Obrázky na stránke

For the dialectiques borrow, as it were, from all other sciences, the principles of sciences; again adore the prime notions of the mind; lastly rest satisfied with the immediat informations of sense rightly disposited. Bacon. On Learning, by G. Wats, Pref.

And we all know the common dialect, in which the great masters of this art used to pray for the King, and which may justly pass for only a cleanlier and more refined kind of libelling him in the Lord: as that God will turn his heart, and open his eyes.-South, vol. ii. Ser. 3.

For I, and no doubt you, have long observed, that those

dialectical subtleties, that the schoolmen too often employ about physiological mysteries, are wont much more to declare the wit of him that uses them, than increase the knowledge Boyle. Works, vol. i. p. 468.

or remove the doubts of sober lovers of truth.

The words being in Acts, xxiv. 25, διαλεγομένου δε αυτού, and according to the natural force and import of them, signifying, that he discoursed, or reasoned dialectically. South, vol. iv. Ser. 1.

How could these disputes or any other be determined among men, whose pleasure and whose pride it was to dispute perpetually, and who cultivated an art that was of use to no man in the discernment of truth, but might help the subtile dialectician to oppose even the man he could not refute?-Bolingbroke. Authority in Matters of Religion, s. 41.

A jargon of words that seemed to explain without explaining, and the rules of a dialectick, that seem'd to prove and that did prove indifferently either in favour of truth, or of errour, took up the whole attention of philosophers, and rendered it impossible for them to make any advances in learning and knowledge.-Id. Ess. Hum. Reason, s. 11.

For the Irish, the Welsh, and the Erse, are no other than different dialects of the same tongue, the ancient Celtic. Blair, vol. i. Lect. 9.

At the same time another and far bolder sect of teachers arose, who presumed to interpret the sacred doctrines by logical terms and distinctions, and to reduce them to the rules of dialectic art.-Jortin. Remarks on Eccl. Hist.

But aware as I am, in common with the great poetical

dialectician, [Dryden.] and, indeed, with every novice in the art of logic, that "fallacies often live in universals," I cannot Pccede to Mr. Burke's observation.

Parr. A Sequel to the Printed Paper.



Fr. Dialogue; It. and
Sp. Dialogo; Lat. Dia-
logus ; Gr. Διαλογος, απο
· του διαλέγεσθαι, (δια, and
Aey-ew, to say,) to dis-
course together; where
two or more persons talk

or converse together.
The usage of dialogism is well stated by Cot-
grave: "Fr. Dialogisme—

A figure or discourse, wherein one arguing with himself as if he talked to another, both moves the question, and makes the answer."

Moreouer the proctour of purgatory [Sir T. More] sayth in his dialogue, quod I, and quod he, and quod your frende, how that the foresayd Duke of Glocester was a noblema and a great clarcke, and so wise that he coulde spye false myracles and disclose them, and judge them from the true.

Tyndall. Workes, p. 364.

Some will dispute, cavill and object, as Julian did of old, whom Cyrill confutes, as Simon Magus is famed to doe in that dialogue betwixt him and Peter: and Ammonius the philosopher, in that dialogicall disputation with Zacharias the Christian.-Burton. Anatomy of Melancholy, p. 258.

His foolish dialogism is a fighting with his own shadow. Falke. Retentive, (1580,) p. 306. Both which [the writings of Moses and of the prophets] with the rest of the written word, are by the judgment of common sense, if we will believe the dialogist's reasonings, voted to be so uncertain, that they can never be relyed on with any confidence against any adversary.

Hammond. Works, vol. ii. p. 232.

In his prophecy he [Malachi] proceeds most dialogistically.
Bp. Richardson. On the Old Testament, p. 449.
And dialogu'd for him what he would say.

Varro, one of the dialogists says to him: Sed de teipso ! quid est quod audio? Tully answers: Quânam de re? Varro replies; Relictam a te veterem jam, tractari autem Novam. Warburton. Divine Legation, b. iii. s. 3.


Fr. Diamétre; It. and Sp.
Diametro; Lat. Diameter;
Gr. Διάμετρος, from δια, and
μέτρον, a measure.
The straight line which
DIAMETRICALLY. passing through the centre
of any figure measures or divides it into two equal
parts. Things are said to be diametrically oppo-
site, when they are as opposite as the extreme
points of a diameter.

O stedfast diametre of duracion
That fewe feres any time might thou finde
For none to him was founden halfe so kinde.
Chaucer. A Balade of our Ladie.
And this new diameter is but the half of this verse divided
in two, and no other than the casura or breathing-place in
the midst thereof, and therefore it had been as good to have
put two lines in one, but only to make them seem diverse.
Daniel. Defence of Rhyme.

The incession or locall motion of animals is made with
analogy unto this figure, by decussative diametrals, quin-
cunciall lines and angles.-Brown. Cyrus Garden, c. 3.

There are gentlewomen, and male guests,
Of several humours, cariage, constitution;
Profession too; but so diametrall

One to another, and so much opposed.

B. Jonson. The Magnetick Lady, Act i. sc. 1.
Every lye is diametrally contrary to the God of truth;
since it proceeds originally from the very Devill, who is a
lyer, and the father of lies.
Prynne. Histrio-Mastix, pt. i. Act iii. sc. 4.
They [Scylla and Charybdis] are nothing so horrid or
dangerous as they make them to be, they are two white
keen-pointed rocks that lie under water diametrically op-
Howell, b. i. s. 1. Let. 27.
Grant that the sun had happen'd to prefer
A seat ascant but one diameter;
Lost to the light by that unhappy place
This globe had lain a frozen, lonesome mass.
Blackmore. Creation, b. ii.
This is to make a diametrical opposition between the de-
crees of God, and the record of his will in the Gospel.
Bates. Fun. Ser. on Dr. Jacomb.
That this conception is of all others most dangerous to the
soul and dishonourable to God, as being absolutely and dia-
metrically opposite to the tenour of the Gospel, and that
which evacuates the death and satisfaction of Christ; for it
causes us, while we acknowledge a Christ, tacitly to deny

pos'd, and like two dragons defying one another.

the Saviour.-South, vol. vi. Ser. 12.

We chose to stop there, because it seems to be the very

diametrical point of opposition, or a point very near to that,

between the government of this Prince [King James] and
the government of Queen Elizabeth, which we have so
largely insisted upon.

Bolingbroke. On the History of England, Let. 21.
There is a country, said he, in the world called Fourli, no
matter for its longitude or latitude, whose inhabitants have
ways of thinking, in many things, particularly in morals,
diametrically opposite to ours.-Hume. A Dialogue.



Fr. Diamant; It. and Sp.
Diamante; Dut. Diamant;
Ger. Demant; and in old
Eng. Diamant; Lat. Ada-
mas; Gr. Αδαμας, αδαμαντος;
adamant, from a, priv. and Saua-ev, domare; to
tame, to overpower; quod nullâ vi domabilis; to
be overpowered by no force. See Vossius, and
the example from Pliny; also ADAMANT.

Haue harte as hard as diamaunt
Stedfast, and nauht pliaunt.-Chaucer. Rom. of the Rose.
His propre stone is diamant

Whiche is to him moste acordant.-Gower. Con. A. b. vii.

But he that by good vse and experyence, hathe in his eye the ryghte marke and very trewe lustre of the dyamonte, reiecteth anone, and lysteth not to looke vpon the counterfayte, be it neuer so well handeled, neuer so craftely

Shakespeare. A Lover's Complaint. polyshed.-Sir T. More. Workes, p. 73.

Var. How dost foole?
Ape. Dost dialogue with thy shadow?
Var. I speake not to thee.-Id. Timon of Athens, p. 83.

