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The castelle now is golden, the kyng dos wardeyns wise To kepe the lond & dres the folk for to justise. R. Brunne, p. 327. And schrewid thingis schulen be into dresside thingis: And croked thinges shall be made streighte. Bible, 1551.] and scharpe thingis into pleyn weycs.-Wiclif. Luk, c. 3.
And the Lord dresse ghoure hertis [gyde your heartes. Bible, 1551.] in the charite of God, and in the pacience of Crist. Id. 2 Thessalonians, c. 3.
For if a rich man him dresse,
Chaucer. Rom. of the Rose.
No more of this make I now mentioun, But to Griselde agen I wol me dresse, And tell hire constance, and hire besinesse. Id. The Clerkes Tale, v. 8883. At alle times thou shalt blesse God, and preie him to dresse thy wayes.-Id. The Tale of Melibeus.
The lampe must be dressed and snuffed dayly, and that oyle poured in euery euening and morning, that the light goe not out.-Tyndall. Workes, p. 453.
The said he to the dresser of his vyneyarde, beholde, this thre yeare haue I come and sought frute in this fygge tree, & fynde none, cut it down.-Bible, 1551. Luke, c. 13.
Syr Kyng, Cryste greetyth the wele, and hys mylde moder Mary, with also John Baptyst & Peter, comaunde ye streyghtlye. yt no markettes nor seruyle warkys be holden vpon ye Sonday, in ye londys of thy lordeshyp-out take that longeth to dressynge of mete.-Fabyan. Works, vol. i. c. 237. For the dressing of wool hath beene euer an honest occupation for a good woman. Vives. Instruction of a Christian Woman, b. i. c. 2. Women by nature pitiful, have eat Their children (dress'd with their own hand) for meat. Donne. Lamentations, c. 4. Clar. Yet women sure, in such a case, are ever More secret than men are.
Yea, and talk less.
Rom. That is a truth much fabled, never found.
Pul. I am glad of it.
Massinger. The Emperor of the East.
Car. I will make one myself, and foot it finely;
The store of every fruitful field,
And as hair to quadrupeds, so feathers are as commodious a dress to such as fly in the air, to birds, and some insects; not only a good guard against wet and cold, and a comfortable covering to such as hatch and brood their young, but also most commodious for their flight.
Derham. Physico-Theology, b. iv. c. 12.
I had not been there above a month, when, being in the kitchen, I saw some oatmeal on the dresser. Spectator, No. 431.
But Christianity does not aim at what it is here falsely said to do it does not attempt to take place of natural religion; on the contrary, it serves to support it; nay it is that very religion itself in a better dress, and with fences about it for its greater strength and efficacy.
Pearce, vol. i. Ser. 15.
The shepherd, the sorter of the wool, the wool comber or carder, the dyer, the scribbler, the spinner, the weaver, the fuller, the dresser, with many others, must all join their different arts in order to complete even this homely production.-Smith. Wealth of Nations, b. i. c. 1.
When the cook brings out her flour, her sewet, her sugar, her raisins, they still are but what they were before, though laid ever so close upon the dresser.
Search. Light of Nature, vol. ii. pt. i. c. 2.
DRETCH, v. Į In Chaucer, Junius says, is, DRE'TCHING, n. to prolong time, to linger, to delay. Sw. Droeja, cunctari, which Ihre derives from Drag-a, trahere, trahere moras, to draw or prolong time; (to dredge,) and see Dr. Jamieson, in v. Dreich.
To prolong, to protract, to delay, to linger, to weary; to be tedious or tiresome, wearisome or troublesome, to trouble, to harass.
And for his doughter sende ageyn,
To glad with that sory man.-Id. Ib. b. viii.
And if it so bytide this nyght,
That the in slepe dreche ani wight,
To dribble is the diminutive.
drived, driv'd, drift.
To drift,-to move or cause to move along, like any thing driven, (sc.) by a stream, by a current of wind or water.
Drift, n. (met.) any thing driven or aimed at, or intended; the aim, intention or purpose.
At night we found much broken yce, and all this night it blewe very much winde, so that we lay in drift with the yce and our drift was south, for the wind was at north all this night, and we had great store of snow.
Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. i. p. 450. Mr. Steevens, upon the passage below from Thinking ourselves in good securitie, we were greatly enMeasure for Measure, says, "A dribber, in archery, dangered with a piece of drift yee, which the ebbe brought was a term of contempt, which cannot be satisfac-foorth of the sounds and came thwart vs ere we were aware. torily explained." But see the example from Id. Ib. vol. iii. p. 65. Ascham. But at the last they found ye meanes to contriue a drift to bring their matters to passe.-Tyndall. Workes, p. 363.
I saw diuers that were caried away thens in cribbes
So if a man be never so apt to shoote, nor never so well taughte in his youth to shoote, yet if he geue it over, and not use to shoote, truly when he shall be eyther compelled in warre time for his country's sake, or else provoked at home for his pleasure sake, to faule to his bowe: he shall become of a fayre archer, a starke squyrter and dribber.
Ascham. The School of Shotinge. Duk. No: holy Father, throw away that thought, Beleeue not that the dribling dart of loue Can pierce a compleat bosome.
Shakes. Meas. for Meas. Acti. sc. 4.
