to have been designed by nature, not so much for the personal preservation of the female as for the propagation of the species: which destination not coming to be accomplished, till a woman, for instance, has attained to a competent age, appears to have been preordained by the author of mankind for the continuation of it.-Boyle. Works, vol. v. p. 423.

But 'tis agreed, that there is Fatum Christianum, a certain destiny of every thing, regulated by the foreknowledge and providence of God. Clark & Leibnitz. Mr. Leibnitz's Fifth Paper Hence in the race,

All emulous, he hears the clashing whips,
He feels the animating shouts : exerts
With eagerness his utmost powers; and strains,
And springs, and flies, to reach the destin'd goal.
Dodsley. Agriculture, c. 3.

Which of us in setting out upon a visit, a diversion, or an affair of business, apprehends a possibility of not arriving at the place of his destination: yet at the same time does not apprehend himself at liberty to alter his course in any part of his progress.-Search. Light of Nature, vol. ii. pt. iii. c. 26. Thus the Pagans had the same notion with that which is mentioned in Scripture, of a double destiny depending upon human choice.-Jortin. Remarks on Eccles. History.



Fr.Destituer; Sp. Destituir; Lat. Destituere, destitutum. The Fr. and Sp. from the verb; the Eng from the past part. The

Lat. destituere, (composed of de, and statuere, to fix,) is, defigere, deponere, to unfix, to displace or pull down; and then, derelinquere, to leave helpless.

To leave weak, or helpless, or in want; to desert, to forsake, to abandon, to deprive.

This faire lady on this wise destitute

Of all comfort and consolation.-Chaucer. Test. of Cres.

For the princes and magistrates ought to conuerte the goodis of these ydle erth burdens into the sustentacion of the poore, and maintayne teachers and scolers lerning the tongues and Holy Scriptures, so that the chirches and ciuile ministracion be not destituted lerned men at any tyme. Joye. Exposicion of Daniel, c. 5.

Sirs, quod the Lorde of Coucy, we repute you for good and trewe and valyaut men, but we haue consydred diuers thynges: wynter aprocheth, and we are destytute of vitayles and other prouysions.

Berners. Froissart. Cronycle, vol. ii. c. 17%

She beyng destitutely lefte withoute comforte of husbande, of children, of children's children, of all the worlde's solace, hath reposed all her whole hope in God.

Udal, 1 Timothye, c. 5. His ladie and wife destituted of all honour and liuings, liueth a dolefull and miserable life. Holinshed. Ireland, Epist. Ded. by Hooker.

It is the sinfullest thing in the world, to forsake or destitute a plantation, once in forwardness. For besides the dishonour, it is the guiltinesse of bloud, of many commisserable persons.-Bacon. Ess. Of Plantations.

As for the rest of the rebels, they (being destituted of their head) without stroke stricken, submitted themselues vnto the King's mercie.-Id. Hen. VII. p. 183.

With granted leave officious I return,

But much more wonder that the Son of God
In this wild solitude so long should bide

Of all things destitute, and well I know,
Not without hunger. Milton. Par. Reg. b. ii.

The understanding, when it ceases to be ennobled with excellent things, is made ignorant as a swine, dull as the foot of a rock; and the affections are in the destitution of their perfective actions made tumultuous, vexed and discomposed, to the height of rage and violence. Bp. Taylor, vol. ii. Ser. 19.

Sometime to gentle Tiber I retire,
And the fam'd river's empty shores admire,
That destitute of strength derives its course
From thirsty urus and an unfruitful source.

Addison. A Letter from Italy. O, my friends, have pity on this poor destitute, for the hand of God hath touched her. P. St. John. Sermon, (1737,) p. 224. Giving my body to be burned-martyrdom itself-laying down my life for religion-has nothing in it acceptable to God, if it be destitute of this great principle, [charity.] Gilpin, vol. iv. Ser. 6. Friendship is the balm and cordial of life, and, without it, 'tis a heavy load not worth sustaining,-I am unhappy, -thy mother and thyself at a distance from me; and what can compensate for such a destitution.-Sterne, Let. 91.







Fr. Destruire, détruire; Sp. Destruir; It. Distruggere ; Lat. Destruere, destructum; de, and struere, which Vossius thinks is from Gr. Στερε-σειν ; i. e. firmum solidumque reddere; and thus, equivalent to the English verb, to build, (see To CONSTRUCT;) and to de

To pull down any building or structure; any thing built or constructed; to demolish; to overthrow, to subvert, to lay waste, to ruin; to put to death, to kill.

Edwyne wende tho anon out of ys owe lond,
And destrude wyde aboute. R. Gloucester, p. 242.
Laste the hye emperour for his outrage
Come and distruye al hys lond.

Id. p. 46.

The ferthe sorow of this lond com thorgh the Danes,
The folk of the north slouh, destroied ther wanes.
R. Brunne, p. 8.

My castels he takes, & seises my cites
Destruction he makes of rentes and fees.

Id. p. 208. And the Farisees wenten out and maden a counseil agens him how thei schulden distrge him.-Wiclif. Matt. c. 11. And thei hadden on hem a kyng the aungel of depnesse to whom the name bi Ebrew is Laabadon, but bi Greek Appollioun, and by Latyn he hath a name Extermynans, that is a destrier.-Id. Apocalips, c. 9.

For if I schal glorie ony thing more of oure power which the Lord ghaf to us into edifying and not into ghoure distrucioun I schal not be schamed.-Id. 2 Cor. c. 10.

The time eke that chaungeth all,
And all doeth waxe, and fostred be

And all thing destroyeth he.-Chaucer. Rom. of the Rose.
But how this toune came to destruction

Ne falleth not to purpose me to tel, For it were a long digression.

Id. Troilus, b. i.

[blocks in formation]

For ye Romains ar but destroiers of peasible people, and theues to rob from other, that they sweate for. Golden Boke, c. 31. Loe good readers, nowe haue you a great high tragicall warning with not a little tast but a gret tunne fulle at once, of my mischeulous pernicious false pestilent peruertinge and destroyinge of the pure sense of Goddes holye woordes in this one place, which he wil shal stade for a playne profe that I dooe the same in all other places. Sir T. More. Workes, p. 1103.

