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Fr. Duc; It. Duca; Sp. Duque. Fr. Duchesse; It. Duchessa; Sp. Duquesa; from the Lat. Dux, from duc-ere to lead.
A leader: now a mere title of rank.
The titles of counts and dukes have obtained in modern
languages so very different a sense, that the use of them may
In this sense it is distinguished into four quarters, into
"Lord Angelo dukes it well;" i. e. acts the part, performs the duties of the duke.
An hey duk of al that stude, he clepede that town ywys
R. Brunne, p. 14.
A voys aloud seyde
Ich am hus dure douheter. duchesse of hevene.-Id. p. 25.
A kingdom oth" duche
May nat be sold sothly.-Id. p. 50.
Be ye sugett of ech creature of man for god, either to the kyng as to him that is higer in staat, either to duykis as to thilke that ben sent of hym.—Wiclif. 1 Peter, c. 2.
'Tis virtue can alone impart
Cotton. Visions. Content, Vis. 4.
Cambridge. Elegy wrillen in un empty Assembly Rom.
Lat. Dulcis, quia delicit, id est, delectat. It was first written delicis, then delcis, dolcis, and lastly dulcis. Vossius,de, and lacere, to draw,
Whilom, as olde stories tellen us,
She smote thee to ground for all thy crueltie
Id. Balade. The Nine Ladies Worthie.
And sothly suster mine (qd. she)
Id. Legend of Ariadne.
I rede in old bokes thus,
Of these besauntes I haue lernyd there shuld be ii.; that one is called a bezaunte imperiall, and ye other a bezaūt ducall.-Fabyan, an. 1273.
For firste he gaue him ye duchie of Berry, and after that whole Normandy, wherof in no long time he bereft him the possession, regimet & title, without any cause geue, on the partie of yong Charles.-Hall. Edw. IV. an. 12.
In whiche tyme came vnto hym certayne men of the duchie Burgoyne, as lordes of dyuers holdes and townes within that duchery, and gaue vnto hym, to the entent he shulde nat molest or hurte that coûtre. cc. M. floryns of golde. Fabyan, an. 1359. Lord Angelo dukes it well in his absence, he puts transgression too't. Shakespeare. Measure for Measure, Act iii. sc. 2. When they devis'd to link, by wedlock's band, The house of Suffolk to Northumberland; Our fatal dukedom to your dukedom bound, To frame this building on so weak a ground.
Drayton. Lady Jane Grey to Dudley.
K. Hen. Urswick, command the dukeling and these fellows,
To Digby, the Lieutenant of the Tower.
Ford. Perkin Warbeck, Act v. sc. 2.
Petron. Will your dukeship
From whence a fatal volley we receiv'd,
It miss'd the duke, but his great heart it griev'd:
Three worthy persons from his side it tore,
And dyed his garment with their scatter'd gore.
Waller. Instructions to a Painter.
The King, before his expedition into England, had promised his eldest son Robert the dukedom of Normandy, in case he conquered the kingdom he then pretended.
Sir W. Temple. Introduction to the History of England.
What shall I advise?
Ev'n quit the house, for thou too long has sat in't;
Dulce, the verb, is not uncommon in our old writers,
O howe delicious (sayth Dauid) are thy sayenges vnto my throte? More dulceth tha hony are thy wordes Lorde to my mouth.-Bale. Image, T. 7.
And the lawes and exercise therof, beinge in pure Latin or doulce Frenche, fewe men in consultations shuld (in myne opinion) compare with our lawyars.
Sir T. Elyot. Governovr, b. i. c. 14.
Framinge himselfe to plye his booke
Drant. Horace. Epistle to Numitius.
Not now deere son, from thyne embrasings sweete shuld
O dulcet son.-Phaer. Virgill. Eneidos, b. viii.
And lytle and lytle fro theyr very childhoode to accustome
Musick (quoth he) [Aristoxenus] is brought in thither,
Good reason therefore, that such asperity of the spirit or
For there came ambassadors to Rome, which brought
This we may undoubtedly gather and conjecture by his
Upon his dulcet pipe the merle doth only play.
I know that a decoction of wild gourd or colocynthis
The fourth is in the dulcoration of some metals; as sac-
Licymnia's dulcet voice, her eye
Bright-darting its resplendent ray
In the former of these cases the medicine may be danger. ous, unless it be, after the solution or corrosion ended, exquisitely dulcified from all remainder of the corrosive salt. Boyle. Works, vol. i. p. 375.
Fair water must be so often poured, till you have dulcified the matter therein contained, the sign of which dulcification is (you know) when the water that has passed through it, comes from it as tasteless as it was poured upon it. Id. Ib. vol. i. p. 783.