Howbeit, there passed some dribbling skirmishes betweene the rereward of the Carthaginians and the forlorne hope and vaunt-courriers of the Romanes.-Holland. Livivs, p. 597. For small temptations allure but dribling offenders! but a great purchase will call such as both are most able of themselves, and will be most enabled hereby to compass dangerous projects.-Milton. An Apology for Smectymnuus. He charged each of them shake hands together, And when they met to say, Good morrow brother; Thus each quit other all old debts and driblets, And set the hare's head against the goose's giblets. Harrington, b. i. Epig. 91.
And out of all's ill-gotten store
Brome. Songs. The Reformation.
Do not. I pray thee, the paper stain
We'll take no blundering verse, no fustian tumor, No dribbling love from this or that presumer: No dull fat fool shamm'd on the stage for humour. Dryden. Prol. Union of the two Companies, 1686. Which receiver, although the corn be put into it by bushels, allows the grain to dribble only in small quantities into the central hole in the upper mill stone.
Paley. Natural Theology, c. 15. DRIE. Scotch, Dree. Lye says," Drie, drien, tolerare, pati; A. S. Dreog-an, idem notat," i. e. to endure, to suffer. See Dree, in Jamieson, who considers Dreog-an to be radically the same with drag-an, to draw, to drag along. And see DRETCH.
Drye, in Le Bone Florence, wearisome. coigne writes it Droy.
All his [Cardinal Wolsey] felicitie and inward joy hath euer bene to exercise that aungel's wit of his (as my Lord of Lincolne was wont to praise him,) in driving of such driftes to beguile all men and to binde the whole world withall. Id. Ib. p. 373.
For that hereby thou might'st win confidence
Daniel. Civil War, b. i.
The proper work of man, the grand drift of human life, is to follow reason, (that noble spark kindled in us from heaven; that princely and powerfull faculty, which is able to reach so lofty objects, and to atchieve so mighty works.) Barrow, vol. i. Ser. 14.
The pieces of ice, both great and small, which broke from the island, I observed, drifted fast to the westward; that is, they left the island in that direction, and were in a few hours spread over a large space of sea.
Cook. Voyages, vol. iii. b. i. c. 3. But so strangely perverse is his commentator, that he will suppose him to mean any thing rather than what the obvious drift of his argument requires. Warburton. On Pope's Essay of Man.
Seeing no land in that direction, I stood back to the eastward about fifteen leagues, and met with nothing but driftwood.-Cook. Voyages, vol. vi. b. iv. c. 8.
DRILL, v. DRILL, n. DRILLING,
"A. S. Thirl-ian, perforare, tornare, terebrare, penetrare; to pierce or bore through, to drill. Belgis, Drillen, trillen: and hereof our drill for a rivolet or watercourse; as piercing, penetrating through the ground for vent or passage," (Somner.) Hence also a drill, for receiving seed; and the now common word drill-husbandry. Drill-bow and drill-plate, are used in mechanics.
To drill, is also to turn about, drive round, as in the act of boring; and hence, Wachter says, trillen, Eng. Drill, is-to harass or weary; and hence, further, trill-meister, drill-master, who harasses or wearies the soldiers by military exercise; and thus, to bring or lead, to train, by constant practice or exercise.
Drill, is also a name given to an ape or baboon; perhaps contracted from drivel, (qv.)
Pio. I fir'd it; and gave him then three sweats
Beaum. & Fletch. Martial Maid, Act ii sc 3
Hath no acquaintance yet with rugged war,
His body to such dangers.-Id. Coronation, Acti eo L.
So does a thirsty land drink up all the dew of heaven that wets its face, and the greater shower makes no torrent, nor digs so much as a little furrow, that the drils of the water might pass into rivers, or refresh their neighbour's weariness.-Bp. Taylor, vol. i. Ser. 6.
He that but saw thy curious captain's drill,
B. Jonson. A Speech according to Horace.
Massinger. The Unnatural Combat, Act iii. sc. 1. There was no water on this island but at one place on the east-side, close by the sea; there it drills slowly down from the rocks where it may be received in vessels.
Dampier. Voyages, an. 1684.
Shall the difference of hair only on the skin, be a mark of a different internal specifick constitution between a changeling and a drill, when they agree in shape, and want of reason and speech ?-Locke. On Hum. Underst. b. iii. c. 6.
DRINK, v. DRINK, n. DRINKABLE. DRINKER. DRINKING, n.
Goth. Driggkan; A. S. Drinkan, drencan; Dut. Drincken; Ger. Trincken; Sw. Dricka, potare, bibere. See DRUNK and DRENCH.
To draw in at the mouth and swallow, (sc.) any liquid; to draw in or imbibe, to absorb, to inhale, to receive or take in eagerly, like one thirsty; to receive or take in, (sc.) by the senses of hearing or seeing.
Drinkhayl, quoth this kyng agen, & bed hire drinke anon. R. Gloucester, p. 118. En tempre he was of mete, & drynke, and of slep also. Id. p. 429. The Englysse al the nygt byuore vaste bygon to synge And spende al the nygt in glotonye & in dryngynge. Id. p. 360. Soudan so curteys neuer dranke no wyne. R. Brunne, p. 188. Lo Loth in us lyve yorowe lecherous drenke Wickedliche wroght. äd wratthede God Al myghty In hus dronknesse. Piers Plouhman, p. 14. Than ye schulen bigynne to seye we an etun bifore thee and drunkun: and in oure streetis thou hast tauht. Wiclif. Luk, c. 13.