O come hither, and behold the workes of the Lorde, what destructions he hath brought vpon the earthe. Bible, 1551. Psalme 46.

And now, Through all restraint broke loose, he wings his way Not far off heav'n, in precincts of light Directly towards the new created world, And man there plac't, with purpose to assay If him by force he can destroy, or worse, By some false guile pervert. Milton. Par. Lost, b. iii.

Whatsoever is in the world is but ύλη πως έχουσα, matter qualifications of matter are in their own nature destroyable, so and so modified or qualified, all which modifications and and the matter itself (as the basis of them, not necessarily determin'd to this or that accident) is the only ayeVENTOV και ανώλεθρον, the only necessary existent. Cudworth. Intellectual System, p. 70.

Hugo amongst these troops spy'd many more,
Who had, as brave destroyers, got renown;
And many forward wounds in boast they wore,
Which if not well reveng'd, had ne'er been shown.
Davenant. Gondibert, b. i. c. 2.

What little ground there is to persuade a man, left to his own free reason, that God should be pleased with the killing and burning of beasts, or with the destroying of such things by fire of which better use may be made, if they were disposed of some other way.

Bp. Wilkins. Of Natural Religon, b. i. c. 12.

sublunary world; the heaven whereof is that which we call The world which perished by water, was no other than the air, but the Scripture heaven; which sublunary heaven, together with the earth, was marred by that general deluge; and the creatures, belonging to them both, either wholly destructed, or marvellously corrupted from that they were before.-Mede. Paraphrase on St. Peter, (1642.) p. 12.

We fear'd, that the fanatic war,
Which men against God's houses did declare,
Would from the Almighty enemy bring down
A sure destruction on our own.

Cowley. Ode upon his Majesty's Restoration and Return.
Thou fly'st thy country and more happy state
To seek in some strange land a stranger fate,
And under foreign climes and unknown stars,
T'encounter hazards and destructive wars.

Sherburne. Forsaken Lydia.

The main of our affliction ariseth from the destructiveness of the sentence, as being therein contrary to that other our fundamental native right which enjoins, That fines should have regard to the qualities of the persons.

State Trials. John Lilburne, an. 1653.

Consider I beseech you, of the desperateness and excessive unavoidable destructiveness of these monstrous ways to the speedy peace and settlement of our church and state, and of the safety and security of the things yourselves have pitched on for peace and settlement in and by the treaty.

Parliament. Hist. an. 1648. Mr. Prynne's Speech.

Why should we not rather permit men to use their understandings as well as they can; and where they fail of the truth, to bear with them, as God himself without question will; than by stickling for every unnecessary truth, destroy that peace, and love, and amity, that ought to be among Christians. Sharp, vol. i. Ser. 1.

The dry land surface we find naturally every where almost plants; propagating themselves in a manner every where, carpeted over with grass, and other agreeable wholesome and scarcely destroyable by the weather, the plough or any art.-Derham. Physico-Theology, b. iv. c. 11.

A victory so early, so complete and so cheaply purchased, that we have some reason to hope it may fix the fortune of the war, and put an end to the destructions of the destroyer. Atterbury, vol. i. Ser. 1.

That heavenly virgin, that exalted goodness
Could see me tortur'd with despairing love,
With artful tears could mourn my monstrous sufferings,
While her base malice plotted my destruction.
Smith. Phædra & Hippolitus, Act iii,

Loaded with gold, he sent his darling, far
From noise and tumults, and destructive war:
Committed to the faithless tyrant's care.
Dryden. Virgil. Eneid, b. iii.
And first, for the doctrine that states the time of repentance
destructively to a pious life.-South, vol. vii. Ser. 6.

Helmont doth somewhere wittily call the fire the destructor and artificial death of things.-Boyle. Works, vol. i. p. 527.

[blocks in formation]

Therefore forms, qualities and essences are producible by composition, destructible by dissolution, and interchangeable among one another by the various stationing of the materials composing them. Search. Light of Nature, vol. ii. pt. i. c. 2. DESU'ETUDE. Lat. De, and suere, quasi usu ire, to go by use or usage, to accustom. Disuse; neglect or forbearance of use.

It is easily seen, that those things which a man useth himself unto, so that they seem to become another nature; yet some desuetude from them evidences to him, that they are not so necessary and unseparable as he once thought them.-Hale. Cont. vol. ii. Of Self-denial.

As this assistance of Presbyters was at first for necessity, and after by custom it grew a law, so now retro, first the necessity failed, and then the desuetude abrogated the law, which before, custome had established.

Bp. Taylor. Episcopacy Asserted.

A defect or desuetude of these latter [confirmations] must no less starve and alter, than a superfluity of the former [ordinations] overstock the church. Both of them, I am sure, likely to prove fatal to it.-South, vol. v. Ser. 1.

This is the only instance in which wise laws have suffered a sort of tacit repeal by a general consent in the neglect of them, and have passed into desuetude; and in such cases the old law cannot safely be restored but by new enactments.-Horsley. Speech on the Adultery Bill,

[blocks in formation]


Lat. Desilire, -sultum, (de, and salire, to leap.) Desultor, qui binos trahens equos, ex

uno mira celeritate in alterum transiliret,( Vossius.) Leaping, starting, moving quickly from one thing to another; moving by fits and starts; unsteady, inconstant, unsettled, wavering.

For as it happens in dreams and madnes, where the argument is good, and the discourse reasonable oftentimes; but because it is inferred from weak phantasms, and trifling and imperfect notices of things and obscure apprehensions, therefore it is not only desultorious and light, but insignificant, and far from ministering to knowledge.

Bp. Taylor. Rule of Conscience, v. i. c. 2. Most readers, and even many learned men, peruse the Scripture so slightly and desultorily, that so transient and superficial a view makes them overlook in it a multitude of excellent and instructive things.

Boyle. Works, vol. vi. p. 786. I say therefore, in which epistles, are some things hard to be understood, which they that are unlearned and unstable (that are unlearned, i. e. unskilled and unversed in divine things: unstable, i.e. of light, desultory, unbalanced minds,) wrest as they do other Scriptures, to their own destruction. Atterbury, vol. iii. Ser. 9.