At present it must be owned, the characters, or personages, employ'd by our new orthodox dialogists, carry with 'em little proportion or coherence.

Shaftesbury. Miscel. Ref. c. 2. Misc. 5.

So pass'd in pleasing dialogue away
The night, then down to short repose they lay.
Pope. Homer. Odyssey, b. IV.

Wonderfull and inenarrable is the hardnesse of a diamant;
besides it hath a nature to conquer the fury of fire, nay, you
shall never make it hote; doe what you can: for this un-
tamable vertue that it hath, the Greeks have given it the
name Adamas.-Holland. Plinie, b. xxxvii. c. 4.

Prince Arthur gaue a box of diamond sure,
Emboss'd with gold and gorgeous ornament,
Wherein were clos'd few drops of liquor pure
Of wondrous worth, and vertue excellent,
That any wound could heale incontinent.

Break a stone in the middle, or lop a bough of a tree, and one shall behold the grain thereof (by some secret cause in nature) diamonded or streaked in the fashion of a lozenge. Fuller. Profane State, p. 368.

Corv. I have a diament for him, too.

B. Jonson. The Fox, Acti. sc. 5.
The stately building
The world's great Maker curiously did found
On fields of pearle with diamantine towers.

Stirling. Doomes-Day. The Twelfth Houre.
Phil. Deep shades are thus to heighten colours set;
So stars in night, and diamonds shine in jet.

Dryden. Secret Love, or the Maiden Queen, Act v. This author, then, speaking of the first of those three diamond-mines, which he makes to be the only ones in the East Indies, having told us, that the stones are there found, some in the ground, and some in the rock, subjoins, that those that are drawn from the rock, or the neighbouring parts, have ordinarily a good water; but for those, which are drawn out of the ground, their water partakes of the colour or soil, wherein they are found. If the earth be clean and somewhat sandy, the diamonds will be of a good water; but if it be fat or black, or of another colour, they will have some tincture of it.-Boyle. Works, vol. v. p. 528.

Nor let the pride of great ones scorn
This charmer of the plains;

That sun, who bids their diamonds blaze,

To paint our lily deigns.-Mallet. Edwin & Emma.
DIAPASE. Minshew says, Diapason or
DIAPASON. Concord of say
Fr., Sp. and
Lat. Diapason, est concentus omnium in musicâ.
Gr. Alamaowv, from dia, through, waσwv, omnium.
See the quotation from Bacon.

And twixt them both a quadrat was the base,
Proportion'd equally by seuen and nine;
Nine was the circle set in heaven's place,
All which compacted, made a goodly diapase.

Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. 9.

Thou art the mistress to command
The touch of the most curious hand,
When every quaver doth embrace
His like, in a true diapase.

Drayton. The Muses Elysium, Nymphal 3. The diapason or eight in musick is the sweetest concord; insomuch, as it is in effect an vnison.

Bacon. Naturai History, s. 103.

The first stanza [of Dryden's first Ode for Cecilia's day] is vigorous and elegant, though the word diapason is too technical, and the rhymes are too remote from one another. Johnson. Life of Dryden.

DIAPASM. Gr. Διαπασμα, from Διαπασσειν, inspergere. "Diapasms are aromatic herbs dried and reduced to powder; they were formerly made into little balls with sweet water, and strung together as here, or worn loose in the pocket. is the pomander chain,' mentioned just below."— Gifford, Note on B. Jonson.


Per. I come, sir. There's an excellent diapasme in a chaine too, if you like it. B. Jonson. Cynthia's Revells, Act v. sc. 4.

DIAPER, v. "Fr. Diaprer; to diaper, DIAPER, n. flourish, diversifie with flourishDIAPER, adj. ing," (Cotgrave.) Skinner mentions the conjecture that this word owes its origin to the town of Ipre, in Flanders; but adds that there is no reason given for believing that pre was more famous for this manufacture than any other town. Dr. Anderson revives the conThe word they jecture, and Warton adopts it. suppose was originally written D'ipre. In confirmation, Warton quotes from Chaucer's Wife of Bath, v. 450.

Of cloth making she had such a haunt,

She passed them of Ipre, and of Gaunt, (i. e. Ghent.)

Skinner proposes Fr. Divaire, to variegate. Du Cange, the It. Diaspro, jasper. "Diapred, embroidered, diversified. Rich cloth embroidered with raised work we call d'Ipre, and from thence Diaper, and to do this, or any work like it, was called, to Dieper, whence the participle." See Warton's History of English Poetry, i. 176. N. y.

A stede bay, trapped in stele,
Covered with cloth of gold, diapred wele.
Chaucer. The Knightes Tale, v. 2160

They of the towne demed surely that they had been merchauts, come thyder to the fayre to haue bought cloth and dyaper, for they said they came fro Mounte Pellier to bye Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. i. c. 9. | marchaūdyse.-Berners. Froissart. Cronycie, voi ii. c. 119.

Not any damsell, which her vaunteth most

In skilfull knitting of soft silken twine; Nor any weauer, which his worke doth boast

In diaper, in damaske, or in lyne.-Spenser.Muiopolmos.

Aut. Whate'er the wanton spring,

When she doth diaper the ground with beauties,
Toils for, comes home to autumn.

Ford. The Sun's Darling, Act iv. sc. 1. That other glittering armie with milk-white diaper coates, must be died red in bloud, when they come to strokes, and to try it out with dint of sword.-Holland. Livivs, p. 381.

I have as good diaper, made by some of my tenants nigh Armagh, as can come to a table, and all other cloth for houshold uses. Locke. Mr. Molineux to Mr. Locke, Sept. 26, 1696. Gr. Aia, through, and 5 φαιν-ειν, to shine. "Fr.




To clear, brighten, make transparent." As for its diaphanity or perspicuity, it [Chrystall] enioyeth that most eminently: and the reason thereof is its continuity; as having its earthly and salinous parts so exactly resolved, that its body is left imporous and not discreted by atomical terminations.-Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. ii. c. I.

Hence it is, that they who consider the preciousness and scarcitie of time, make it their study how to stay it, as it were, in passing, which is to be done after the manner that corporal reflections are made, by staying the light from passing through a diaphanous body because transparent matters retain not the images set before them.

Mountague. Devoute Essayes, pt. ii. Treat. 4. s. 2.

And because the outward coat of the eye ought to be pellucid to transmit the light, which, if the eyes should always stand open, would be apt to grow dry, and shrink, and lose their diaphaneity, therefore are the eyelids so contrived as often to wink, that so they may as it were glaze and varnish them over with the moisture they contain, there being glandules on purpose to separate a humour for that use, and withall wipe off whatever dust or filth may stick to them. Ray. On the Creation, pt. ii.

It seem'd not absurd to imagine, that upon the rushing of the air out of the receiver into the emptied cylinder, the air in the receiver being suddenly and vehemently expanded, the texture of it was as suddenly altered, and the parts made to shift places (perhaps some of them change postures,) as during their new and vehement motion, and their varied situation, to disturb the wonted continuity, and so the diaphaneity of the air.-Boyle. Works, vol. i. p. 92.

The eyes of spiders, (in some four, in some six, and in some eight,) are placed all in the fore front of the head, which is round, and without any neck, all diaphanous and transparent, like a locket of diamonds.

Derham. Physico-Theology, b. iv. c. 2. Note 9.
Oft the jasper's found

Green, but diaphanous.

Sir W. Jones. The third Discourse on the Hindus.



Gr. Alapopnri

- kos,from Διαφορ-ειν, to dissipate, to dis

"Fr. Diaphorétique,-dissolving or evaporating humours," (Cotgrave.)

And whereas I intended it only for a diaphoretick to cast him into a breathing sweat, it hath had upon him all the effects of a vomit.-Marvell. Works, vol. ii. p. 247.