As to litle children in Crist I ghaf to ghou mylk drynk not mete. Id. 1 Corynthians, c. S.
The sone of man cam etynge and drynkynge: and they seyen lo a man a gloutoun and a drynkere of wyn, and a frend of pupplicanes and of synful men.--Id. Matthew, c. 11.
The sonne of ma came eatynge and drynckynge, and they say, behold a glutton and dryncker of wine, and a frende vnto publicans and synners.-Bible, 1551. Matthew, c. 11. For the tyme that is passid is ynow to the wille of hethene men to be endid, whiche walkidin in leccheries and lustis, in mych drynkung of wyn, unmesurable etingis and drynkingis, and unleeful worschiping of mawmetis.
Wiclif. 1 Peter, c. 4.
They sing loud anthems of his endless praise;
Cowley. The Davideis, b. i. Whoso of it [a fountaine] doth but onely taste All former memory from him doth waste, Not changing any other worke of nature, But doth endowe the drinker with a feature More lovely.-Browne. Britannia's Pastorals, b. i. s. 2. Let every one of us keep the Sabbath spiritually; delighting in the meditation of the law, not in the ease of the body, wondering at the works of God, not indulging to delicious banquets, and softer drinkings or dancings, that do not better the understanding.
Bp. Taylor. Rule of Conscience, b. ii. c. 2.
On leaves of trees and bitter herbs she fed,
It is true, whilst we are in the body, there are some things necessary to our being in it, though not our being happy; as meat, and drink, and clothing, which are the ordinary means, whereby these houses of clay wherein we dwell, are supported and defended from wind and weather. Bp. Beveridge, vol. ii. Ser. 112.
By this means the water would become drinkable with some coolness, from the beginning of the morning to nine or ten of the clock, after which it would grow distastefully hot. Boyle. Works, vol. v. p. 698.
Of bottles next succeeds a goodly train, Full of what cheers the heart, and fires the brain: Each waited on by a bright virgin glass, Clean, sound, and shining like its drinker's lass. Olway. Epistle to Mr. Duke. And yet it is certain, that instead of thought, books, and study, most free-thinkers are the proselytes of a drinkingclub.-Bp. Berkeley. The Minute Philosopher, Dial. 2.
To this I answer thus. If the glass be nothing else but an useful drinking-glass, and these words fully express what it is, to treat it accordingly is, indeed, to drink out of it, when there is occasion, and it is truly useful, and to break it designedly is to do what is wrong.
Wollaston. Religion of Nature, s. 1.
To this end the person who wanted to drink applied his mouth, and the assistant then taking his hand from the other, and admitting the air above, the cane immediately parted with its contents, which the drinker drew off till he was satisfied.-Cook. Voyages, vol. i. b. i. c. 3.
Stop it down: and in a few days it will be brisk, and drinkable. Id. Ib. vol. iii. b. i. c. 1.
DRIP, v. A. S. Driop-an, droppan; Dut. DRIPPING, n. Druipen; Ger. Trieffen; Sw. See DRIB, and DROP. Drypa; to drop, to distil. To fall or descend in very small portions or particles; to come in very small quantities.
Having roasted him enough,-let what was put into his belly, and what drips, be his sauce. Walton. Angler, pt. i. c. 13. Sir God. [At the door.] He drips and drops poor man: alas, alas-Anonymous. The Puritan, Act iv.
Weep, O ye barrels! let your drippings fall
Corbet. On John Dawson, Butler of Christ Church.
But I do think, that it is better to bask in the sun, and suck a fortuitous sustenance from the scanty drippings of the most barren rocks in Switzerland, with freedom for my friend, than to batten as a slave, at the most luxurious table of the greatest despot on the globe.
DRIVE, v. DRIVE. n. DRIVER. DRIVING, n. DROVE.
Anecd. of Bp. Watson, vol. i. p. 121. A. S. Drif-an, a-drif-an, be-drifan; Dut. Dryven; Ger. Treiban; Sw. Drifwa. 'Adrif-an, repellere, expellere, ejicere, abigere, fugare, to drive away, repell, expell, cast out. Be-drif-an, adigere, cogere, impellere, to compel, to constrain or enforce one to do a thing, to drive or thrust in or upon," (Somner.) See DRIFT, and ADRIFT. Chaucer, in Rom. of the Rose, writes Drife, and Wiclif and others form the past tense Drof.
To drive or force, into motion, into action; to force to proceed or move along; it is distinguished from drag thus;
Any thing driven (the drove) is followed by the driver or drover, and does not imply contact: Any thing dragged follows that which drags, and does imply contact; and there is the same distinction (with respect to place) between pull and push. And see DRAW, ante.
To drive or force, to urge or hurry along. To drive or aim at, to intend or purpose. To drive or force, to compel; to drive to or towards, to impel; to drive out, to expel; to drive back, to repel; to drive forward, to propel.
Drive, n. is common in speech, as-to take a drive in the Drive of Hyde Park.
Heo chargede here schippes faste and wel with alle gode,
And overe turnede in the temple. here tables and here
And drof hem out alle. that there bowten, a (or) solde. Piers Plouhman, p. 312. And whanne he hadde maad as it were a scourge of smale cordis, he droof out alle of the temple, and oxen and scheep. Wiclif. John, c. 2.
So nigh I drow to disperaunce
I rought of death, ne of life
Whether that love would me drife.—Chaucer. R. of the R.