Yet will I view her still, however coy, In dreams poetic; see her to the sound Of dulcet symphonies harmonious lead Her sportive sister-graces, Mirth serene, And Peace, sweet inmate of the sylvan shade. Whitehead. To the Nymph of Bristol Spring. They to the dome where smoke, with curling play, Announc'd the dinner to the regions round, Summon'd the singer blithe, and harper gay, And aided wine with dulcet-streaming sound. Johnson. Parody of a Translation, DULCIMER. It. Dolcimelle; a musical instrument so called a soni dulcedine; from the And see the sweetness of its sound, (Skinner) quotation from Warton: whence it appears that, in his time, a particular kind of bonnet was called a Dulcimer.
Had work and rested not; the solemn pipe,
The females that are guilty of breaking my orders, I shall respectively pronounce to be kits, hornpipes, dulcimers, and kettle drums.-Tatler, No. 225.
With bonnet trimm'd and flounced withal,
Warton. The High-Street Tragedy.
DULL, v. Ger. Doll, which Wachter DULL, adj. derives from Dol-en, dwalen, DU'LLARD, n. desipere, delirare, and that DU'LLARD, adj. from the A. S. Dwol-ian. DU'LLER. Tooke derives the Eng. Dull DU'LLY. from the same A. S. verb, DU'LNESS. which he renders Hebere, heDU'LSOME. betare, to thicken. Lye and Somner, Errare. Skinner thinks from the A. S. Dol-ian, to bear, to sustain. Wachter and Tooke differ only in this, that the former gives the common usage or consequential application, the latter the primitive meaning. See DOLT.
To thicken; to blunt, (sc.) the edge of a knife or other instrument; to thicken, blunt, or deaden (met.) the faculties or powers of the mind; to deaden, to stupify; to diminish the keenness, the lustre, weaken the power of; to damp, to sadden, to drowse, to lethargise.
Right nought am I through your doctrine,
I dull vnder your discipline.-Chaucer. Rom. of the Rose.
I not (qd. she) wherof it serueth thy question to assoil, me thinketh the now duller in wittes, than when I with thee first mette.-Id. The Testament of Loue, b. iii,
Sothly the good workes that he did before that he fell in dedly sinne, ben all mortified, astoned, and dulled by the eft sinning. Id. The Persones Tale.
Therwith her list so wel to liue,
That duinesse was of her a drad.-Id. Dreame.
But bycause that in cunning I am young, and can yet but creepe, this leud A, B, C, haue I set into learning, for I cannot passen the telling of three as yet: and yf God will, in short time I shall amend this lewdnesse in ioyning of sillables, which thyng for dulnesse of witte I may not in three letters declare.-Id. The Testament of Loue, b. il.
I am so rude in my degree,
And eke my wittes ben so dull,
Attaine unto so high a lore.-Gower. Con. A. b. iv.
Sir T. Bigot. Governonr, b. i. o 7,
So that neither the hearers be troubled, with confounding ' of matter, and heaping one thing in another's neck, nor yet their memorie duiled with ouerthwart rehearsal, and disorderly telling of our tale.-Wilson. Arte of Rhetorique, p.102.
Howbeit they that canne not fynde in theyr heart to commende another mannes good deede, shewe themselfe either enuious or elles of nature verye colde and dull. Sir T. More. Workes, p. 1223.
This thing also Hillary, who was himselfe a Frenchma borne, in his hymnes testifieth, in the same callynge his countreye men dullardes.—Udal. Pref to Galathians.
But that now, for foles and dulleheddes, we be made sobre and wise, that for rebelles we are meke and tractable, that for men erryng out of the way, we are made knowars of the trueth.-Udal. Titus, c. 3.
What answere doth he make vnto it? he sayth he will not answere it fully. In fayth that is spoken very dully. Sir T. More. Workes, p. 1029. Albeit the Galathians are Grecias, yet are they originally descended of Frenchemen, & (as S. Heirome sayeth) in dulnes of witte resemble the.-Udal. Pref. to Galathians.
Vpon his crested scalpe so sore did smite, That to the scull a yawning wound it made: The deadly dint his dulled senses all dismaid.
So (no doubt) even in grafting, for the same cause, the choice of the stock doth much; always provided, that it
be some what inferiour to the cions, for otherwise it dullelh it. Bacon. Naturall History, § 467.
Look in your glass and there appears a face
The brazen flashes dread
Of numerous helmets, corslets furbish'd bright,
To fill the void of an unfurnish'd brain,
Couper. The Task, b. iv.
DUM, or DUMB, v. DUMB, adj. DU'MBLY. DUMBNESS.