Take of vipers reduced to fine powder one ounce, diaphoretic antimony half an ounce.-Boyle. Works, vol. v. p. 387.

It may work upon the mind as, physitians say, those kind of diaphoretical medicines do upon the body, the which although they do not produce any violent sweat, yet they clense by opening the pores, and keeping the body in a continued transpiration and breathing out of the malignity. Mountague. Devoute Essayes, Treat. 6. s. 3.

DIAPHRAGM. Gr. Διαφραγμα, from Διαφρασσειν, δια, φρασσειν, sepire ; lt., Sp. and Lat. Diaphragma; "Fr. Diaphragme,-the midriffe ; a long and round muscle, whereby the vital parts are separated from the natural, and the heart and lights from the stomach and nether bowels," (Cotgrave.)

He cut away the ribs, diaphragm and pericardium of a dog; also the top of the wind-pipe, that he might tie it on to the nose of a pair of bellows; and by blowing into the lungs, he restored the dog to life.

Diarrhoeas, and though more seldom, even dysenterical ones, are happily and easily cured, as I have sometimes known by the bare use of so slight a remedy as milk, wherein whilst it is gently boiling, an equal quantity of fair water is little by little put, till at last there remains but as much liquor as the milk alone amounted to at first. Boyle. Works, vol. v. p. 113. He [D. Hume] answered, Your hopes are groundless. An habitual diarrhoea of more than a year's standing would be a very bad disease at any age: at my age it is a mortal one. Letter from A. Smith to W. Strachan.

Loke eke how to the King Demetrius
The King of Parthes, as the book sayth us,
Sent him a pair of dis of gold in scorne,
For he had used hasard therbeforne.

Chaucer. The Pardoneres Tale, v. 12,557.
He yeueth his graces vndeserued,
And fro that man whiche hath him serued,
Full ofte he taketh away his fees,

As he that plaieth at the dies.-Gower. Con. A. b. i. There is such dicing-houses also, they say as had not beene wont to be, where young gentlemen dice away their

Latimer, Ser. 5. Before King Edward.

DIARY. Fr. Diaire. Est libellus, in quo thrift, and where dicing is, there are other follies also. acta unuscujusque diei describuntur, (Minshew.) Lat. Diarium.

A record, or an account of daily occurrences. Herewith I present your lordship with a compleat diary of your own late legation, which hath cost me some toil and labour.-Howell, b. i. s. 6. Let. 19.

The earl [Arundel] seems to have had in his service another painter, one Harrison, now only known to us by a chronologic diary, in which he records particulars relating to old Parr, whom Lord Arundel had a curiosity to see. Walpole. Anecdotes of Painting, vol. ii. c. 2.

DIA'STOLE. So written in Fr., It., Sp., and Lat.; Gr. Alaσтoλn, from diaσтeλλeш, to separate, to disjoin.

The dilatation of the heart.

Now as we have no voluntary imperium at all, upon the systole and diastole of the heart, so are we not conscious to ourselves of any energy of our own soul that causes them. Cudworth. Intellectual System, p. 161.

That the motion of all muscles consists in constriction, is not to be doubted also. By which means the systole is easily accounted. But, forasmuch, as the heart hath no antagonist muscle, the diastole hath puzzled the greatest wits.-Derham. Physico-Theology, b. iv. c. 7. Note 1.

DIATRIBE. Lat. Diatribe; Gr. Aiaтpiẞn, DIA'TRIBIST. from diaтpiße, (dia, and тpißev, terere, terere tempus.) The word appears to have been applied to a prolonged or renewed discussion or examination of any thing.

But I that am not yet by all his diatribe so instructed, or improved, as to discern one real misadventure in those discourses, find it impossible for me to be edified by this his charity.-Hammond. Works, vol. ii. pt. iv. p. 136.

And the same I desire may introduce my address to this diatribist, and the tasks by him set before me, the subjects which he hath chosen to consider with me being such, as well deserve some care from each of us, that we neither deceive others, nor ourselves in them.-Id. Ib. p. 134.

DIB, v. To dib or dibble is to dip, (qv.)
DIBBLE. Dibble, the dim. is-

A tool with which plants are dipped into the ground; and thus planted.

And this way of fishing we call daping, dabbing, or dibbing; wherein you are always to have your line flying before you-up or down the river, as the wind serves-and to angle as near as you can to the bank of the same side

whereon you stand.-Wailon. Angler, pt. ii. c. 5.

These, I think I told you before, we commonly dape, or dibble with.-Id. Ib. pt. ii. c. 7.

Yet for all this there comes another strange gardener that never knew the soil, never handled a dibble or spade to set the least pot-hearb that grew there, much less had endur'd an hour's sweat or chillness, and yet challenges as his right the binding or unbinding of every flower, the clipping of every bush, the weeding and worming of every bed, both in that and every other garden thereabout.

Millon. Animad. upon Remonstrants' Defence. DICA CITY. Coined by the author quoted, to denote

Fluency in writing.

Where the question is momentous, and the celebration of their fame foreign to it, what should induce any one, who is really desirous of information, to remit the freedom of inquiry after it for their dicacity.


Byrom. Enthusiasm, Introd. Fr. Dé. Vossius says, “Dadus et detius, tesseram notant, quæ Italis et Hispanis, dado, unde da

DI'CING, n. I dus, Gallis de, vel det, unde detius."

Derham. Physico-Theology, b. iv. c. 7. Note 1. (De Vitiis, 1. ii. c. 5.)

The liver is fastened in the body by two ligaments; the first, which is large and strong, comes from the diaphragm, and penetrates the substance of the liver.

Paley. Natural Thology, c. 11. DIARRHOEA. Fr. Diarrhée; It. Diarrea; Sp. Diarrhea; Lat. Diarrhea; Gr. Aiappoia, from diappei, from dia, and pe-eiv, fluere, to flow.

VOL. 1.

The Lacedemonians sent an ambassade to the citie of Corinthe, to haue with them aliance: but whan the ambassadours founde the princis and counsaylours playenge at dyse, they departed without exploytynge their message, sayenge, that they would not maculate the honour of theyr people with suche a reproche, to be saide, that they had made aliaunce with disars. Sir T. Elyot. Governovr, b. i. c. 26.

The sayd hoost of Flemynges aualyd ye mout in a secret wyse as me of warre myght, and drewe theym towarde the Frenshemen, which thenne were vnarmed, and in theyr disportes of dysynge and playinge at the chesse and other

gamys.-Fabyan, an. 1377.

As for the rumour that run of his dice-playing he bashed no whit thereat; and he [Augustus] played simply without art and openly for his disport, even when he was well stricken in years.-Holland. Suetonius, p. 70.

Or if he believe it unlawful to play at cards or dice; or that it is forbidden by God's word to let out money at interest: why, in all these cases he may follow his opinion, though it be a false one, without sin.

Sharp, vol. ii. A Discourse of Conscience. The lieutenant and Mr. Underhil, who brought him to the Tower, sent for Thomas Robins, alias Morgan, commonly called little Morgan, brother unto great Morgan, of Salisbury court, the great dicer.

Strype. Memorials. Edw. VI. an. 1548.

My Lords, it would be a martyrdom to these retired sober women, to be compelled, with elbows bared to the shoulder, to sally forth to the pleasures of the midnight rout, to distribute the cards at loo, or, soaring to sublimer joys, to rattle the dice-box at the games of hazard.



Horsley. Speech, July 10. 1800.

Gr. Διχοτομείν, to cut into parts, (dixa, and Teμv-ev, to cut.)

Our Saviour said to Pilate, "Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or did others tell thee?" And all things reported are reducible to this dichotomie: 1. The fountain of invention; 2. the channell of relation.