I rede thee loue away to driue,
That maketh thee reck not of thy liue.-Id. D.
And tooke him of his arrows fiue,
Full sharp and redy for to driue.-Id. Ib.
And in Northumberlonde arrineth,
Whiche vpon Humber banke stood.-Gower. Con. A. b. il
When cloudes ben driven, then rides the racke; Phoebus the freshe ne shooteth still,
Sometime he harpes his muse to wake.
Vncertaine Auctors. The Meane Estate (from Horace.) The carts with the driuers, and with the oxen, camels, asses, and mules, with the whole carriage and victuals he tooke and brought with him. Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. ii. pt. i. p. 84.
As it may be proued true, if ye sink a sayle by a couple of ropes, neere the ground, fastning to the nethermost corners two gunne chambers or other weights; by the driuing whereof you shall plainly perceive the course of the water, and current, running with such course in the bottome. Id. Ib. vol. iii. p. 15.
This king hath 1000 tame elephants, which are kept euen as we keepe droues of oxen, or flocks of shepe in pasture. Id. Ib. vol. ii. pt. i. p. 57.
With that he drives at them with dreadful might
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. iv. c. 5. Thither resorted also the baser sort certaine well knowen to Vitellius by means of vnhonest seruices, which in time past they had done him, as buffons, stage-players, and charet drivers; with which kinde of reproachfull acquaintance ho was delited wonderfully -Savile. Tacitus, p. 93.
For betwixt the laity and the clergy there is, as it were, a continual driving of a bargain, something the clergy would still have us be at, and therefore many things are heard from the preacher with suspicion.-Selden. Table Talk, p.98. It seemeth that Jubal first gathered together, and made familiar those beasts which formerly were untamed, and brought them into herds and droves.
Ralegh. History of the World, b. i. c. 5. s. 5.
For then a certain
Davenant. The Wits, Act i. sc. 1. The main thing in it, at which it chiefly drives, is, to press
the king to finish first & civil league with them, and to leave those particulars concerning religion to be afterwards treated of.-Burnet. History of Reformation, an. 1538. Addenda.
The multitude, or common rout, like a drove of sheep, or an heard of oxen, may be managed by any noise, or cry which their drivers shall accustom them to.
South, vol. ii. Ser. 9.
Besides, their pace was formal, grave, and slack;
Divers drovers from Wales, by his means and procurement, had an allowance by order of the house, for £3000. in satisfaction of losses they had sustained by the enemy.
Parliamentary History. Charles I. an. 1647.
Ten cook's shops and twice the number of barbers: and all within three minutes driving.
Sterne. Tristram Shandy, vol. vii. c. 17. We were stopped several times by long droves of mules carrying corn to Valencia; their conductors, most savagelooking fellows, all clad in leather; their broad belts were fastened behind their waist with seven buckles.
Swinburn. Spain, Let. 14. DRIVEL, v. Skinner, Drivel, saDRI'VEL, N. liva, from Ger. Trieffen, DRIVELLER. treopffeln, stillare, to drop. DRIVELLING, n. A drivell or droile, (one who is driven about any where,) Junius derives from the Dut. Drivel, which Kilian interprets, "Mediastinus servus. Ang. Drivill." Skinner thinks the Dut. Drevel is from the verb Drevelen, itare, frequenter itare, (q.d.) one who is constantly running, (i. e. driven) about; and this evidently from the Dut. Driven, to drive. Drivel, saliva, is itself, (there can scarcely be a doubt) the diminutive of drive, and means expulsum, driven out, as saliva from the mouth.
To drive out, (sc.) the saliva or slaver; as infants, drills, ideots do; to slaver; and thus
Drivel, or Driveller, (Droil or Drill, qv.) is a slaverer, and consequentially, an ideot, a dotard. Thus thei drevelen atte deyes. the deyte to knowe.
Piers Ploukman, p. 185. Lykest thou not this? No, why? for swine so grones In stye, and chaw dung moulded on the ground; And driuel on pearles, with head still in the maunger; So of the harpe the asse doth heare the sound.
Wyat. How to Vse the Court, &c. What wilt thou more? what wilt thou craue, Since she is as thou wouldst her haue? Then set this driuel out of dore
That in thy braines such tales doth poure. Incertaine Auctors. The Louer describeth his whole state, &c.
And yet speake I not this either to encourage the husbande to vse his wife as a vile dreuell, because she is commaunded to obeye, or to discomforte the wife, because she is subject to her husbande.-Udal. Corinth. c. 11.
For, said he, kissing Charita, if thou didst know what a life I lead with that drivel, it would make thee even of pity, receive me into thy only comfort.-Sidney. Arcadia, b. iii.
His even and mouth faire closed without any staring, gaping, or frowning, also without any driueling or spurging in any place of his body.
Fox. Martyrs, p. 740. Verdict of the Inquest on R. Hun. Clara. Thro' his lean chops a chattering he doth make Which stirs his staring beastly drivel'd beard,
And his sharp horns he seem'd at us to shake:
But if some old acquaintaunce cum who hath been long away,
Or sum good honest neighbour els through sletie drisling day Do cease from woorke, we mery make. Drant. Horace, b. ii. Sat. 2. The draffysh declaratyons of my Lorde Boner, with such other dirty dryselings of Antichrist. Bale. Yet a Course, &c. fol. 97. But see the drisling south, my mournful straine Answers, in weeping drops of quick'ning raine. Browne. Britannia's Pastorals, b. i. s. 4. Or that these teares that drissel from mine eyes, Had power to mollify his stony heart, That, when I had him, we might neuer part.