Goth. Dumba, or dumbs, mutus; A. S. Adumb-ian, obmutescere, to hold one's peace, to keep silence, to become mute or dumb, (Somner.) Tooke thinks from Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. i. c. 11. the A. S. Dæm-an, demman, (Ger. Demmen, dammen,) obturare, obstruere, to dam; and that dumb means obturatum, obstructum, dammed; and therefore when those who have been dumb recover their speech, their mouths are said to be opened; the dam being, as it were, removed. The passage from Shakespeare, (Antony and Cleopatra,) he thus explains, "What I would have spoke was, in a beastly manner obstructed by him," (Tooke, ii. 335.) He remarks that to bar, to blin, and to dam, were originally general terms, having all one common meaning, viz. obstruction; distinguished in their application by custom alone. In Kilian, dom is interpreted surdus, i. e. deaf. Dom en blind. Auribus et oculis captus. The Gr. Tupλos, is a word of the same kind. In Sophocles, (dipus Tyrannus, v. 371,) Τυφλος τα τ' ώτα, τον τε νουν, τα τ' όμματ' ει. Thy ears, thy soul, e'en as thy eyes, are blind, (Potter.)
Shakespeare, Son. 103.
Off with thy pining black, it dulls a souldier;
Beaum. & Fletch. The False One, Act iv. sc. 3.
King. Let there be no noyse made (my gentle friends),
Vnless some dull and fauourable hand
Shakespeare. 2 Part Hen. IV. Act iv. sc. 4.
Fly, fly, prophane fogs! far hence fly away,
Crashaw. On a Foul Morning.
But would I bee a poet if I might
But of all, your grace must flie phlebotomie, fresh pork, conger, and clarified whay; they are all dullers of the vital spirits.-Beaum. & Fletch. Philaster, Act ii. sc. 1.
Desire takes wing and straight does fly,
It stays not dully to enquire the why,
I shall not see with others eyes, scarce with mine own.
Drayton. Moses his Birth & Miracles, b. iii.
But since we two are brothers, and subscribe
I dare not do't, lest any dulman says
Brome. To his Friend J. B. on his Tragedy.
When the success and courage of the Romans had made them masters of the wealth and pleasures of all the conquered nations round about them, we see how quickly the edge of their valour was dulled, and the rigourous honesty of their morals dissolved and melted away with those delights, which too easily circumvent and overcome the hearts of men.-South, vol. iv. Ser. 2.
Those men that are duller will be apt to suspect from our being so angry and so waspish, that we have but a bad matter to manage.-Sharpe, vol. i. Ser. 1.
Queen. Honour, a very word: an empty name!
Otway. Alcibiades, Act ii. sc. 1.
In eldest time, ere mortals writ or read,
Dumb, then is, by usage,— Having the organs, the powers of speech obstructed; deprived, destitute of the powers of speech, speechless, mute.
For deve thorgh hus doynges. and dombe speke and herde. Piers Plouhman, p. 372. And whanne thei weren gon out, lo thei broughten to hem a doumbe man havynge a devel. And whanne the devel was cast out, the doumbe man spak.-Wiclif. Matthew, c. 9.
As they went oute, beholde, they broughte to him a dome man possessed of a deuyll. And as soone as the deuyll was cast out, the domme spake.—Bible, 1551. Ib.
For trewely comfort ne mirthe is non,
Chaucer. The Prologue, v. 776. Ryuers ren nat till the sprynge be full, Better a dumme mouthe than a brayneles scull. Skelton. Dame Pallas to the Quene of Fame. This therefore is no spiritual dumbenesse, M. Hardinge: this is no vnprofitable harkening: this is no instinct, or woorke of Sathan.-Jewel. Defence, p. 553.
So he nodded,
And soberly did mount an arme-gaunt steede,
Shakespeare. Antony & Cleopatra, Act i. sc. 5.
Warner. Albion's England, b. vi. c. 29.
A mouth, but dumb, he hath; blind eyes, deaf ears;
Donne. The Progress of the Soul.
Shakespeare. Midsummer Night's Dream, Act v. sc. 1.
But I can tell that in each grace of these
His [the ghost in Hamlet] dumb behaviour at his first ontrance strikes the imagination very strongly; but every time he enters, he is still more terrifying.-Spectator, No. 44.
Take hence that once a king; that sullen pride
Dryden. Don Sebastian, Act iii. sc. 1.
I see him ogle still and hear him chat,
Id. Prologue to the Prophetess.
In the first case the demoniac or madman was dumb; and his dumbness probably arose from the natural turn of his disorder, which was that species of madness called melancholy, of which taciturnity or dumbness is a very common effect.
Farmer. Demoniacs of the New Test. c. 1. s. 5.