Much of the seeming desultoriness of my method, and frequency of my rambling excursions, have been but intentional and charitable digressions out of my way, to bring some wandering friends unto theirs, and may closely enough pursue my intentions, even when they seem most to deviate from my theme.-Boyle. Works, vol. ii. p. 254. To the Reader.

This makes my reading wild and desultory: and I seek refuge from the uneasiness of thought from any book, let it be what it will, that can engage my attention.

Warburton. Let. Feb. 2, 1740. DESUME. Lat. Desumere, (de, and sumere, to take.) See CONSUME.

To take away.

It is not with intent to reproach the Scripture, or those phrases that are desumed from it, but to shew the boldness and mistakes of them that have misapplied or abused them. Hale. Cont. vol. i. Of Religion.

Nor is this Salamander's wool desumed from any animal but a minerall substance, metaphorically so called from this received opinion.-Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. iii. c. 14.

Every man mast needs see that in the natural course of things this pebble doth suppose, as preexistent to it, the more simple matter out of which it is desumed, the heat and influence of the sun, and the due preparation of the matter; before this pebble had its complete being. which takes up a competent time, and that necessarily,

Hale. Origin, of Mankind, p. 76.

In some cases this kind of vessel is inferiour to those tubulated retorts, that were of old in use, and mentioned by Basilius Valentinus, and from which Glauber probably desumed that, which we have been speaking of.

Boyle. Works, vol. ii. p. 140. Which may appear by that part of our eighteenth experiment whence the matter of fact is desumed.

Id. Ib. vol. i. p. 132.


De, and tach, from the A. S. Tac-an, capere, to take. To take from or away; to DETACHMENT. remove any thing attached, (qv.) any thing fixed, fastened, united or conjoined to disunite, disjoin, separate, send part away.

The Elector sent Count Mercy with a considerable body, to pass the Rhine near Basil, and on design to break into Frenche Comte: but a detached body of the French lying in their way there followed a very sharp engagement. Burnet. Own Time, an. 1709. Brief notices of different particulars of this case, are given detachedly by Rushworth and Whitelocke; and the judge himself has left us some very bold and spirited accounts of his bold and spirited carriage, and arguments in the course of it.-State Trials. Judge Jenkins, an. 1647.

It was pretended that he [the Duke of Marlborough] ought to have sent a force to support Opdam, or made an attempt on Villeroy's army, when it was weakened by the detachment sent with Bouflers.-Burnet. Own Time, an.1703.

They are, in short, instruments in the hands of our Maker, to improve our minds, to rectify our failings, to detach us from the present scene, to fix our affections on things above. Porteus, vol. ii. Ser. 1. 'Tis not for our own strength, brother Shandy, a centinel in a wooden centry-box might as well pretend to stand it out against a detachment of fifty men. We are upheld by the grace and the assistance of the best of beings.

Sierne. Tristram Shandy, vol. iv. c. 7.

DETAIL, v. I "Fr. Détailler,-to piecemeal, DETAIL, n. to cut into pieces or parcels. Tale, the past part. of A. S. verb Tell-an,-something told; to tell by tale, i. e. by numeration, not by weight or measure, but by the number told. Retail, told over again," (Tooke, ii. 352.)



To tell or enumerate the particulars, to particularize, to state minutely.

As if a man would say, that necessary it is for him to offer wrong in detaile, who mindeth to do right in the gross. Holland. Plutarch, p. 306. But I shall not enter into a detail of the arguments of the earth's motion, and the objections made against it, because I have done this in the preface.

Derham. Astro-Theology, b. iv. c. 3.

I mean not to write his [Evelyn] life, which may be found detailed in the new edition of his Sculptura, in Collins's Baronetage, in the General Dictionary, and in the New Biographical Dictionary.

Walpole, Catalogue of Engravers, vol. v. p. 145. Though Homer describes Laertes in his rural occupations as busied in this part of agriculture; yet Hesiod, in a professed and detailed poem on the subject, never once mentions the method of dunging the land.

Warburton. Div. Leg. b. iv. p. 83. Note.

He [Job] makes a transition from the singular to the plural, and back again, a remarkable amplification intervening, expressive of his desire of death, the force and boldness of which is incomparable; at last, as if suddenly recollecting himself, he returns to the former subject, which he had apparently quitted, and resumes the detail of his own misery.

Lowth. Poetry of the Hebrews, by Gregory, vol. i. Lec. 14.

[blocks in formation]

There is not so ranke a traytor, nor so arrant a thiefe, nor so cruel a murderer, which is apprehended and deteigned in prisone for his offence, but he shal be brought before the justice to heare his iudgemente.-Hall. Hen. IV. an. 1.

For some of the be fayne for their solució, to graunt almost that their paine in the fire wer but a detaining therin by some strenger power then themselfe, & then wer the pain but as a prisōment and restraint of lybertie, if the fyre burn hem not.-Sir T. More. Workes, p. 386.

And lest, some bad and untrue conceits might be had as well of the cause of the carl's detainment, as of the manner of his death, it was therefore thought necessary to have the truth thereof made known in that presence.

State Trials. Death of Northumberland, an. 1585.

So crauing expedition of his demand, minding to proceede further south without long detention in those partes, he dismissed them after promise given to their best endeauour to satisfie speedily his so reasonable request.

Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. iii. p. 150.

For pity now she can no more detain him; The poor fool prays her that he may depart: She is resolv'd no longer to restrain him; Bids him farewell, and look well to her heart. Shakespeare. Venus & Adonis. The commandment of the writ being to shew the cause of his detaining in prison, the keeper of the gate-house doth not give a full answer unto the writ, unless the cause of the detainment in prison be returned. Blackstone. Commentaries, b. iii. c. 9.

That no freemen ought to be committed or detained in prison by the command of the king or privy council, or any other, unless some cause of the commitment, detainer, or restraint be expressed, for which by law he ought to be

committed, detained, or restrained-State Trials. Proceed

ings in Parliament. Liberty of the Subject, an. 1628.

'Twere better and safer to venture the casting away one almes sometimes, then by scruples and prudence to endanger the detaining a thousand, when they are due and necessary.-Hammond. Works, vol. i. p. 295.