Fuller. Worthies, vol. i. c. 23.

the four forementioned forms of Atheism may be again Now according to these two different notions of nature, dichotomized after this manner; into such as derive all

things from a mere fortuitous and temerarious nature devoid

of all order and methodicalness: and such as deduce the original of things from a certain orderly, regular, and artificial, though senseless nature in matter.

Cudworth. Intellectual System, p. 139.

Certainly a triviall invention, and an infinite prejudice to sciences; for these dichotomists when they would wrest all things to the laws of their method, and whatsoever doth not aptly fall within those dichotomies they would either omitt or bow contrarie to their naturall inclination; they bring it so to passe, that the kernels and graines of sciences leape out, and they claspe and inclose onely the drie and empty huskes.-Bacon. On Learning, by G. Wats, b. vi. c. 2. s. 1. The apostolical benediction dichotomizes all good things into grace and peace.-Bp. Hall. Ser. Haggai, ii. 9. DICTA'MNE. The herb dittany. Pennyroyal.

And whilst I wander like the wounded deere,
That seekes for dictamne to recure his scarre.
And come to the whom I hold onely deere,
Thou dost (fierce faire) at my disaster scarre.


Stirling. Aurora, s. 5. Fr. Dicter; Sp. Dictar; It. Dettare; Lat. Dictare, from Dicere, to say or speak. Dictator, a dictando, quia crebro diceret, ediceretque, quæ utilia essent reipublicæ, (Vossius.)

To say, speak, tell, proclaim, declare, what shall be done; where, when, and how; what another shall write ;-to

Junius says, perhaps from the Gr. Ak-e, ja-
cere, to throw or cast.
Skinner prefers the Lat.
Datum, i. e. delivered or thrown from the hand. speak or write with authority.
And Menage, dado, corrupted from datus.

And Danyell the dees pleyere.-Piers Plouhman, p. 131.
Hit ben the Deviles dicours, to drawe men to synne.
Id. Ib. p. 130.


In the kalenders of Januarie, whan the senate deuided the offices, being pourueyed of a dictatour, and of two consules yerely, incontinente in the thirde place they prouided for foure most excellent barons to defend the saide foure frontiers.-Golden Boke, c. 1.


No, you will dictate wholesome grounds, and sow
Seeds in his mind, as pure as that is now:
Breathe in your thoughts, your soul, make him the true
Resemblance of your worth, speak and live you.
Cartwright. To Dr. Duppa.

1 hope God hath given me ability to be master of my own passion, and endowed me with that reason, that will dictate unto me what is for my own good and benefit. State Trials. Lieut.-Col. J. Lilburne, an. 1649.

For he [Sylla] proclamed himself Dictator, which office had not been for sixscore years before in use, and made the senate discharge bim of all that was past, giving him free liberty afterwards to kill whom he would, and to confiscate their goods to destroy cities, and to build up new as he listed; to take away kingdoms, and to give them where he thought good.-North. Plutarch, p. 403.

In the third place also if you will believe that you have a dictatorian power over all times, and laws past, and present, and so may justify all that you act against them: yet why do you not act against them without such detestable cursings, odious railings, and unsavory derisions, as your mouth is perpetually defiled with.

State Trials. Lieut. Col. J. Lilburne, an. 1649.

Your beauty 'twas at first did awe me,
And into bondage, woeful bondage draw me;
It was your cheek, your eye, your lip,
Which raised you hrst to the dictatorship.

Cotton. To the Countess of Chesterfield.

What heresies and prodigious opinions have been set on foct, and maintained to the death under the pretence of the dictation, and warrant of God's spirit! Bp. Hall. Rem. p. 148.

Rather, as I hope, for that our English, the language of

men ever famous, and foremost in the atchievements of liberty, will not easily find servile letters enow to spell such a dictatory presumption English'd.

Milton. Speech on unlicensed Printing.

Nay the very same autors, who have usurpt a kind of dictature in sciences, and with such confidence past censure upon matters in doubt, have yet (the heat once over) in the lucide intervalles, from these peremptory fits of asseveration, changed their note.

Bacon. On Learning, by G. Wats, Pref. p. 9.

That is to say, you are to trust to your own particular discourses, as to particular discourses, and no farther; but to the resolves cf the church as to the dictamens of a higher understanding, by the light of which you are to judge and censure of the rest.

Ld. Falkland, in Hammond's Works, vol. ii. pt.i. p.600. Though Phalaris's brazen bull were there,

And he would dictate what he'd have you swear,
Be not so profligate, but rather choose

To guard your honour, and your life to lose,
Rather than let your virtue be betray'd!
Virtue, the noblest cause for which you're made.
Stepney. Imit. of Juvenal.
Then those who follow'd Reason's dictates right,
Liv'd up, and lifted high their natural light,
With Socrates may see their Maker's face,
While thousand rubric martyrs want a place.

Dryden. Religio Laici.

Did they appeal to Saint Peter as to the supreme dictatour and judge of controversies? not so; but they sent to the apostle and elders at Jerusalem, to enquire about the question.-Barrow. Of the Pope's Supremacy.

The Gentiles, though in their searches after wisdom and knowledge they had fallen into many errors, yet had discovered many excellent truths, and if a judicious collection had been made of the useful doctrines which some or other

of them in various times and places had taught, a system of morality might have been drawn up, which would bear no small resemblance to the dictates of the Gospel.

Jortin. On the Christian Religion, Dis. 2.

But scarcely any man is so steadily serious as not to complain, that the severity of dictatorial instruction has been too seldom relieved, and that he is driven by the sternness of the Rambler's philosophy to more cheerful and airy companions.-Rambler, No. 208.

A still stronger proof of his [Sylla] placing more confidence In his good fortune, than in his atchievements, was his laying down the dictatorship.-Langhorne. Plutarch.

Haply it may be said, that any charity is, at any time, the favourite of so capricious a dictatrix of human conduct. Knox. The Magdalen Hospital recommended. DICTION. Fr. Diction; Lat. Dictio, from Dicere, dictum. See DICTATE.

The style of language in writing or speaking. We are not wont to require the dictions of the New Testament, which have so much of the Old Testament Hebrew idiom in them, to be tryed by Attical heathen Greek writers: yet shall I not now need to refuse that tryal which is here offered.-Hammond. Works, vol. i. p. 425.

Concise your diction; let your sense be clear,
Nor with a weight of words fatigue the ear.
Francis. Horace, b. i. Sat. 10.


Though he [Dryden] wrote hastily, and often incorrectly, and his style is not free from faults, yet there is a richness in his diction, a copiousness, ease, and variety in his expression, which have not been surpassed by any who have come after him.-Blair, vol. i. Lect. 18.


DICTIONARY. Lat. Dictionarium; Fr.Dictionnaire; It. Dizionario; Sp. Diccionario. Dut. Woordenboek.

A book of words, containing (as distinguished from a mere vocabulary) their etymology, meaning, and usage.

O ridiculous birth! a mouse crept out of the mountain! Help grammarians! one of your number is in danger of perishing! The laws of God and of nature are safe; but Salmasius's Dictionary is undone.

Millon. A Defence of the People of England.

I am not to blame for quoting the philosophical dictionary of that author, because the design of dictionaries is to show the use of words. Clarke and Leibnitz. Mr. Leibnitz's fourth Paper.

I am not here writing a dictionary, (which yet ought to be done, and of a very different kind indeed from any thing ever yet attempted any where,) but only laying a foundation for a new theory of language. Tooke. Diversions of Purley, vol. i. c. 9.

DID. i.e. Doed, do'd, did. See Do.