Skinner thinks from Dumb, (supra.) It is (he says) a fixed and serious state of thought in which we stand silent, (i. e. with our faculties dammed, blocked up, or obstructed,) and do as it were remain dumb. Junius interprets Dumpishness, stupor, torpor.
Inertness, dulness, heaviness; dulness of spirits, sadness, melancholy, ill-humour, sullenness; dulness or inactivity of mind.
and then-to any tune or ditty. Applied also, first,-to a doleful tune or ditty,
Dumpling is perhaps the diminutive of dump.
My sinews dull, in dumps I stand,
Surrey. Description of the Restless State, &c. The blastes Euterpe tunes of instrument, With solace sweet, hence my heauy dumpes to chase. Vncertaine Auctores. Of the Nine Muses. You bee not ignoraunt (good vncle,) what heapes of heauynesse hath of late fallen among vs alreadye, with whiche some of our poore familie bee fallen into suche dumpes, that scantelye can anye suche cumfort as my poore witte can geue them anye thynge asswage theyr sorrowe. Sir T. More. Workes, p. 1140.
The duke demaunded of him what should signifie that dumpishnes of mynde, and inward sighyng, the whiche, by his countenance, manifestly appered and was euident. Hall. Edw. IV. an. 15.
This vyce hath to his contrarie
Drant. Horace. Epistle to Lollius. Edwine thus perplexed with troubled thoughts in the dead of the night, sate solitary vnder a tree in dumps, musing what was best to be done.
Speed. Saxon Kings, an. 617. b. vii, c. 9. 8. 8. 2 Gent. Hee's in a deep dump now. Leo. I'le fetch him out on't.
Beaum. & Fletch. Humourous Lieutenant, Act iv. sc. 6. Alexander ye great being dispatched out of the way in the very flowre of his age and of his conquests, all men were stricken in heauye dumpes, and in especially all the citye of Babilon.-Golding. Justine, p. 66.
Sir knight, why ride ye dumpish thus behind, Sith so good fortune doth to you present
So fayre a spoyle, to make you ioyous meriment.
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. iv. c. 2. But I feare now I have ouercharged the reader's minde with dolefull, dumpish, and vncomfortable lines.
Camden. Remaines. Epitaphs
And for dispositions; now do we see one so ragingly furious, as if he had newly torn off his chaines, and escaped; another so stupidly senseless, that you may thrust pins into him, up to the head, and he startles not at it: one so dumpishly sad, as if he would freez to death in melancholy, and hated any contentment but in sorrow.
Bp. Hall. Select Thoughts, § 61.
To rouse him from lethargic dump,
He tweak'd his nose, with gentle thump
To raise the spirits lodg'd within.—Hudibras, pt. i. c. 3.
If we consult experience, or observe the world, we shall find this precept very ill obeyed, for do we not commonly see people in heavy dumps; do we not hear doleful complaints? Barrow, vol. iii. Ser. 11. Generally a marry'd man is the creature of the world the most out of fashion; his behaviour is dumpish, his discourse his wife and family; his habit so much neglected, it looks as if that were marry'd too. Dryden. Marriage Alamode, Act v. sc. 1.
This [suspiciousness] renders a man heavy and dumpish, slow and tedious in his resolutions and in his proceedings. Barrow, vol. ii, Ser. 9. Whenever he was with me, his short, dumpy, gouty, crooked fingers were continually teizing my spinnet, to his own harmonious croaking.-Student, li. p. 225.
Our honest neighbour's goose and dumplings were fine, and the lamb's wool, even in the opinion of my wife, who was a connoisseur, was excellent. Goldsmith. Vicar of Wakefield, c. 10.
But when thou dun'st their parents, seldom they
Dryden. Juvenal, Sat. 7. They are ever talking of new silks, and serve the owners in getting them customers, as their common dunners do in making them pay.-Spectator.
For the miser is as much disquieted, dunned, and called upon by the eagerness of his own desires, as he whose door is haunted and rapped at every hour, by those who come crying after him for what he owes them. South, vol. iv. Ser. 11.
But you have something to add, Sancho, to what I owe your good-will also on this account, and that is to send me the subscription money, which I find a necessity of dunning my best friends for before I leave town. Sterne. Works, vol. iv. Let. 94.
Many married ladies have been constrained to petition the brutes their husbands for the advance of a quarter's pin money, to satisfy the importunate dunnings of a needy honourable gamester.-Adventurer, No. 23.
Yet has he suffered long and much, and lost the beginning of life, the season of rational delight and solid improvement, in distress and fears, in fabricating excuses and pretences, and in flying from the eager pursuit of duns and bailiffs. Knox. Essays, No. 97.