In regard whereof there was nothing could assure the quiet of both realms in their opinions but their detention under safe custody, which could not be esteemed dishonourable, the just causes and occasions being published and made manifest to the world.-Spotswood. Ch. of Scot. an. 1570.

His pious mother, anxious for his life,
Detain'd her son; and me, my pious wife.
To them the blossoms of our youth were due;
Our riper manhood we reserv'd for you.

Dryden. Ovid. Met. b. xiii. When the same eye, without the least detainment in any of the particular parts, and resting, as it were, immoveable in the middle, or center of the tablature, may see at once, in an agreeable and perfect correspondency, all which is there exhibited to the sight. Shaftesbury. The Judgment of Hercules, c. 5.

That which is got by those means [fraud, &c.] is not our own; nor is the possession of it truly wealth, but usurpation, and detention of spoil and rapine which we ought to disengage.-Barrow, vol. i. Ser. 5.

But I'll play fast and loose with you yet, if there be law; and my Minor and writings are not forth coming, I'll bring my action of detinue or trover.

Wycherley. The Plain Dealer, Act iii. sc. 1.

Most pressing instances were still made that the canoes might be restored; and having now the greatest reason to believe, either that the things for which I detained them were not in the island, or that those, who suffered by their detention, had not sufficient influence over the thieves to prevail upon them to relinquish their booty, I determined at length to give them up.-Cook. Voyage, vol. i. b. i. c. 14.

For there can never be a deposit without the owner's consent, and a depositary would be chargeable only for gross negligence, whereas the pawnee, whose special property is determined by the wrongful detainer, becomes liable in all possible events to make good the thing lost, or to relinquish his debt.-Sir W. Jones. Works. The Law of Bailments.

If I lend a man a horse, and he afterwards refuses to restore it, this injury consists in the detaining, and not in the original taking, and the regular method for me, to recover possession, is by action of detinue.

State Trials. Proceedings on Habeas Corpus, an. 1627. Lat. Detegere, detectum, to uncover, (de, and tegere, to cover.)


To uncover, to discover, to disclose, to lay bare, to expose, (sc. the guilt, the criminality;) to reveal, to bring to light, to see or search through any concealment: and hence, to try, to prove, to put upon trial, to accuse.

If he be denouced or defected unto him, either by comon fame, or other iformation, &c.-Sir T. More. Workes, p. 219. He was vntruly judged to have preached such articles as he was detected of.—Id. Ib. p. 112.

If he that weareth it [an auncient robe] be vyciouse, it more detecteth howe moch he is vnworthy to wear it-the remembraunce of his noble auncetour makynge men to abhorre the reproche gyuen by an yuell successour.

Sir T. Elyot. Gouernovr, b. ii. c. 4.

But the wiely and wicked thoughtes of such, the light of the truth of the Gospel when it ariseth, shal plainly find out & detect.-Udal. Luke, c. 2.

This ix. yere, aboute Mydlent a preest named Sir Thomas Bagley, and vicar of a vyllage in Essex, called Manuedeй, a lytell from Walden, was detect of heresy, vpon the whiche he was degrated, and then brent in the place of Smythfielde. Fabyan, an. 1531.

He sheweth incidētly wherfore it were not reason in a detection of heresy, to suffer, the witnesses published and the crime wel proued, any new witnesses to be receiued for the partie that is accused.-Sir T. More. Workes, p. 211.

Duke. I neuer heard the absent Duke much detected for women, he was not enclin'd that way.

Shakespeare. Meas. for Meas. Act iii. sc. 2.

I mean not in speaking this to upbraid or detect Timoleon, for that he accepted a fair house the Syracusans gave him in the city, and a goodly mannor also in the countrey: for in such cases there is no dishonesty in receiving, but yet it is greater honesty to refuse then to take. North. Plutarch, p. 237. Now before I leave this, I shall take the opportunity, which this head offers, to endeavour the detection of some grand prejudices of sense, in two instances. Glanvill. Vanity of Dogmatizing, c. 9. In which bargain, that the city might receive no loss, the tenth part of the fine was ordained as a reward unto the detectors of lands concealed.

Ralegh. History of the World, b. v. c. 3. s. 18. While he with watchful eye Observes, and shoots their treasons as they fly; Their weekly frauds his keen replies detect; He undeceives more fast than they infect.

Dryden. Absalom & Achitophel.

And that no man whatsoever, so presented and detected by the virtue of the oaths of such questmen, shall molest or trouble at the law any of the questmen for such presenting, upon pain that every such detected offender commencing any such action against the detector in such case, shall forfeit to the queen's majesty's use ten pound.

Strype, Life of Grindal. Original Papers, b. i. No. 6. These things so happily meeting, may argue God (who mouldeth the hearts, who guideth the hands, who enlighteneth the minds of man) to have been engaged in the detection of this day's black conspiracy.

Barrow, vol. i. Ser. 11.

For were not such miracles and oracles at last generally believed? or, if several impostures were detected, does the author imagine that such detection would utterly sink the credit of all future miracles.

Hurd. Remarks on Mr. Weston's Enquiry.

The Romans were plagued with a set of public officers, belonging to the emperor's court, called Curiosi, and Imperatoris oculi, part of whose employment was to go about as detectors of frauds and misdemeanors.

Jortin. Remarks on Ecclesiastical History. DETE NEBRATE. Lat. De, and tenebræ, darkness, which Vossius thinks is from ten-ere, to hold; because men in darkness, (in tenebris,) are held (quasi teneantur,) and dare not move themselves freely least they strike against any thing, or fall from an eminence.

To darken, to obscure.

Yet are their tractates little auxiliary unto ours, nor afford us any light to detenebrate and clear the truth.


Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. vi. c. 6.

Lat. Deterrere, to frighten from, (de, and terrere, Gr. Ταρασσειν, to frighten.) To frighten from, (sc. doing any thing;) to cause to cease or desist; and thus, to hinder, to prevent.

So much the horror of so vile a deed,
In vilest minds, deters them to proceed.

Daniel. Civil Wars, b. iii. C. It is, first, a determent from this sin; secondly, a direction how to avoid it. The determent this; to consider how fearful a thing it were, if God should judge us without mercy; and how reasonable it is, that he should so do, if we be so unmercifull to other men.

Hammond. Works, vol. i. p. 91.