Gr. Aidaktikos, that can or may teach or learn; able to teach or learn; from Aiduσk-e, to teach. Instructive, directive, (sc.) of manners or con


I have already discoursed of the integrity of life, and what great necessity there is, and how deep obligations lie upon you, not only to be innocent and void of offence, but also to be holy; not only pure, but shining; not only to be blameless, but to be didactic in your lives; that, as by your sermons you preach in season, so by your lives you may preach out of season.-Bp. Taylor, vol. iii. Ser. 10.

We shall not need here to describe out of their didactical writings, what kind of prayers, and what causes of confidence they teach towards the blessed Virgin Mary and All Saints. Id. A Dissuasive from Popery, pt. i. s. 9.

For the apostle proves the necessity of God's revealing these things by his Spirit, v. 10, 11, 12, and then adds that their speaking was not after the didactick way of human

wisdom, but of the Holy Spirit, comparing spiritual things

with spiritual.-Stillingfleet, vol. iii. Ser. 12.

In all which he displays the glorious state of that kingdom, not in the ordinary way of argumentation and formal reasoning which had no place in an epistle writ as this is, all as it were in a rapture, and in a stile far above the plain didactical way.-Locke. Paraphrase on Ephesians, Synopsis. Under what species it may be comprehended, whether didascalic or heroic, I leave to the judgment of the critics Prior. Solomon, Pref.

This useful impression [on the mind] is commonly made in poetry by indirect methods; as by fable, by narration, by representation of characters; but didactick poetry openly professes its intention of conveying knowledge and instruction.-Blair, Lect. 40.

DI'DAPPER. Skinner says (q.d.) Dive-dapIt is probably merely a reduplication of dip, (q.d.) dip-dipper. See DAB-CHICK.


Upon this promise did he raise his chin, Like a di-dapper peering through a wave, Who being look'd on, ducks as quickly in. Shakespeare. Venus & Adonis.

Luz. The misery of man may fitly be compar'd to a di. dupper, who when she is under water, past our sight, and indeed can seem no more to us, rises again; shakes but herself, and is the same she was: so is it with transitory man, this day. Beaum. & Fletch. Woman Hater, Act iv. sc. 3.

[blocks in formation]

A drawing apart; withdrawing one part from

Lat. Diducere, ctum, (da, and ducere,) to draw apart.


Diductively is used by Brown, as deductively. The 4to. edition of Boyle reads deduction.

He ought to shew us what kind of strings they are, which, though strongly fastened to the inside of the receiver and superficies of the bladder, must draw just as forcibly one as another, how long soever they be without the bladder, in comparison of those that within the bladder drew so as to hinder the diduction of its sides.-Boyle. Works, vol.i.p.165.

Now, what is very strange, there is scarce a popular error passant in our dayes, which is not either directly expressed, or diductively contained in this work [Pliny, Natural History), which being in the hands of most men, hath proved a powerful occasion of their propagation. Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. i. c. 8. DIE. See DICE. Also that in which any thing is cast or moulded; the cast or mould itself; the stamp.

Thus through foistinge and cogginge theire die, and other false playe, these new perillous teachers deceiue many poore souls, and robbe them of the sure pure simplicitie of their faithe.-Jewel. A Replie to M. Hardinge, p. 171.

At the last, as men that being a marvellous height from the ground do headlong throw themselves down, closing up their eyes, and withdrawing their minds from the thought of danger: crying out these words onely unto them that were by in the Greek tongue, aveрpióba kvẞos; in English, let the die be cast (meaning hereby to put all in hazard and according to our proverb, to set all on six or seven) he [Julius Cæsar] pass'd over with his army.

North. Plutarch, p. 549. Such variety of dies made use of by Wood in stamping his money, makes the discovery of counterfeits more difficult. Swift.

Though the dies falling in such a manner be accidental to him that casts it, yet none will suppose that there is no cause why it falls as it does. J. Edwards. On the Freedom of Will, pt. ii. s. 4. "A. S.


Sometimes written Dye.

Deag-an, tingere, intingere, inficere, imbuere, colorare. To dy or co

DIE, v.
DIE, n.
Ilour," (Somner.)

[ocr errors]

They went to Peter whom they sawe in maner next about hym, saying: Doeth youre maister (quoth they) pay the didramme or didrachma for trybute, as others doe. Udal. Matt. c 17. The Septuagint reads το ήμισυ διδραχμου, the half of the didrachm, or half shekel, which is all one with a whole didrachm Attick.-Hummond. Annot, on St. Matthew, c. 17. |

To tinge, to stain, to steep or dip in any thing, that will tinge or stain; to colour; to give a hue, tinge or colouring to. In Chaucer it is applied to

the scent.

The swote smell sprong so wide

That it died all the place about.-Chaucer. Rom. of the R
A webbe, a deyer, and a tapiser,
Were alle yclothed in o livere,

Of a solempne and grete fraternite.

Id. The Prologue, v. 364. Graine that you die scarlet withall is worth the batman ready money, 200. shaughs, reconing the shaugh for 6 penca Russe.-Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. i. p. 361.

There is a wood called Logwood or Palo Campichio, it is cheape and yeildeth a glorious blew, but our workmen can not make it sure, this wood you must take with you, and see whether the silke diers or wooll diers in Turkey can do it. Id. Ib. vol. ii. pt. i. p. 165.

And this was of such force, that for the space of five hundred years and more, Lycurgus chief law and ordinances remained in full perfection, as a deep wodded die, which went to the bottom, and pierced into the tender wool. North. Plutarch, p. 65.

In like maner in Norffolke there was assembled an huge number of those vnrulie countrie people which vnder the guiding of a dier of cloth, commonlie called John Littester, that had dwelt in Norwich, attempted and did all such vngratious feats, as they had heard that other did in other parts of the realme.-Holinshed. Rich. II. an. 1381.

We also learned in the dye-houses, that cloth being dyed blue with woad, is afterwards by the yellow decoction of woud-wax or wood-wax, dyed into a green colour. Boyle. Works, pt. iii. vol. i. p. 740. DIE, v. See DEAD. Also written Dye, (qv.) Tho Hengist ysey the Cristene men hym siwe so faste And that he moste nede turne azeyn other deye att laste, He bigan to ordeyne ys folk.-R. Gloucester, p. 139. Thei receyued him fulle faire, & were of him blythe. With him alle, thei said, thei wild lyue and deie. R. Brunne, p. 45 God sent to Saul, by Samuel the prophete. That Agar of Amalek. and al hus lyge puple Sholde deye delfulliche. for dedes of here eldren. Piers Ploukman, p. 59. He wente to him & preiede him, that he schulde come doun, and heele his sonne: for he began to dye.

Wiclif. John, c. 4

For naked as a worme was she
And if the weather stormy were
For cold she should haue died there.

Chaucer. Rom. of the Rose. And the Lorde God commaunded Adam sayinge: Of al trees of the garden se thou eate: but of ye tree of knowledge of good and bad se that thou eate not: for eue ye same day thou eatest of it thou shalt dye ye deth. Bible, 1551. Genesis, c. 2. So raisde they eke faire Ledaes warlike twines, And interchanged life vnto them lent,

Their failure as remedies may be reasonably attributed to the alterations, which the human frame is found to undergo in the revolution of ages by a general change of dietetic regimen.-Knox. Ess. No. 38.

DIET. See Diette, in Menage; Diæta, in Du Cange; Deut, in Wachter; Thiuda in Junius, (Gloss. Goth.) Menage thinks it an application of Diet (above) to a public assembly; because the Germans were anciently accustomed to treat of public affairs in the midst of their festivals. Duchat and Skinner think from Dies, a day; the Ger. Reichs tog, dies imperii translated into Dieta; the day (emphatically) fixed according to the former for pleas or other public business. In English legal proceedings, the parties (in certain cases) pray a Day (sc. for deciding their suit.) Skinner says,-because, R. Steele. To the Author of the Tragedy of Cato. perhaps, the whole time of session was judicially

That when th' one dies, th' other then beginnes
To shew in heauen his brightnes orient.
Spenser. The Ruines of Time.