The impes name which this examinant sent to destroy the said Bumstead was Margaret; and that the impe, which the said Joyce Boanes sent was a dun'd one like unto a mouse. State Trials. The Essex Witches, an. 1645.
Dun hackle; body, dun-coloured silk, with a dun cock's
The first is the dun-fly, in March: the body is made of
Her balefull eyes where sorrow rolls around;
The passages quoted below leave no room to doubt that the word (as severally conjectured by Mr. Tooke and Mr. Todd) was first introduced by the Thomists, or disciples of Thomas Aquinas, in contempt towards their antagonists the Scotists, or disciples of John Scot of Duns. Dunce's disciples, Duncemen, Dunces: and see the quotation from Holished, in v. Nickname, and the one from Hobbs here following:
For the first rector of the university of Paris, as I have
by John Scot of Duns, who lived in, or near the same time,
Remember ye not how within this xxx. yeares and farre
Here it is open, that the Pelagias graunt as much of grace, as my Lord of Rochester doth, and all his Duns-men, which learneth that man may haue a good purpose, bonum studium, and a good mynde, & a loue to grace, of his owne naturall strēgth.-Barnes. Workes, p. 272.
Here is also to be noted, that ye Pelagians, & our Dunsme agree all in one, for they both say, that ye grace of God doth helpe mas good purpose, so that man doth first intende & purpose well.-Id. İb.
Now would Aristotle deny such speakyng, & a Duns man would make xx. distinctions.-Tyndall. Workes, p. 88.
How thinke you? is not this a likely answere for a great doctour of diuinitie? for a great Duns man? for so great a preacher.- Barnes. Workes, p. 232.
Talke altogether of most graue matters, or deepely search out the ground of things, or vse the quiddities of Dunce, to set forth God's misteries: and you shall see the ignorant (I warrant you) either fall asleepe, or els bid you farewell. Wilson. The Arte of Rhetorique, p. 201.
Mer. Was ever man but I in such a stocks? well this shall be a warning to me, and a fair one too, how I betray myself to such a dunce, by way of benefit.
Beaum. & Fletch. The Coxcomb, Act ii. sc. 1.
I would he had not cast the gracious eye of his duncery upon the small deserts of a pamphlet, whose every line, meddled with, uncases him to scorn and laughter.
His father, methinks, should be one of the dunce-table,
In school-divinity as able
As he that hight irrefragable;
A second Thomas, or at once
Hil. I must take breath;
Then, like a nightingale, I'le sing his death.
Coris. Recover, dunder-head.
Massinger. The Picture, Act ii. sc. 1.
To let him domineer thus.
Id. Woman Pleased, Act ii. sc. 5. Why then was it left so? and here, without staying for my reply, shall I be called as many blockheads, numskulls, doddypoles, dunderheads, ninny-hammers, &c. Sterne. Tristram Shandy, c. 25.
DUNE. See Down, and the quotation there made from Verstegan. R. of Gloucester uses the verb, dune, which Hearne interprets bent, bowed; but it is more probably the A. S. Dyn-an, to make a noise, to resound: the earth resounded under the steps of the horses. See DUN.
The erthe dunede vnder hem, vor stappes [steps] that
R. Gloucester, p. 459. Ger. Tunghen; Dut.Dunghen; Sw. Dynga; A. S. Dyng-an, stercorare. Tooke says that dyng-an means dejicere, to cast down, and that dung or dong means dejectum, and in that meaning only is applied to stercus.
"And Dowel shall ding him down, and destroi his might," (Vision of Piers Plouhman.) See Tooke. See also To DING.
Thei shulden deluen, and dyken, and dongen the erthe.
On fat londe and ful of donge. foulest wedes groweth.
Id. Vision, p. 29. Lord, suffre it also this yeer. the while I delue about it, and I schal dunge it if it schal make fruyt, if nay, in tyme comyng thou schalt kitte it doun.-Wiclif. Luk, c. 13.
Salt is good, but if salt vanysche: in what thing schal it be sauered? Neither in erthe, neither in donghille it is profitable.-Id. Ib. c. 14.
Behold my blody woundes, depe and wide,
And at the west gate of the toun (quod he)
In which my body is hid prively,
Do thilke carte arresten boldely.
Chaucer. The Nonnes Preestes Tale, v. 15,024
As ye han herde the dede man devise.—Id. Ib. v. 15,042
We found nothing in their [white beares] mawes; but we iudged by their dung that they fed vpon grasse, because it appeared in all respects like the dung of an horse, wherein we might very plainly see the very strawes.
Hackluyt. Voyages, vol. iii. p. 101.