For although on her head there seems to be crownes of gold, and her haire like the haire of women, yet her teeth appeare as the teeth of lions and her sting like that of scorpions so that the deterrings and disabuses appeare together with the delectations.

Mountague. Dev. Ess. pt. i. Treat. 10. s. 4. So that upon consideration of the whole matter, there is no reason why any man should be deterr'd from a holy and virtuous life for fear of the labour and pains of it. Because every one that is wicked takes more pains in another way, and is more industrious only to a worse purpose.

Tillotson, vol. i. Ser. 7.

As piety doth require duties somewhat high and hard, as much crossing the natural inclinations and desires of men, it particularly for the over-ruling such aversion, doth need answerably great encouragements to the practice, and delerments from the transgression of what it requireth. Barrow, vol. ii. Ser. 32. Behaving with the agility and boldness peculiar to sailors, they were rather animated than deferred by the flames and falling buildings amongst which they wrought.

Anson. Voyage round the World, b. iii. c. 10.

DETERGE, v. Lat. Detergere, detersum, to DETERGENT, adj. | wipe away, (de, and tergere, DETERGENT, n. tersum, to wipe, which VosDETERSION. sius thinks is from Τερσ-ειν, DETERSIVE, N. Eol. for Teip-ew, which signifies Enpour-Ev, or siccare, to dry; and, consequentially, to wipe or rub dry.)

To wipe off or away, to cleanse, to purify. When it is burnt, there is made of the ashes a strong leic, very detersive, and scouring.-Holland. Plutarch, p. 607. After I was secured of the bleeding, I made way for the, easy discharge of matter, and deterged the abscess. Wiseman. Surgery, b. i. c. 16.

The food ought to be nourishing and detergent.

Arburthnot. If too mild detergents caused the flesh to grow lax and spongy, then more powerful driers are required.

Wiseman. Surgery, b. ii. c. 6.

I furthered the detersion of the ulcer by rubbing it with vitriol stone. Id. Ib. b. ii. c. 9.

Therefore I have not thought amisse now to finish and pece up the said Complaynt of Philomene, observing neuerpounded and begonne (as it is saide) twelue yeeres now past.

thelesse the same determinate inuention which I had pro

Gascoigne. The Complaynt of Philomene.

But whe it [a kynge to raygne ouer the] was ones determinatly graunted them, what was more earnestly requyred of God in that magnifycent mynystracyon, then were the necessary affayres of relygion.-Bale. Apology, Ep. Ded.

At such time as Alexander assembled the Grecians in Isthmos for the determinacion of his iourney into Perse, many oratours & philosophers came to visite him, onely Diogenes that remayned about Corinth, kept him selfe away. Brende. Quintus Curtius, fol. 15.

Then ye iiii. day of May was an Oyer & determiner at Londo before ye Mayre, the Duke of Norffolke, the Erle of Surrey and other.-Hall. Hen. VIII. an. 9.

He said likewise, he would undertake (and he could not but be believ'd from the reasonableness of it,) that his presence, would in a moment, determine the restitution of the Palatinate to his brother and sister.

Clarendon. Civil War, vol. i. p. 13. The circuit thereof, through divers creeks, is not well deThe other ulcers and excoriations I dressed, some with terminable; but as astronomers use to measure the stars, we detersives. Id. Ib. b. ii. c. 7. may account it a city of the first magnitude.

DETERIORATE, v. Lat. Deterius a teDETERIORATION. rendo; because things are the worse, the more they are worn. "Fr. Détériorer,-to impair, make worse, mar, spoyl, (destroy,)" Cotgrave.

And besides, the refined gold, there lay upon the cavity of the coppel some dark-coloured recrements, which we concluded to have proceeded from the deteriorated metal, not from the lead.-Boyle. Works, vol. iv. p. 367.

It is not, therefore, without deep concern that I observe a measure proposed to the legislature which has a direct tendency to degrade grammar schools; and, if not absolutely to abolish them or diminish their number, yet to alter and deteriorate their constitution.

Knox. Remarks on Grammar Schools.

Such changes are falsely imputed to levity, falshood, or caprice in the patron, since they may be more justly ascribed to the client's gradual deterioration.

Goldsmith. Citizen of the World, Let. 99.

[blocks in formation]

DETERMINATIVE, adj. DETERMINATOR. DETERMINER. To bound, to limit, DETERMINING, n. to define, to end; to DETERMINEDLY. confine, fix or settle the bounds, the limits, the ends; and thus, (met.)— To conclude, to decide, to resolve. Chaucer writes determission.

But I sei as longe tyme as the eyr is a litil child, he diuersith no thing fro a seruant whanne he is lord of alle

Reliquia Wottoniane, p. 215. And it seemeth that upon this aduise they tooke their determinate resolution for this course, and to put it into execution with all speede, eyther that night or the next at the furthest.-Stow. Queen Elizabeth, an. 1601.

And the necessitie which might have secured more the creature, would not have honoured so much the Creator; God would have receiv'd no voluntary love for his only creatures indued with that capacitie, if the affections of angels and men had been determinately fix'd by their creation. Mountague. Devoute Essayes, pt. ii. Treat. 3. s. 1.

Why do we stick in this point [in reforming the church] and not rather proceed in it with all expedition? For indeed according to the laws of this kingdom, as it hath the dignity of pre-eminence, so let us give it the priority in our determinations.

State Trials. Proceedings against the Bp. of Ely, an. 1640. Upon the same account, as our Lord Christ's body could not be longer detained under the power of death, then the determinative time of three days, because the debt which he undertook was paid: so that "it was not possible he should be holden of it." Acts, ii. 24.

Hale. Cont. vol. ii. The Knowl. of Christ Crucified. non-existence of the rainbow; nor is that chronology natuFrom whence notwithstanding we cannot conclude the rally established, which computeth the antiquity of effects arising from physical and setled causes, by additional impositions from voluntary determinators.

Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. vii. c. 4.

So that the Sanhedrin and Congregation of the people were the highest soveraigne power, and principall determiners of publike matters concerning warre and peace.

Prynne. Treachery and Disloyalty, &c. pt. v. p. 141. Amongst the rest for the determining of quarrels that might arise in case of doubtful title, or of false accusation or the like, they put themselves upon many unusual forms of tryal; as to handle red hot iron, to walk bare foot on burning coals.-Hales. Rem. Sermon on Duels.