Marlow. Edw. II. Sometimes, tho' but seldom, when these winds blow, the sky is over-cast with small clouds, which afford much drizling small rain.—Dampier. Voyage, vol. ii. pt. iii. c. 1. Thus easy rob'd, they to the fountain sped, That in the middle of the court up threw, A stream, high-spouting from its liquid bed, And falling back again in drizzly dew. Thomson. Castle of Indolence, c. 1. At two in the afternoon the sky became cloudy and hazy; the wind increased to a fresh gale: blew in squalls attended with snow, sleet, and drizzling rain. Cook. Voyage, vol. iii. b. i. c. 3. See DRIVEL, supra; and Droile in Jamieson.
DROIL. DROIL, v.
We will not be of any occupation,
Let such vile vassals borne to base vocation Drudge in the world, and for their living droyle, Which have no wit to live withouten toyle. Spenser. Mother Hubbard's Tale. Finding the ease she had from her visible and sensuous collegue the body, in performance of religious duties, her pinions now broken, and flagging, shifted off from herself the labour of high soaring any more, [the soul] forgot her heavenly flight, and left the dull and droyling carcase to plod on in the old road, and drudging trade of outward conformity.-Millon. Of Reformation in England.
Then I begin to rave at my star's bitterness,
Fr. Drole, or draule. "Droler, to play the wag, to pass away the time as a good fellow, merrily or carelessly," (Cotgrave.) Kilian and some other etymologists refer to some northern demons, so called. The Dut. Drollen, volvere; Ger. Troll; Eng. Troll, to turn, roll or
Drayton. The Muses' Elysium, Nymphal 10. tumble about, seems a more simple and satisfactory
But when he spied her his saint,
He wipte his greasie shoes,
And clear'd the driuell from his beard, And thus the shepheard wooes.
To roll or tumble about; to play tumbler's tricks, to make ridiculous gestures, play merry
Warner. Albion's England, b. iv. c. 20. antics, to joke, to jest, to trick.
Both they vnwise, and warelesse of the euill,
That by themselues, vnto themselues is wrought, Through that false witch and that foule aged dreuil, The one a fiend, the other an incarnate Devil.
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. iv. c. 2.
No man could spit from him, without it [the tongue;] but would be forced to drivle, like some paraliticks or a fool; the tongue being a stop-cock to the air, till upon its suddain removal, the spittle is thereby driven away before it.
Grew. Cosmo Sacra, b. i. c. 5.
This driveling knight, with pockets full,
Somervile. The Happy Disappointment.
This quaint improvement on an Egyptian blunder, by some drivelling Greek mythologist, as rank as it is, is one of the chief circuinstances on which our illustrious author hath thought fit to support his chronology.
Warburton. Divine Legation, b. iv. s. 5.
In life's last scene what prodigies surprise,
Johnson. The Vanity of Human Wishes.
Shows, called drolleries, were in Shakespeare's time performed by puppets. From these our modern drolls exhibited at fairs, &c. took their name, (Steevens.) And see Drake, (vol i. p. 252.) See the quotations from Beaumont and Fletcher, and from Watts.
As Killegrew buffons his master, they droll on their God, but a much duller way.-Marvell. Works, vol. iii. p. 333.
The old Duke of Main, who was used to play the droll with him, coming softly into his bed chamber, thrust his bald head, and long neck in a posture to make the king merry.-Howell, b. i. s. 1. Let. 18.
Will I my drolleries, and bloody landscapes,
Massinger. The Virgin Martyr, Act v. sc. 1.
I had rather make a drollery till thirty,
Beaum. & Fletch. Valentinian, Act ii. sc. 2.
To these the Romish factor hath, in the name of the stationer, pleased to give the stile of drollery and piquant sauce.-Hammond Works, vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 61.
For having soon wrought himself dexterously into his patron's favour, by short graces and sermons and a mimical way of drolling upon the Puritans, which he knew would take both at chappel and table; he gained a great authority likewise among all the domesticks. Marvell. Works, vol. ii p. 46
In the first place I must observe there is a set of merry drolls, whom the common people of all countries adinire, and seem to love so well, that they could eat them, according to the old proverb.-Spectator, No. 47.
And now he is making an experiment by another sort of enemies, and sets the apes and drollers upon it.
Glanville, Ser. 4. Such men as these, are not to be argued with, till they can be persuaded to use arguments instead of drollery. Clarke. On the Evidences, Introd.
What confusion will one day cover the faces of those that do not only speak slightly and carelessly, but oftentimes contemptuously and perhaps drollingly of the supreme and infinitely perfect Being, to whom they owe those very facul ties, and that wit, which they so ungratefully, as well as impiously misemploy.-Boyle. Works, vol. v. p. 156.
These idle drollists have an utter antipathy to all braver and more generous kinds of knowledge.
Glanville. Reflections on Drollery & Atheism, s. 3. We read in the Alexandrian Chronicle, &c that Gelasius and Ardaleo, two pantomimes, as they were drolling on the stage, and feigning themselves Christians, were suddenly converted, and suffered martyrdom. Jorlin. Rem. on Eccles. Hist.