The dung-fermers seek in every streete by exchange to buy this durtie ware for herbs and wood. The custom is
To name them all, another Dunce.-Hudibras, pt. i. c. 1. very good for keeping the citie cleare.
Say, you, her instruments, the great
DUNDER-HEAD. Perhaps from Dut.
DUNDER-WHelp. Donderen, tonare, to thunder, (q.d.) stupified, stupid with din or noise. A stupid head or knoll : a stupid whelp, a stupid
Charles. I mean your grammar, O thou dunder-head.
Id Ib. vol. ii. pt. ii. p. 69.
He makes his Laertes a gardener all that while, and seek-
Shakespeare. Anthony & Cleopatra, Act i. sc. 1.
You must not suffer your thoughts to creep any longer upon this dunghill earth, but refine your drossy, and raise up your drowsy spirits to behold, contemplate, and admire the glories that are in heaven.
Bp. Beveridge, vol. ii. Ser. 137,
Mr. Gibbon comes forward with all the rancour of a renegado against Christianity. He tramples upon it at first with the cloven-foot of heathenism. He dungs upon it at last from the dirty tail of Mahometanism.
Whitaker. Review of Gibbon's History, p. 256. On the islands were sea-lions, &c. and such an innumerable quantity of guls, as to darken the air when disturbed, and almost to suffocate our people with their dung. Cook. Voyage, vol. iv. b. iv. c. 3.
DUNGEON. Fr. Dongeon. In the modern French, says Wachter, dunes (see Down) are hills of sand on the sea-shore; and donjon, propugnaculum in colle ædificatum, built on a hill. And Du Cange, dunjo, castellatum, minus propugnaculum in duno seu colle ædificatum.
"Fr. Dongeon,—a dungeon; a strong tower, or platform in the middle of a castle, or fort, wherein the besieged make their last efforts (of defence) when the rest is forced," (Cotgrave.) Prisoners
being usually confined in these strong towers, the word dongeon was applied to other strong close places of confinement or imprisonment.
& gadred him an oste, and went vnto Wilton, & did reise in that coste a stalworth donjon.
R. Brunne, p. 121.
I salued her, and enquired what she was, and why she, so worthie to sight, dained to enter into so foule a dongeon, and namely a prison, without leaue of my kepers.
Chaucer. The Testament of Loue, b. i.
Finally, see what God promised Joseph in his dreames, these promises accompanyed him alwaies, and went downe with hym euen into the depe dongeon.—Tyndall, Workes, p.5.
For on a day his wary Dwarfe had spide Where in a dungeon deepe huge numbers lay Of caytiue wretched thrals that wailed night and day. Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. i. c. 4.
And to that end, caused him [William Tell] to be tied, and thrown into a boat, with intention to see him securely laid in the dungeon of the strong castle of Cusnach.
Ludlow. Memoirs, vol. iii. p. 107.
The very bed, which, on thy wedding-night,
Otway. Venice Preserved, Acti. sc. 1.
What gold is to a man in a desart island; what eyes are to a man confined a close prisoner in a dark dungeon; that, or little better, is the best faith without leading a Christian to good works.-Pearce, vol. ii. Ser. 16.
DUP, v. To do ope or open, to ope or open. Grimme. What Devell, iche weene, the porters are drunke, wil they not dup the gate to-day? Edwards. Damon & Pythias. Then vp he rose, and dond his clothes, and dupt the chamber dore.-Shakespeare. Hamlet, Act iv. sc. 5. Menage says, duper from decidecipere, depar, duper. Duper, to cheat.
To dupe is to cheat or to delude, to trick; and a dupe, one who is cheated, tricked or deluded, (sc.) through his own credulity.
A populace in want, with pleasure fir'd;
Thomson. Liberty, pt. iii.
That man must smart at last whose puzzled sight
Pitt. Horace, b. i. Ep. 10.
But it seems there is still another lurking hope, akin to that which duped us so egregiously before, when our delightful basis was accepted; we still flatter ourselves that the publick voice of France will compel this directory to more moderation.-Burke. On a Regicide Peace, Let. 3.
As an actor, confest without rival to shine:
As a wit, if not first, in the very first line:
[Machiavel] is pleased with the address with which Cæsar Borgia conducted it; has much contempt for the dupery and weakness of the sufferers; but no compassion for their miserable and untimely death, and no sort of indignation at the cruelty and falsehood of their murderer.
Smith. Moral Sentiments, pt. vi. s. 1.
To double, (qv.) A duplicate is a double, or second,
Duplicity, -doubleness: applied met. when one thing is pretended or professed, and another intended or done; insincerity, deceitfulness.
Me semeth by feiture of womanly property
Chaucer. Balade. The Craft of Louers.