But the answer to this, is not difficult, viz: That the

[blocks in formation]



Fr. Détester; It. Detestare; Sp. Detestar; Lat. Detestari. Obtestatio est

cum Deus testis in meliorem partem vocatur. Detestatio, cum in deteriorem, (Festus.) Deum testari hoc vel illud mihi odiosum. To call God to witness that this or that is odious or hateful to me. And, generally, To loathe, abhor, hate, abominate; dislike in a great degree. See ATTEST, Obtest, &c.

But I finde in Erasmus my derlyng yt he detesteth and abhorreth the errours and heresies that Tyndall plainly teacheth and abideth by, and therefore Erasmus my derlyng shalbe my dere derlyng stil.-Sir T. More. Workes, p. 422.

And doubtlesse if you bryng not foorth the holy fathers that make for you, you shall not alonely bee taken for abhominable and open lyers, but also for shameful and detestable sclaunderers both of holy church, and also of holy fathers.

Barnes. Works, p. 302.

Yet it hath been tolde vs by diuers great clerkes that neither she is our lawful doughter nor her mother our lawful wife, but that we liue together abhominably and detestably in open adultery.-Hall. Hen. VIII. an. 20.

How dare he bee so impudente as to embrace and wurshippe this holie booke, the whiche in all kinde of liuing and conuersacion is vtterly geuen and married vnto this worlde, whiche as a mortall enemy the doctrine of the Ghospel dooeth detestate & abhorre.-Udal. John, Pref.

For if an open sinner be found among vs, we must immediatly amende him or caste him out of the congregation with defiance and detestation of his sinne.

Tyndall. Workes, p. 426.

Daily he tempted her with this or that, And neuer suffred her to be at rest: But euermore she him refused flat And all his fained kindnesse did detest. Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. iii. c. 8. By reason of his cruelty, he became detestable, not onely to his owne subjects but also to his neighbours round about. Usher. Annals, an. 3867.

Lycurgus detestably abhorring this brutish and savage unnaturalness of the woman, did not reject her offer made North. Plutarch, p. 34.

thingis, but he is undir keperis and tutouris into the tyme point now before us is not wholly determinable from the him, but seemed rather to be very glad, then to dislike it.

determined of the fadir.-Wiclif. Galathies, c. 4.

As Tullius can determine

Which in his time was full sage.-Chaucer. R. of the R.

Have ye than a figure determinat
In helle, ther ye ben in your estat ?

Id. The Freres Tale, v. 7041. But nowe to enforme thee, that yee been lich to Goddes, these clerkes sain, and in determinacion shewen, that three things hauen the names of Goddes been cleaped, that is to saine: Man, Deuill, and Images.

Id. The Testament of Loue, b. i. This dualitie after Clerkes determission, is founden in euery creature, be it neuer so single of onhed.-Id. Ib. b. ii.

They determine,

That in the maner as it stoode,
They wolde hym bath in childes blood
Within seuen winter age.-Gower. Con. A. b. ii.

For I am determined to gather the people and to brynge the kyngdomes together that I maye poure out myne anger, yea all my wrathful displeasure vpon them.

Bible, 1551. Sophony, c. 3. And so the matter was a determynge (concernynge the men that had outlandysh wyves) vntyll the new moone of the fyrst moneth.-Id. Esdras, b. iii. c. 9.

Item, that he contrary to the great Charter of England caused dyuers lustie men to appele diuers olde men, vpon matters determinable at the common law, in the court marciall, because that in that court is no triall but onely by battaile.-Hall. Henry IV. Introd.


bare grammatical use of the words; but the sense of these words must be sometimes also determined, by the particular state and circumstance of the objects to which they are applied.-South, vol. iv. Ser. 6.

Now measure alone in any modern language, does not constitute verse; those of the ancients in Greek and Latin, of feet.-Dryden. Ess. On Dramatick Poesie. consisted in quantity of words, and a determinate number

The parliament having received an account of the hopeful condition of their affairs in Ireland, and of the great appearance there was of a speedy determination of that war, appointed a committee to summon before them those adventurers who, in the year 1641, had advanced monies upon the lands in Ireland.-Ludlow. Memoirs, vol. i. p. 339.

We own it [Scripture] to be the rule of our lives, and the foundation of our faith, and in all our considerable controversies we place it in the throne (as the councils of Ephesus and Aquileia did) for the moderator and determiner of such doubts and differences.

Comber. Comp. to the Temple. The Lessons, pt. i. s. 9. By determining the will, if the phrase be used with any meaning, must be intended, causing that the act of the will or choice should be thus, and not otherwise: and the will is said to be determined, when, in consequence of some action, or influence, its choice is directed to, and fixed upon a particular object.-Edwards. Freed. of the Will, pt. i. ŝ. 2.

Their true and real character, as to virtue and vice, is determinable only by their inward principles and sentiments, which are known to God alone, who searcheth the heart and reins.-Sherlock, vol. i. Dis. 25.


always mention with as much honour, as you with contempt, Well therefore might the lord president, whom I shall nay whom your contempt confirms to me to be the more honourable, well might he detestate star-chamber examinations, as they had been abused in the late king's days.

State Trials. Col. J. Lilburne, an. 1649.

The Earle of Kildare being charged before King Henry the Seauenth, for burning the metropolitane church of Cassillis in Ireland, and many witnesses procured to auouch the trueth of the article against him, he sodainly confessed it to the great wondring and detestation of the councel.

Camden. Remains. Wise Speeches.

Which is nothing else but to rob men, and make God the receiver, who is the detester, and will be the punisher, of such crimes.-Hopkins. Expos. upon the 1st Commandment.

with the Lutherans, eyther in their abhorring and detesting And yet this is not enough to inferre, that we consent of it, or in those opinions which they hold against it; except there could be given, Nihil tertium.

Mountagu. Appeale to Cæsar, p. 57. Amidst our course Zacynthian woods appear; And next by rocky Neriots we steer : We fly from Ithaca's detested shore, And curse the land which dire Ulysses bore.