When I first received the news of your victory, I could not forbear mimicking a certain worthy friend of ours, and imitating the droll figures those gallant youths exhibited, of whose interest he had so confidently boasted.
Melmoth. Cicero, b. iv. Let. 9.
But to ask for matter of drollery in every thing, and dress up subjects of the utmost importance in ludicrous disguises, to delight ourselves and others with laughing at them, is the silliest affectation of wit, and the most dangerous kind of folly.-Secker, vol. i. Ser. 12.
This never transported him to any thing which looked like malignancy: yet in the little rubs and vexations of life, 'twas apt to show itself in a drollish and witty kind of peevishness. Sterne. Tristram Shandy, vol. ii. c. 12.
Should the senate-house where all our law-givers assemble be used for a theatre or droll-house, or for idle puppet-shows? Watts. The Holiness of Times, &c. Dis. 3. DROMEDARY. Fr. Dromedaire; It. and Sp. Dromedario; Lat. Dromedarius; Gr. Apopas kaunλos, dromus camelus, dromedary camel. See the quotation from Brende. Δρομας, from δρεμ-ειν, το run. So called from their swiftness.
The multitude of camels shal couer the, the dromedaries of Midia & Epha.-Bible, 1551. Isaye, c. 9.
Abulites there mette Alexander with pryncelye and rich
gyftes, and presented hym amongst the reste of other thinges
dormedary camels yt were wonderful swift.
Brende. Quintus Curtius, fol. 108.
Some one of the ancient kings of Persia that had escaped from the hands of his enemies, flying upon a dromedary cammel lodged him in that place.-North. Plutarch, p. 572.
I have often, says he, been present at a show of elephants, camels, dromedaries, and other strange creatures; but I never saw so great an assembly of spectators as were met together at the opening of this great piece of wax work.
Tatler, No. 31.
In the last great battel, Pinkethman is to personate King Porus upon an elephant, and is to be encounter'd by Powel, representing Alexander the Great upon a dromedary, which nevertheless Mr. Powel is desired to call by the name of Bucephalus. Spectator, No. 31.
DRONE, v. Skinner thinks contracted from DRONE, n. droven, past part. of the verb, DRO'NING, n. to drive. Tooke from the A. S. DRO'NISH. Dryg-an, excutere, expellere, to shake off, to drive away. "Drone, excussus, expulsus (subaud. Bee) is written in the A. S. Dran, drane, dræn. Drag (y in dryg-an being changed into a broad) is the regular past tense of drygan; by adding to it the participial termination en, we have dragen, drag'n, dran (the a broad) pronounced by us in the south, drone," (Tooke, ii. 225.)
To drone, the verb, is formed upon the noun;
to do as the drone does; to live upon the labours
And right as dranes doth nought but drynketh vp the huny,
Some time thei ieine and all at ones do from their manger
The slouthful drones that would cōsume, and nought will do to get.-Phaer. Virgill. Eneidos, b. i.
All, with united force, combine to drive
The lazy drones from the laborious hive.-Dryden. Ib.
For Poesy is follow'd with such spite,
By groveling drones that never raught her height.
Drayton. Elegies. To Mr. George Sandys.
Now blind, dishearten'd, asham'd, dishonour'd, quell'd,
A burdenous drone.-Milton. Samson Agonistes.
But (as it seem'd) they thought (as do the swaines,
In embassie unto the king of bees,
To aide his partners on the flowres and trees.
Browne. Britannia's Pastorals, b. i. s. 3.
Dost thou euer thinke to bring thine eares or stomach to the patience of a dry grace, as long as a table cloth? and dronn'd out by thy sonne, here, (that might be thy father;) till all the meat o' thy board has forgot it was that day i' the kitchen.-B. Jonson. Bartholomew Fayre, Act i. sc. 3.
Turn out their droning senate, and possess
For it is to be understood, that in the language of the spirit cant and droning supply the place of sense and reason in the language of men.
Swift. On the Mechanical Operation of the Spirit.
Who having in them little of ingenuity or willingness freely to doe good; [the Jews] would be apt to waxe not onely dronish and lazy but sturdy and insolent: had they not been kept under and inured to something of burthen and toil.-Barrow, vol. ii. Ser. 15.
From such a description one would think that a droning duke, or a dowager duchess, was not possessed of more just pretension to taste than persons of less quality; and yet whatever the one or the other may write or praise, shall pass for perfection, without farther examination.
Goldsmith. Citizen of the World, Let. 56.
Ah, notorious as thou art,
Cowper. Homer. Odyssey, b. xvii.
Skinner thinks from the Dut. Droef, sad; and that from the Ger. Treub, treuben, itself from the Lat. Turbare. But droop is evidently no other than drop; somewhat differently written and applied. See DROP, infra.
To fall, to sink, to descend, to depress; and (met.) to faint, to be or become feeble or languid, to languish.
He drouped therfore donne. & said the lord were schent
His cien drouped hole sonken in his heed.
Wel coude he dresse his takel yemanly:
Id. The Prologue, v. 107.
Nay, so far are their duties from being less acceptable to
Whate'er distinguish'd patriots rise,
Smart. Ode to the Earl of Northumberland.
In Milton, dropped with gold; as if gold had
Drop-meal, i. e. driblet. Drop, and A. S. Mæl, part or portion.
And gut was Wyllam's grace thulke day so gode,
And he was in an agonye, and praied somewhat longer,
to the grounde.-Bible, 1551. Ib.