The estates of Bruges little doubted to admit so small a numbre into so populous a company, yea though the numbre were duplicate.-Hall. Hen. VII. an. 5.
In this prosperous course and success of affairs, a competent defence of Illyricum was upon a two-fold reason established, the duple greatnesse of which business the emperor having taken in hand, affected both.
Holland. Ammianus, p. 101. Whereof perhaps one reason is, because there is shewn in this a duplicated power: a contrary stream of power running across and thwart, in its effects in this. Goodwin. Works, vol. iii. pt. i. p. 558.
In Easter term this was certified under the hands of all the judges in England, and barons of the Exchequer, in a duplicate, whereof the one was delivered to the lord chancellor, and the other to the lord treasurer to be delivered to the queen.-State Trials. Sir T. Darnel and others, an. 1627.
Conscious reason and understanding, being a far higher degree of life and perfection than that dull plastick nature, which does only do, but not know, can never possibly emerge out of it; neither can the duplication of corporeal organs be ever able to advance that simple and stupid life of nature into redoubled consciousness or self-perception. Cudworth. Intellectual System, p. 173.
However, if two sheriffs appear in one year (as at this time, and frequently hereafter,) such duplication cometh to pass by one of these accidents.-Fuller. Worthies. Barkshire.
They neither acknowledge a multitude of unmade deities. nor yet that duplicity of them which Plutarch contended for, (one good and the other evil.) Cudworth. Intellectual System, p. 231. Moreover the tenets of these ancient Magi, concerning that duplicity of principles, are by writers represented with great variety and uncertainty.-Id. Ib. p. 291.
That is to throw three dice, till duplets and a chance be thrown; and the highest dupiets wins, except you throw in and in, which is called raffic, and that wins all.
Dryden. An Evening's Love, Act iii.
The earth and sun gravitate towards each other, or tend (whatever be the cause of that tendency) towards each other, with a force which is in a direct proportion of their masses, or magnitudes and densities together, and in an inverse duplicate proportion of their distances.
Clarke & Leibnitz. Dr. Clarke's Fifth Reply.
I have dispatched away Mr. Meredith, his majesty's secretary of the embassy here, by the Catherine yacht, and encharged with my main pacquet to the secretary; though I send a duplicate both of it and my last dispatch by the
master of the pacquet-boat's hands, that parts the same day.
Sir W. Temple. To my Lord Treasurer, July, 1678. There remain yet some other pages of Mr. Hobbes's dialogue, wherein he speaks of fire, and cold, and ice, and light, and colours, and fluidity, and hardness, and thickness, and ethics, and politics, and the duplication of the cube, and the quadrature of the circle, and several other subjects. Boyle. Works, vol. i. p. 234.
What vast sacks and bags are necessary to contain such a collection of water, which seems to issue from the lymphæducts, either dilacerated or obstructed, and exonerating themselves into the foldings, or between the duplicatures of the membranes.-Ray. On the Creation, pt. ii.
His right-hand man, a brother of our quill,
Byrom. Robbery of the Cambridge Coach.
Of all these he [Vertue] made various sketches and notes, always presenting a duplicate of his observations to Lord Oxford. Walpole. Life of Mr. George Vertue.
The peritoneum also keeps the viscera from confounding themselves with, or pressing irregularly upon, the bladder: for the kidneys and bladder are contained in a distinct duplicature of that membrane, being thereby partitioned off from the other contents of the abdomen.
Paley. Natural Theology, c. 11.
And shall we even now, whilst we are yet smarting from the consequences of her treachery, become a second time the good easy dupes of her duplicity; it was not a trifling lustration that would in his mind expiate the perfidy of French councils.-Anecdotes of Bp. Watson, vol. i. p. 273.
DURE, v. DURABLE. DURABLENESS. DURABLY. DURABILITY. DURANCE.
Fr. Durer; It. Durare; Sp. Durar; Lat. Durare. Vox, (says Vossius,) videtur ab arboribus sumpta; sane Aouoo. olim lignum. And Martinius, from the Gr. Aovpios, ligneus, wooden.
Lat. Durare, -to be or cause to be hard or hardy; to harden; to bear up against hardships; and thus, to last, to abide, (sc.) without yielding, without decay.
"Fr. Durer,to dure, to last, continue, endure, to abide, remain, persist; also, to sustain, brook, suffer," (Cotgrave.)
Durance and duresse are also applied, to harsh. confinement, to imprisonment.