Dryden. Virgil. Æneid, b. iii. All that had made defection from their cause, or that were thought indifferent as to either side, which they call detestable neutrality, were put out of commission. Burnet. Own Time, b.i.

3 Y

Other occasions will put us upon this thought: but chiefly strong view of merit in a generous character, oppos'd to some detestably vile one.

Shaftesbury. Of Wit and Humour, pt. iv. s. 2.

Under the strong image of the unfitness and abominableness, and detestableness and profaneness of any uncleanness or impurity appearing in the Temple of God; the odiousness of all moral impurity, of all debauched practices whatsoever, in any person who professes himself to be a worshipper of God, is set forth after a more lively and affecting manner.-Clarke, vol. i. Ser. 40.

But here I had a lingering view of approaching death, and little or no hopes of escaping it; and I must confess that my courage, which I had hitherto kept up, failed me here; and I made very sad reflections on my former life, and look'd Dack with horrour and detestation, on actions which before I disliked, but now I trembled at the remembrance of.

Dampier. Voyages, an. 1688.

It grew high time for the English nation to think of recovering itself from some of that infamy and loud reproach, that the spilling of innocent royal blood, and the prophane invasion of all that was sacred or civil had brought upon it in the opinion of all the nations round about, that stood as spectators and detesters of those religious barbarities, those villanies cloaked and sanctified with the name of reformation.-South, vol. ix. Ser. 4.

For as the gates of Hades I detest

The sordid wretch, whom want can tempt to lie.
Cowper. Homer. Odyssey, b. xiv.



Ger. Thron; Dut. Troon; Fr. Throne, thron; Sp. Trono; It. Trono; Lat. Thronus; Gr. Opovos, from See THRONE,

the unused 6pa-ew, sedere, to sit. and ENTHRONE.

To remove from the throne, or seat.

The king in signe of amitie stayed his cosen the Earle of Derbie (the same who afterward dethroned him) to supper. Speed. Rich. II. b. ix. c. 13. As for the queene, when shee was (God knows how farre guilty) aduertised of her husband's dethronization, shee outwardly expressed so great extremity of passion (notwithstanding that at the same time shee was tolde of her sonnes surrogation) as if shee had beene distraught of her wittes. Id. Edw. II. b. ix. c. 12. s. 73.

Sesostris; (proud Egyptian King,
That monarchs harness'd to his chariot yok'd,
Base servitude! and his dethron'd compeers
Lash'd furious; they in sullen majesty
Drew the uneasy load.)

J. Philips. Blenheim.

In December 1647 he [Silas Titus] was taken into favour for a time by Ol. Cromwell and the army, to persuade the king, then in the Isle of Wight, to consent to the 4 votes of dethronizing him.-Wood. Athene Oxon.

The contingency of uniting France and Spain under the same prince appeared more remote, about the middle of the last great war, when the dethronement of Philip in favour of Charles was made a condition of peace sine qua non, than the contingency of a union of the Imperial and Spanish crowns. Bolingbroke. On History, Let. 8.

The question of dethroning, or, if these gentlemen like the phrase better, cashiering kings," will always be, as it has always been, an extraordinary question of state, and wholly out of the law; a question (like all other questions of state) of dispositions, and of means, and of probable consequences, rather than positive rights.-Burke. On the French Revol.


DE-TOMB, v. To remove from the tomb. Crownes, throwne from thrones to tombes, detomb'd arise To match thy Muse with a monarchicke theame, That whilst her sacred soaring cuts the skyes, A vulgar subject may not wrong the same. Stirling. To the Author of the Monarchicke Tragedies. Lat. De, and ton-are; Gr. Τον-οειν, intendere, (sc.) vocem, to stretch To make a loud noise, to crack, to explode. A word brought much into use lately by the invention of detonating balls.



the voice, to shout.


For the clear comprehending of this experiment, you may be pleased, Pyrophilus, to take notice, i. That a new coal is not to be cast on the nitre, till the detonation occasioned by the former be either quite or altogether ended.

Boyle Works, vol. i. p. 362. Nineteen parts in twenty of detonized nitre is destroyed in eighteen days.-Arbuthnot. On dir.

DETO'RT.) Lat. Detorquere, detortum, (de, DETO'RSION. and torquere, to twist, to wrest.) See DISTORT.

But [the author] hath only wrested and detorted such actions of state, as in times of his service have been managed.-Bacon. Observations on a Libel.

The Arians opposed the apostolick tradition, and by corrupting detorted the words of Scripture to their sence. Hammond. Works, vol. i. p. 475.

And 'tis worth observing that many authorities, which the Papists produce for the external sacrifice of the body of Christ in the masse, are but the detortion and disguising of those places which belong to the offertory of the people.

Id. Ib. vol. i. p. 375.

His ninth section hath somewhat new in it--but perfectly agreeable to the mistakes and detortions gleaned from the Catholick gentleman.-Id. Ib. vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 75.

It is of great moment to take off all possible misconstruction that can be wrested or detorted from the tenor and expressions of the libelled explication.

State Trials. The Earle of Argyle, an. 1681.

Thus much is intimated by the original word στρεβλουν, which signifies, either to detort or turn away, or to torment, and put to the question.-Atterbury, vol. iii. Ser. 11. DETOURS, n. "Fr. Détours, a turning, byway, crooked way; also, a cunning shift, a subtile evasion, crafty avoidance,” (Cotgrave.) See DE


The ablest advocates of necessity now inveloping it in systems; and insinuating it in all the artful detours of what they call a sufficient reason.-Warburton. Def. of Mr. Pope.


Fr. Détracter; It. Detrahere, detrarre; Sp. Detratar, detractar; Lat. Detrahere · (ctum), aliquid de famâ alterius trahere, (Minshew.) To draw or take away from the fame of another. (Lit.)— To draw or take away from; to traduce, to withdraw; and (met.) with a subaudition of the fame or reputation of another.

Detraction,-slander, calumny.

[ocr errors]

Bacon, in his judicial Charge upon the Commission for the Verge, is (in an old edition) made to use the word detraction, (lit.) viz. The detraction of the eggs of wild fowl." The quarto edition of his works, (iii. 559,) reads "Destruction." Wolsey wrote detray. See quotation from Burnet.