For thou droppedest euery day in mine eares, and in my
But water that downe runneth aye
Sende Lazar downe fro thilke sete,
The great hete, in which I brenne.-Gower. Con. A. b. vi.
Id. Ib. b. vii.
And this would he to thentent that the thyng whiche euer should bee beleued, might by litle and lytle be stilled, & as it wer dropped into the heartes of men.-Udal. Mall. c. 3. It stoppeth teares or droppynges of the eyen.
Sir T. Elgot. Castel of Helth, b. iii.
Nay better learne of hem, that learned bee,
Spenser. Shepheard's Calendar. November.
And observe, that if your droppers be larger than, or even
And yet what is he that is so sower of witte, and so droup-fly.-Walton. Angler, pt. ii. c. 5. Note. ing of braine (I will not say) blockheaded, or insensate, that is not mooued with such pleasure.
Wilson. Arte of Rhetorique, p. 56.
By this, the drouping day-light 'gan to fade,
If he [the historian] be pleasant, he is noted for a iester : if he be graue, he is reckoned for a drooper.
Holinshed. Ireland. Stanihurst to Sir H. Sidneie.
Then droop'd the fading flowers (their beauty fled)
Dryden. The Flower and the Leaf.
As a thrifty wench scrapes kitchen stuff,
Shakespeare. Timon of Athens, Act v. sc. 5.
This humor [snow] therefore not falling forcibly all at
I must take notice here of our archbishop's care for a parish church in his province being in danger of dropping down for want of reparation.
Strype. Life of Abp. Whitgift an. 1594
That which rises from the bottom of the still is but a vapour, and becomes not a drop till it settles upon the upper part of it.-South, vol. xi. Ser. 1.
What crowds of these, impenitently bold,
Pope. Essay on Criticism. I shall drop these subjects of mortality, with pointing out a single monument of inferior note.
Pennant. London, p. 104.
He concluded with a wish, that "whosoever shall attempt to hinder his union with Ajut might be buried without his bow, and that, in the land of souls, his scull might serve for no other use than to catch the droppings of the starry lamps."
Rambler, No. 186.
Fr. Hydropsie; It. Hydrop-
And lo a man syk in the dropesye was bifore him.
The dropsy drowth, that Tantale in the flood
Incertaine Auctors. Hell Tormenteth, &c.
Of to moche drynkynge procedeth dropsies, wherwith the
Full of diseases was his carcasse blew,
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. i. c. 4.
The dropsy, by indulgence nurs'd,
Francis. Horace, b. ii. Ode 2. Atticus, weary of his life as well as his physicians, by loug and cruel pains of dropsical gout, and despairing of any cure, resolved by degrees to starve himself to death; and went so far, that the physicians found he had ended his disease instead of his life, and told him, that to be well, there would need nothing but only resolve to live.
Sir W. Temple. Of the Cure of the Gout.
Armstrong. The Art of Preserving Health, b. i. Laguerre towards his latter end grew dropsical and inactive.-Walpole. Anecdotes of Painting, vol. iv. c. 1.
That which falls, sinks, precipitates, or is cast down; which falls or separates the gross sediment, (sc.) from purer substances; (met.) any foul or worthless refuse; foulness, impurity.
And therfore shal I laye my hande vpon thee, and burne out thy drosse fro the finest and purest, and put oute all the leade.-Bible, 1551. Esay, c. 1.
The churn milke which remaineth of the butter, they let alone till it be as sowre as possibly it may be, then they boile it and in boyling it, it is turned all into curdes, which curds they drie in the suh, making them as hard as the drosse of iron.-Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. i. p. 91.
Some scum'd the drosse that from the metall came;
And all that pumpe to which proud minds aspire
Spenser. An Hymne of Heavenlie Beautie.
So doth the fire the drossy gold refine.
Davies. The Immortality of the Soul. This raging fire which through the mass doth move, Shall purge my dross, and shall refine my love.
Dryden. The Conquest of Granada, Act iii.
The supreme authority gives a fictitious and arbitrary value to coin, which is therefore not current alike in all times and in all places; but the real value remains invariable, and the provident man who gets rid as fast as he can of this drossy piece, hoards up the good silver. Bolingbroke. Reflections upon Exile.
"I know, O Lord [says the Psalmist] that thy judgments are right, and that thou in faithfulness hast afflicted me;" the furnace of affliction being meant but to refine us from our earthly drossiness, and soften us for the impression of God's own stamp and image.—Boyle. Works, vol. i. p. 275. Great skill have they in palmistry, and more To conjure clean away the gold they touch, Conveying worthless dross into its place; Loud when they beg, dumb only when they steal. Cowper. Task, b. i.
That which drieth or parcheth; dryness; thirst.
Piers Plouhman, p. 83.
After great drought, there commeth a raine.
Chaucer. Balade. Doublenesse of Women.
Whanne that April with his shoures sote
Id. Prologue. All the whole armie laye in an open plaîne ground, without coverture very nere the citee by reason whereof, thei wer sore cubered with hete and drougth.
Hall. Hen. VIII. an. 19. At which thing one of hys chambrelaynes meruaylynge, requyred the cause of hys drouth. To whome he answered merely saiyng, I haue thys nyght bene in the middest of Spayne, which is a hote region, & that iourney maketh me so drie, & if thou haddest bene vnder that hote clymate, thou wouldest haue bene dryer then I.-Id. Hen. VII. an. 17. Let streaming floods their hasty courses stay, And parching drouth dry vp the crystall wells.