To my light scenes I once inscrib'd your name,
And impotently strove to borrow fame;
Soon will that die which adds thy name to mine,
Let me, then, live join'd to a work of thine.

There taught us how to live; and (oh, too high
The price for knowledge) taught us how to die.

Tickell. On the Death of Addison.

If then there is a divine assistance promised and vouchsafed to every sincere Christian, in proportion to his trials and temptations, he has none but himself to blame, if he prefers a bad influence to a good one, and lets the adversary of his soul be harkened to more than him that created it, and died to redeem it.-Pearce, vol. ii. Ser. 18.


Fr. Diete; It. and Sp. Dieta; Lat. Diata; Gr. Aiaita. Of uncertain etymology. "A set rule and order of eating and drinking," (Minshew.) To diet, is used, (lit. and met.) as equi

To feed more restrictedly, to feed upon medicated meats, or upon meats prepared to secure or restore health. Diet-breads, and Diet-drinks, were breads and drinks so prepared.

I pray you, cosin, wisely that ye ride;
Governeth you also of your diete

Attemprely. Chaucer. The Shipmannes Tale, v. 13,191.

And than I drynke a bitter swete

With drie lippe, and eien wete.
Lo thus I temper my diete.

Gower. Con. A. b. vi.

But if he wil not, they do but diet hym a season, to winne him and make him tell more, and deliuer hym to the lay power.-Tyndall. Workes, p. 203.

If noo feuer remayne, than vse moderate fricasies, and lyttell eatying, & that of meates hauynge good iuyce, increacynge by lyttell and lyttell to the naturall diete.

Sir T. Elyot. The Castel of Heltk, b. iv. c. 5.
If you go less,

Or take a dyating mercy to protection,
The honour of a father I disclaim in you.

Beaum. & Fletch. The Double Marriage, Act ii. sc. 1. With these threats, Cleopatra for fear yielded straight, as she would have yielded unto strokes and afterwards suffered herself to be cured and dieted as they listed. North. Plutarch, p. 783.

I shall prescribe one receipt to all Christian tempers, which is to acquire the habit of piety and devotion; for this, in our spirituall life, is like a healthfull aire and a temperate diet in our naturall, the best preservative of a rectified faith, and the best disposition to recover from an unsound religion. Mountague. Devoute Essayes, pt. i. Treat. 3. s. 2.

Arui. He cut our rootes in characters, And sawc'st our brothes, as Juno had bin sicke, And he her dieter.-Shakespeare. Cymbeline, Act iv. sc. 2.

The third, dieteticall and prophylacticall receipts of wholesome caution: which I meane (with a determinate præterition of the rest) to spend my hour upon; Save yourselves from this untoward generation.-Bp.Hall. Ser. Acts, ii. 37.

Yet can I set my Gallio's dieting,

A pestle of a lark, or plover's wing;
And warn him not to cast his wonton eyne
On grosser bacon.

Id. b. iv. Sat. 4.
We have dieted a healthy body into a consumption by
plying it with physick instead of food.
Swift. On the Conduct of the Allies.

From the beginning of God's taking them unto his care and patronage, they were fed and maintain'd at the immediate cost and charges of heaven; they were dieted with miracles, with new inventions and acts of providence, the course of nature itself still veiling to their necessities. South, vol. v. Ser. 9.

Twelve orient morns
Have seen him there extended, yet his flesh
Nor putrid taint invades, nor inbred worm,
That diets on the brave in battle fall'n.

Cowper. Homer. Iliad, b. xxiv.

considered as one Day. Lye refers to the Goth. Thiuda, gens, in Junius, (Gloss. Goth.) where Thiuda, thied, or Diet, diæta, are assigned to the A. S. Theod-an, getheod-an, jungere se alicui, associari;-to join or unite, to associate or meet together.

The King of Rome hath sent Gusman, one of the cheefe abowte him, to th' Emperor to exhort him to appoint a dyot in some place of Germanie, for the quietness of the same, which messenger, as yet, hath had no audience.

Lodge. Illustrations of British History, vol. i. p. 170. Viz. the Pope, Emperour, King of Spain, Duke of Bavaria, &c. and of so great consequence joyntlie, and severally to them all, and must of necessity require divers assemblies, commissions, perchance dietts, &c.

Cabbala. The Lord Brook to the Duke, Nov. 1623. Each proselyte would vote his doctor best, With absolute exclusion to the rest: Thus would your Polish die! disagree, And end, as it began, in anarchy.

Dryden. The Hind & the Panther. See DEFAME.


Fr. Différer; It. Differire; Sp. Diferenciar; Lat. Differre, to bear apart, (dis, and ferre.) Vossius says,-Differre is properly dissipare, dividere; to dissipate, to divide; and, (met.) as things dissimilar are said (di-stare) to stand apart; so are they said (differre) to differ.

To bear apart, to separate or divide; to be or cause to be separate or apart, or asunder in place; to dissever or distinguish; to be or cause to be separate, distinct, dissimilar or unlike in appearances; to have dissimilar or unlike properties or qualities; to have, keep or maintain, dissimilar or contradictory ideas, notions or opinions. And thus, to dissent, to disagree, to dispute, to controvert, to debate, to contend.

By this reason then, there commen many maner of knowyngs, to diuerse and to diffryng substaunces. Chaucer. Boecius, b. i. All folke than (qd she) good and eke badde, enforcen hem without difference of entencion to comen to good.—Id. Ib. In makinge of comparison

There maie no difference bee

Betwix a dronken man and mee.-Gower. Con. A. b. vi. There is one maner glory of the sunne, and another glorie of the moone, & another glory of the starres, for one starre differeth fro another in glorie.-Bible, 1551. 1 Cor. c. 15.

But the Lorde shewyng what difference there was betwene the Jewishe righteousnesse, and the righteousnesse of the ghospel: betwene a good Jewe, and a good Christian manne, sayde: If thou will be perfeict, goe and sell all that thou hast, and geue the money to ye poor.-Udal. Matt. c. 19.

Magellane was not altogether deceived, in naming of them giants, for they generally differ from the common sort of men, both in stature, bignesse, and strength of body, as also in the hideousness of their voice: but yet they are nothing so monstrous, or giant-like as they were reported. Sir Francis Drake Revived, p. 28. How now, Sir Knight! What meaneth this which heere I see before? How fortuneth this foule vncomely plight So different from that, which earst ye seem'd in sight? Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. vi. c. 7.

Nay, and in this, thou show'st to value more
One poet, then of other folke ten score.

O pietie! so to weigh the poor's estates!

O bountie! so to difference the rates.

And if it be true both in divinity and law, that consent alone though copulation never follow, makes a marriage, how can they dissolve it for want of that which made it not, and not dissolve it for that not continuing which made it, and should preserve it in love and reason, and difference it from a brute conjugality 1-Milton. Tetrachordon.

So that in these three respects even the communicable attributes of God, are themselves incommunicable; and so they are his name, whereby he is known and differenced from all other beings whatsoever.

Hopkins. Practical Exposition of the Lord's Prayer. Though now great difference be of mortals made, "All shall meet equals, but must first be dead."

Stirling. Domes-Day. The Fifth Hour. Especially the understanding, the supreme faculty of the

soul, which chiefly differenceth us from brute beasts, and

makes us capable of virtue and vice, of rewards and punishments, shall be busied and employed in contemplating the manifested in the structure and composition of them.

works of God, and observing the divine art and wisdom,

Ray. On the Creation, pt. i.