Lest perauenture stryuyngis, enueyes, sturdinessis, dissenciouns, and detractiouns, priuy spechis of discord, bolnyngis bi pride, debatis ben ainong ghou.

Wiclif. Galathies, c. 12. Priuy backbiteris, detractoris, hateful to God, debatouris, proude and highe ouer measure.-Id. Romaynes, c. 1.

Forsoth Salomon sayth, That flaterie is werse than detraction: for sometime detraction maketh an hautein man to be the more humble, for he dredeth detraction, but certes flaterie maketh a man to enhaunce his herte and his countenance.-Chaucer. The Persones Tale.

This sinne of backbiting or detracting hath certain spices, as thus: som men preiseth his neighbour by a wicked intente, for he maketh alway a wicked knotte at the laste ende: alway he maketh a BUT at the last ende, that is digne of more blame, than is worthe all the preising.-Id. Ib.

Touchend as of enuious brood

I wote not one of all good.
But netheles suche as thei bee,
Yet there is one, and that is hee

Which cleped is detraction.-Gower. Con. A. b. ii.

Ye be put at liberty so to qualify, so to add, detray, immix, change, chuse or mend as ye shall think good.

Burnet. Records, b. ii. No. 22. Dispatch of the Cardinals.

And thus it appeareth that the souldiars wages, and the transportation may be defrayed for farre lesse summes of money, then the detractours of this enterprise haue giuen out. Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. iii. p. 178.

We that calumnious critic may eschew,

That blasteth all things with his poison'd breath,
Detracting what laboriously we do,
Only with that which he but idly saith.

Drayton. Moses his Birth and Miracles, b. ii.

For Scipio African on the other side, if we shall rather credit the best authors that write, then a number of other detracters and malicious writers, we may say he was a bountiful and temperate captain, and not onely lively and valient in fight, but also courteous and mercifull after victory.-North. Plutarch, p. 210.

Here no detractor wounds who merits best,
Nor shameless brow cheers on impiety.
Daniel. Civil Wars, d. v.

And at the rear of these in secret guise

Crept thievery and detraction, near akín, No twins more like: they seem'd almost the same; One stole the goods, the other the good name: The latter lives in scorn, the former dies in shaine. P. Fletcher. The Purple Island, c. 7. From whence we may not improperly derive this enquirie, (admitting the being of evil not at all detractive from God) whether the properties of God are not detrimental to the nature of the wicked.

Mouniague. Devoute Essayes, pt. ii. Treat. 3. s. 2. For this is not onely derogatory unto the wisdom of God, who hath proposed the world unto our knowledge, and thereby the notion of himselfe; but also detractory unto the intellect, and sense of man, expressedly disposed for that inquisition.-Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. i. c. 5.

It infinitely concerns us to hold stedfastly that faith which Christ thus deliver'd, and the Apostles preach'd, and the Scriptures contain, (as, God be thank'd, That and no other is the faith which our church holds forth) and by no means to add to it, or detract from it.-Sharp. Works, vol.v. Dis.1. But, oh what transports did the heart invade, When first he saw the lovely royal maid! Fame, that so high did her perfections raise, Seem'd now detraction, and no longer praise!

Duke. Upon the Marriage of Captain W. Beloe. Some base detractor has my honour stain'd And in your easy heart a credit gain'd; Abus'd, and told you Titus was unjust.

Otway. Tilus & Berenice, Act ii. sc. 1. Wonder not, Lindamor, that in mentioning the joys of heaven, I use the expression I find less detractory from a theme, as much above our praises, as the heaven they are enjoyed in is above our heads.-Boyle. Works, vol. i. p. 283.

If any shall detract from a lady's character unless she be absent, the said detractress shall be forthwith ordered to the lowest place of the room.-Addison.

I know it has been the fashion to detract both from the moral and literary character of Cicero: and indeed neither his life nor his writings are without the characteristics of humanity.-Knox, Let. 8. Personal Nobility.

Knows he, that mankind praise against their will,
And mix as much detraction as they can.

Young. Complaint, Night 8. DETRENCH. "Fr. Trencher, to cut or carve, slice, hack or hue," (Cotgrave.)

For if your bodie were detrenched, or youre bodie maymed with some sodaine stroke, what profite were it for you to weepe vpon your wound, and when the harme is done, to lament still the sore.-Wilson. The Arte of Rhetorike, p. 71.




Fr. Détriment; It. and Sp. Detrimento; Lat. Detrimentum, (usu tritum, Vossius,) from Deterere, Detritum quòd ea quæ trita sunt, minoris pretii sunt. (Minshew.) Because things which are worn are of less value, (are deteriorate, qv.)

An impairing, lessening or loss, or diminution of value; damage, injury, mischief.

Mr. Steevens, in Note 2 on 2 Part Hen. VI. Act v. sc. 3, has introduced the word Detrition. The brush of time, he says, is the gradual detrition of time.

But the euill chaunce of the Frenche nacyon was to hys purpose a barre and a lette, because they were predestynate to suffre yet more plagues and detrymentes of thenglishe people then before they had tasted.-Hall. Hen. V. an. 4. For yf it shuld be withdrawen in time of syckenesse, nature shulde susteyne treble detrement.

Sir T. Elyot. The Castel of Helth, b. ii. First, I say, all private property must give way to the public; and therefore a trespass to private men may be punished by indictment, because it is an offence of the public weal: and though every man hath a property in his goods, yet he must not use them in detriment of the commonwealth.-State Trials. Hampden, an. 1637.

One [sermon] preached before the judges on this text, "And let judgement run down like waters, and righteousnesse as a mighty stream;" at what time the draining of the fens was designed, suspected detrimental to the university.

Fuller. Worthies. London.

As for the proprietaries of such (or rather of the ground surrounding such,) medical waters, as I would not have them detrimented in the least degree by the conflux of peo ple unto them; so it is injurious in my judgement for them to set them to sale, and make gain of God's free gift therein. Id. Ib. vol. i. c. 2.

Well therefore did St. Paul in respect to the excellency of the knowledge of Jesus Christ his Lord esteem all such things (all worldly privileges and benefits) as loss, and as dung; as things detrimental and despicable.

Barrow, vol. ii. Ser. 22.

« PredošláPokračovať »