Spenser. Daphnaida. Another ill accident is, drouth, at the spindling of the corn; which with us is rare; but in hotter countries common.-Bacon. Naturall History, § 669.
Till, lo! at last,
Nature, whose power he had so long surpass'd,
Cowley. On the Government of Oliver Cromwell.
Oh! can the clouds weep over thy decay,
He is like to an hors that seketh rather to drink drovy or
To sink or remain sunk, immersed, plunged,
But whosoever offend one of these lytel ons, whiche beleue about his necke, and that he were drowned [Wiclif, drenchid] in the depth of the sea.-Bible, 1551. Matthew, c. 18.
in me, it were better for hym that a mylstone were hanged
louing them [God and Christ] againe, which so tenderly loue
Who is he, that shall plucke and withdraw ys awaye from
The nourse of dyse and cardes, is werisome idlenesse,
And makes a covenant never to destroy
"He rais'd his tardy head, which sunk again,
To nod in slumber; to slumber, to lull to
For albeit his comming vnto his Apostles at that point,
So in a drought the thirsty creatures cry,
Dryden. Annus Mirabilis.
This vine growing on dry hills, in the woods where no water is to be met with, its trunk if cut into pieces two or three yards long, and held by the other end to the mouth, affords so plentifully a limpid, innocent, and refreshing water, or sap, as gives new life to the droughty traveller or hunter.
Dr. Sloane, in Derham. Physico-Theology, b. 10. Note 27.
Granger. The Sugar Cane, b. iv.
Bp. Horsley. Translation. Psalm 107.
DROVY, in Chaucer, says Lye, is filthy, muddy. A. S. Drof, drofi, from drief-an, to disturb. It is, perhaps draffy water.
Their enemies had no harte to set vpon the, whiles they were drowned in this excesse of banqueting, dronkenship, and drowsinesse, but were as muche afraid of their dronken noise, as if they had hard theire crie encountering with them in battaile.—Brende. Quintus Curtius, fol. 236.
This deuise was then accounted a fantasticall imagination, and a drowsy dreame.-Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. iii. p. 167.
All thir shape
Spangl'd with eyes more numerous then those
Of Hermes, or his opiate rod.-Milton. Par. Lost, b. xi.
There gentle sleep
Sir Guyon, mindfull of his vow yplight,
Now when the rosy fing red Morning faire,
Spenser. Faerie Queene. h.i. c. 2.
Wake, our mirth begins to die:
B. Jonson. The Poetaster, s. 5. We sleep and drowse, and suffer our precious minutes to run and waste away doing nothing to any good purpose, till the night is shutting in, till the night of darkness come upon us.-Hopkins. Ser. Phil. ii. 12.
Near the Cimmerians, in his dark abode
Dryden. Ovid. Met. b. xi. Which expressions import a most constant and careful attendance upon this duty: that we do not make it a Tарeрyov, or by-business in our life, (a matter of small consideration or indifference, of curiosity, of chaunce,) to be transacted drowsily or faintly, with a desultorious and slight endeavour, by fits, as the humour taketh us.
Barrow, vol. i. Ser. 6.
What reason is there to make us watchful, both against
A pleasing land of drowsy-head it was,
Thomson. Castle of Indolence, c. 1. Above is perpetual gloom; the sun is not seen, nor the breeze felt; the air stagnates, and pestilential vapours diffuse drowsiness, lassitude, and anxiety.-Adventurer, No. 61.
Sw. Drubba, ferire, confligere, to beat, to strike or dash against. Ger. Treff-en, which Wachter thinks may be from the A. S. Torf-ian, to throw, (sc.) feriendi causa, for the sake or purpose of striking.
To beat, to give a good beating or flogging; to give or inflict blows.
He that is valiant, and dares fight,
The blows and drubs I have receiv'd
Hudibras, pt. i. c. 3.
Id. pt. i. c. 2.
Id. pt. iii. c. 2.
Their case seems now like that of some poor wretch under the correction of a merciless bully, who, after having been kicked and despised by all the world besides, is sure to return with interest the drubbings he receives, upon that unhappy creature whom he has had the luck to get the better of.-Middleton. The Present State of Trinity College. Calish, being a passionate man, gave Alcheic one day a sound drubbing.-Hume. A Dialogue.
to suffer or undergo.
Drudge, (droog, druge,) the past tense and past part. of dreogan, ge-dreog-an, agere, tolerare, pati, sufferre, (Tooke,) to act, to labour, to be patient,
The first folio of Shakespeare,( Timon of Athens,) has drugges, which the commentators think an error for drudges; Junius considers drugge, quoted from Chaucer, under the word drag, (qv.) and drudge, to be closely allied. Baret says, "A drudge or drivell; a seruaunt that serveth in vile offices or things, a kitchen slave." The verb is formed upon the noun ;
To do as a drudge does; to labour hardly, to work laboriously in mean or servile offices; to suffer or undergo or endure continued labour or
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. ii. c. 3. employment, constant weariness or fatigue.
His eyes then close
I toke in hade to traslate the at such seldome leasures as I possiblie could fro mine other prophane trauailes incidet to my drudging vocació spare, and now at st haue finished the.-Udal. Prologue to Ephesians.