As the difference of tone makes a difference between every man's voice, of the same country, yea family: so a different dialect and pronunciation, differs persons of divers countries; yea persons of one and the same country, speaking the same language.-Derham. Physico-Theology, b. v. c. 9. Note I.

First as to that which belongs to the sight, you must conceive that which is called a white or a black colour not to be any thing, absolutely existing either without your eyes, or within your eyes; but black and white, and every other colour, is caused by different motions made upon the eye from objects differently modified. Cudworth. Intellectual System, p. 10.

When biting serpents are mentioned in the Scripture they are not differentially set down from such as mischief by stings.-Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. vi. c. 28.

Salt petre being but a kind of sal-terræ, generated in very differingly qualified parcels of earth, may probably receive divers qualities from the particular soil wherein it grows. Boyle. Works, vol. i. p. 327.

Intellectual differences shall shortly cease, and then moral differences shall take place; one moment shall equal the learned and the unlearned; the knowing and ignorant person shall at last stand upon equal ground, but the good and bad men shall be differenced for ever.-Bates. Fear of God, c. 9.

Now it is the most becoming the divine goodness not to deal so differently, that the soul should be everlastingly happy, and the body lost in forgetfulness; the one glorified in heaven, the other remain in the dust.

Id. Dr. T. Manton's Fun. Ser. This may be easily done by considering that Christianity when it is thus differently spoken of, is represented to us in two very different views of it.-Pearce, vol. ii. Ser. 18.

Therefore weight is made by the differencial, not the absolute pressure of earth. Search. Light of Nature, vol. ii. pt. ii. c. 22. It. and Fr. Difficile; Sp. Dificil; Lat. Difficilis, difficile; difficult; hard to be





The said Alcibiades became so industrious that were it good or yuel that he enterprised, nothing almost escaped that he acheued nat, were the thing neuer so difficyle, (or as who sayth) impenitrable.

Sir T. Elyot. Governour, b. i. c. 23. Truly it was a woorthy sentence of suche a prince. What thing is it, be it neuer so difficile, begunne by a vertuous man, but there is hope to have a good end thereof? Golden Boke, c. 45.

That, that should give motion to an unweildy bulk, which itself hath neither bulk or motion; is of as difficil an apprehension, as any mystery in nature.

Glanvill. Vanity of Dogmatizing, c. 3.

The lighter sort of malignitie, turneth but to a crosnesse, or frowardnesse, or aptnesse to oppose, or difficilnesse or the like, but the deeper sort to envie and meere mischief. Bacon. Ess. Of Goodness.

The inordinateness of our love dificilitateth this duty [charity].—Mountague. Devoute Essayes, pt.i. Treat.15. s.4. Beside, 'tis known he could speak Greek As naturally as pigs squeak;

That Latin was no more difficile,

Than to a blackbird 'tis to whistle.—Hudibras, pt. i. c. 1. DIFFICULT, adj. Lat. Difficilis, that can




or may not be done, (sc.) easily, (dis, qv. and fa

cilis, that can or may be done.)

Fr. Difficulté; It. Difficoltà; Sp. Difficuldad. Cotgrave explains the Fr. verb, Difficulter," To difficultate or difficilitate; to make difficult or uneasie; to make it a hard matter, to make bones

B. Jonson. An Epigram to King Charles. of."

Difficult, That can or may not be done, (sc.) easily, without labour, without skill, without learning, without trouble; and thus, troublesome, laborious, hard, uneasy.

Dame, (quod he,) God yeve you right good lif,
Ye have here touched, all so mote I the,
In scole matere a ful gret dificultee..

Chaucer. The Freres Prologue, v. 6854.

The world knoweth that the desires of princes have bene so feruent to obtain their purpose, that they haue aduentured and prooued things to man's coniecture impossible, the which they haue made possible, and also things difficulte haue made facile.-Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. i. p. 212.

Kynge Henry not myndynge to lye still in Normandy, nor to leaue his interprice vnperformed, sent the Duke of Clarence to the sea coaste whiche with greate difficulty gatte

the toune of Bayeux.-Hall. Hen. V. an. 6.

The difficultnes of this present worke, considering mine owne want of experience, not only in matters of war, but also in diuers other things whereof this history entreateth, did dissuade & in manner discourage me frō enterprising the träslatiō thereof.-Goldinge. Casar. Comm. Pref.

To doe great things, when generous minds devise,
Paine pleasure gives, things difficult entice.
Stirling. Jonathan.

Nor how by mastering difficulties 80,

In times unusual, and by passage hard,
He bravely came to disappoint his foe,
And many times surpris'd him unprepar'd.

Daniel. A Funeral Poem.

Prayer is one of the greatest and hardest works that a man has to do in this world; and was ever any thing difficult or glorious atchieved by a sudden cast of a thought? a flying stricture of the imagination.-South, vol. ii. Ser. 3.

If I should give myself scope to pursue each particular through all the difficulties that might attend it, it would fill a much larger discourse than the measure of the present exercise will allow.-Id. vol. ix. Ser. 8.

If we can practise the duty of forgiving an enemy, we shew that our hearts have made no mean proficiency in the love both of God and man. We shew our love of God by complying with one of the most difficult precepts of religion for his sake.-Gilpin, vol. ii. Ser. 41.

Let us see, then, whether by attending to the practice of mathematicians and natural philosophers, as contrasted with the practice of those who have treated of the human mind, we can make any discovery preparatory to the solution of this diflculty.-Beattie. On Truth, pt. ii. c. 1. s. 1.





Fr. Diffident; It. and Sp. Diffidente; Lat. Diffidens, pres. part. of Diffidere, (dis, and fidere, to trust.) See CoN


To distrust or be distrustful, to disbelieve, to discredit, to doubt; to be uncertain, to have or place no trust or faith or credit.

But in difidence and distrust they were like Nichodemus which sayd: how may a man be borne againe when he is olde? And peradventure ye farther of fro endeuour toward belieuing.-Sir T. More. Workes, p. 1061.

For should not graue and learned Experience,
That looks with th' eyes of all the world beside,
And with all ages holds intelligence,

Go safer than deceit without a guide?
Which in the by-paths of her diffidence,

Crossing the ways of right still runs more wide.
Daniel. Musophilus.

Daughter of God and man, immortal Eve,
For such thou art, from sin and blame entire:
Not diffident of thee do I dissuade
Thy absence from my sight, but to avoid
Th' attempt itself, intended by our foe.

Milton. Paradise Lost, b. ix.

On the morrow my Lord of Canterbury perused this declaration and as he found it to be uncertainly and diffidently set down for some other circumstances, so he discovered there one thing much to be observed.

State Trials. The Countess of Essex, an. 1613 In the council-board he had the ability still to give himself the best council, but the unhappy modesty to diffide in it. South, vol. v. Ser. 2.

The use that our Saviour makes of this lively description of Providence, is to teach us to rely at all times upon the care and protection of God, without unreasonable anxiety, diffidence, and distrust.-Clarke, vol. i. Ser. 34.

Fid. Because he thought it,-who is a man of that sense, nice discerning, and diffidency, that I should think it hard to deceive him.-Wycherly. The Plain Dealer, Act iv. sc. 1.

But I remember, too, that you disapproved of the manner in which the civil war was conducted; and that, far from Yeing satisfied either with the strength or nature of Pompey's forces, you were always extremely diffident of their success; In which I need not add, I entirely agreed with you. Melmoth. Cicero, b. ix. Let. 4.

There were some essays made, faintly, diffidently, and occasionally at first, like those of men, who, emerging out of darkness, were dazzled as well as enlightened. Bolingbroke. On Human Reason, Ess. 2. s. 12. DIFFLUENCY. Lat. Diffluere, to flow apart. See CONFLOW.

A flowing apart; fluidity.

But ice is water congealed by the frigidity of the air;
whereby it requireth no new form, but rather a consistence
or determination of its diffluency, and omitteth not its
essence, but condition of fluidity.
Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. ii. c. 1.
DIFFORM. Fr. Difforme is Deformed, (qv.)
DIFF'ORMITY. Eng. Difform is applied to dis-
similarity or unlikeness in form: opposed to uni-
form. See DEFORM.

The unequal refractions of difform rays proceed not from
any contingent irregularities; such as are veins, an uneven
polish or fortuitous position of the pores of glass.-Newton.

They are all and each of them attributes of the whole, attributes of the one simple infinite being; just as the powers of hearing and seeing, are not inequalities or difformities in the soul of man; but each of them, powers of the whole Boul.-Clarke. Answer to Sixth Letter.

DIFFU'SE, adj.


It. Diffondere; Lat. Diffundere, diffusum, to pour apart or abroad, (dis, and fundere, to pour.) See CONFOUND.

To pour apart or abroad; to spread abroad, to spread or disperse widely; to extend; to expand.

G. Douglas uses Diffound.

Or that the charme and venum, which they drunk,
Their bloud with secret filth infected hath,
Being diffused through the senselesse trunk,
That through the great contagion direfull deadly stunk.
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. 2.

Let the statutes of God be turn'd over, be scann'd anew,
and considered not altogether by the narrow intellectuals of
quotationists and common places, but (as was the antient
right of councils) by men of what liberal profession soever,
of eminent spirit and breeding, join'd with a diffuse and va-
rious knowledge of divine and human things.

Milton. To the Parlament of England.

But I omit further prosecution of this matter, since these
places have been more diffusely urged in a late discourse to
this purpose.-Glanvill. Pre-existence of Souls, c. 11.

And the consolations we have, are called the comforts of
the Holy Ghost. Acts, xi. 38.
diffuser of them into our hearts, &c.
As being the author and
Goodwin. Works, vol. v. pt. i. p. 19.
And therefore the determination of councils pertains to
all, and is handled by all, not in diffusion but in representa-
tion.-Bp. Taylor. Episcopacy Asserted.

The divine benignity is much more diffusire than the
light, the air, the most communicable element in the world,
and filleth every thing according to its measure and capacity
of reception.-Hale. Cont. vol. i. Of Humility.

And then, what is so much larger than the particulars
diffusively taken is sure very unlikely to be the summ of
them.-Hammond. Works, vol. ii. pt. iv. p. 71.

He [Horeman] was one of the most generall schollars of
his age, as may appear by the diffusiveness of his learning,
and books written in all faculties.
Fuller. Worthies. Wiltshire.

His virtues diffused throughout the whole world (because
we know not what his proper name is) we invoke under dif-
ferent names.-Cudworth. Intellectual System, p. 276.

One of my designs I had in making this experiment,
being to examine a conjecture I had made about the great
diffusedness of the noctilucal matter.
Boyle. Works, vol. iv. p. 482.
Pleas'd that her magic fame diffusely flies,
Thus with a horrid smile the hag replies.

Mr. Warburton's text, as well as all others, read,

"she would infect to the north-star;" and it is the diffusedness, or extent of her infection which is here described.-Edwards. The Canons of Criticism, c. 22.

A sentiment, which, expressed diffusely, will barely be admitted to be just, expressed concisely, will be admired as spirited.-Blair, Lect. 18.

If I were to choose, I should clearly give the preference to the style resembling winter snow, that is, to the full and diffusive; in short, to that pomp of eloquence, which seems all heavenly and divine.-Melmoth. Pliny, b. i. Let. 20. Grand reservoirs of public happiness, Through secret streams diffusively they bless. Young. Love of Fame, Sat. 6. beyond doubt, the most illustrious instance that can be Of a beautiful and magnificent diffusiveness, Cicero is, given.-Blair, Lect. 18. DIG, v. DIGGER. DIGGING, U.


a trench, ditch,

A. S. Dician; A. Saxonibus est Fossam fodere: (Lye.) i.e. to dig a ditch. Somner, to make dike or moat. See DIKE, and

To dig, as now used, is to raise, turn or throw up, or turn over the earth, (sc.) with a spade or other tool.

Dykers and delvers diggeden up the balkes.

Piers Plouhman, p. 134. And he answered vii. lambes shalte thou take of my hande, that it maye be a wytnesse vnto me, yt I have dygged this well.-Bible, 1551. Genesis, c. 21.

And trees far under earth, (by daily digging found.)

Drayton. Poly-Olbion, s. 28.

Metalls elsewhere are digged, as out of the bowells of the earth, so out of the bowells of the land; I mean so far from any conveyance by water, that the expence of the portage swallows much of the profits thereof.

Fuller. Worthies. Wales, generally.

But the rarest invention is the supplying the miners with fresh aire, which is performed by two men's blowing wind by a paire of bellows on the outside of the adit, into a pipe of lead, daily lengthened as the mine is made onger, whereby the candle in the mine is daily kept burning, and the diggers recruited constantly with a sufficiency of breath. This invention was the master-piece of Sir Francis Bacon. Id. Ib.

A rav'nous vulture in his open side,
Her crooked beak and cruel talons try'd:
Still for the growing liver digg'd his breast;
The growing liver still supply'd the feast.

Dryden. Virgil. Eneid, b. vi.

On that principle, the wedge-like snout of a swine, with its tough cartilage at the end, and little sunk eyes, and the whole make of the head, so well adapted to its offices of digging and rooting, would be extremely beautiful.


Burke. On the Sublime and Beautiful. Gr. Aryuuia, a second marriage; from Ai-yau-ew, to marry twice or a second time. Fr. Digame. Digamy and Bigamy were formerly used indiscriminately. See BIGAMY.

And for the ordinary digamy, the marrying a second after the decease of the former, that that should be so reproachfull and blameable in any, as to render one incapable of holy orders (which they are capable of, which have been guilty of some faults) this is not imaginable neither. Hammond. Works, vol. i. p. 597.

Then for the other interpretation, that here the digamist, or he that hath had two wives successively one after another, should be made incapable of holy orders, or be under soro reproach for so doing, &c.-Id. Ib.

divorce, and then that which followeth of the digamist will
Therefore it must probably signifle her that is departed by
also concur with it, to interpret his sense to this purpose.
Id. Ib. vol. iii. p. 693.

DIGA'MMA. Gr. Ais yauua, a figurâ; the
Rowe. Lucan, b. vi. Double Gamma, so named from its form, F. One
Gamma set upon another.

Thus to the noon of her high glory run,
From her bright orb, diffusive like the sun,
She did her healing influence display.

Stepney. To the Memory of Queen Mary.
Rectified spirit of human blood abounds with very subtle
particles, which in point of taste, odour, diffusiveness and
penetrancy, do much resemble those of strong spirits of
urine, of hartshorn, and of sal-armoniac.

Boyle. Works, vol. iv. p. 637.

But when the star, day's harbinger, arose,
Soon after whom, in saffron vest attir'd,
The morn her beams diffuses o'er the sea,
The pyre, then wasted, ceas'd to flame.

While tow'ring o'er your alphabet, like Saul, Stands our digamma, and o'ertops them all. Pope. The Dunciad, b. 1 From the same roo. [ol] we have a word for the wild goat of the mountains, from its climbing upwards: also for the leaf of a tree, from its superiour situation; whence, from the for digamma prefixed, we have the Latin folium.

Horne. On the Use of the Hebrew Language. DIGA'STRICK. Gr. Διs, and γαστήρ, the "Fr. Digastrique, having two bellies," Cowper, Homer. Iliad, b. xxiii. (Cotgrave.) Printed erroneously in Paley.


« PredošláPokračovať »