Her adde, lo! thys Cristemen, as ge ssulle yhure,
Thare biriels he thouht to honoure
R. Brunne, Pref. p. 189. And for to worche goure wil. the wile my lif duyreth. Piers Ploukman, p. 188.
And eke they had a thing notable
The wil of a wight disturbeth and constraineth that, that nature alway desireth and requireth, that is to saye, the werkes of generation, by the which generation onely dwelleth, and is sustained the long durabilitie of mortall thinges. Id. Boecius, b. iii.
That same prince and mover eke (quod he)
To all that are engend'red in this place,
So I say, though thou bee put to serue thilke jewell, during thy life, yet is that no seruage of vnderputting, but a maner of trauailing pleasaŭce, to conquer and get that thou hast not. Id. Ib.
And that shrewes ben more vnsely if they were of lenger during, and most vnsely yf they weren perdurable. Id. Boecius. b. iv. And so from yt day forwarde: was that made a lawe and a custom in Israel and dureth to thys day. Bible, 1551. 1 Kings, c. 30. Whiche when he [the Lord] is wrothe smitteth the people with durable strokes, and in his wonders he persecuteth them, and tameth them continually.-Id. Esuye, c. 14.
Some wryters accompt the terme of the duraunce of thys kyngdome, from Cerdicus to Egbert, and some to the last yere of Aluredus.-Fabyan, vol. i. c. 105.
Right mysty storyes, doughtfull and vnclere
But it is I trow no great maruaile: though I fere, lest those that haue not letted to put them in duresse without colour wil let as lytle to procure their distruccion without cause. Sir T. More. Workes, p. 49.
Of this breakyng of bread, Luke writyng of Paule commyng vnto Troades, sayth also, that vpon a sabboth day, when the disciples were come together vnto the breakyng of the bread, Paule made a sermon duryng to mydnight. Tyndall. Workes, p. 476.
This battell dured three partes of the night, in the which time the Frenchmen gaue fiue great assaults against our men, but at the length they being conquered ran away. Stow. Edw. III. an. 1346.
Every man seeth (as I said before) new wax is best for printing; new claie fittest for working; new shorn woll aptest for soon and surest dying new fresh flesh for good and durable salting-Ascham. The Schole Master.
But shee [Philippa wife of Edward III.] built to herself a monument of more glory and durability by founding, and richly endowing, the colledge called the Queenes in Oxford, which, if it had been finished according to the project, had beene a foundation of marueilous state and magnificence. Speed. Edw. III. an. 1374. b. ix. c. 12. s. 115. They all of them vary much from their primitive tenderness, and bigness, and so become more durous. Smith. Port. of Old Age, p. 186. For there is neither picture, nor image of marble, nor arch of triumph, nor sumptuous sepulchre, that can match the durableness of an eloquent history, furnished with the properties which it ought to have.
North. Plutarch. To the Readers, p. 1.
As for the timber of the walnut-tree, it may be termed an English shittim-wood for the fineness, smoothness, and durableness, thereof, whereof the best tables, with stocks of guns and other manufactures, are made.
Fuller. Worthies. Surrey.
The souls ever durancy I sung before,
More. On the Soul, pt. iii. c. 1. s. 1. The misery that after death attends the misspent present life, overbalanceth all the good that this life can yield, both in degree and duration.
Hale. Cont. vol. i. The Victory of Faith over the World.
Spenser. Faerie Queene, b. iv. c. 10.
You had ever an ear open to listen for the crack, and were in the same agony for the Powder Plot that Charles V. was in for the Pope's duress, giving order in all his dominions that prayers should be made for his release, when in the mean time he kept and held him in his own hand prisoner.
State Trials. Henry Garnett, an. 1606.
These light and vicious persons say Our soul is but a smoke, or airy blast, Which during life, doth in our nostrils play, And when we die doth turn to wind at last.
Davies. Immortality of the Soul, s. 30.
As for irradiancy or sparkling, which is found in many gems, it is not discoverable in this; for it cometh short of their compactnesse and durity.
Brown. Vulgar Errours, b. ii. c. 1.
That by the Sion here mentioned is not chiefly meant that material mountain in Judea, but rather that mystical rock of divine grace and evangelical truth, upon which the Christian church, the onely everlasting temple of God, is unmovably seated, is very probable, (or rather manifestly certain,) by the prophets constant acceptation thereof in this sense, when they assign the character of perpetual durability thereto.-Barrow, vol. i. Ser. 12.
The successive vibrations of the small parts do, even in 80 solid and close a body as bell-metal, run many times round; as may appear by the durableness of the ringing noise, which seems plainly to proceed from the circularly successive vibrations of the parts.
Boyle. Works, vol. v. p. 30.
That we have our notion of succession and duration from this original, viz. from the reflection on the train of ideas, which we find to appear one after another in our own minds, seems plain to me, in that we have no perception of duration, but by considering the train of ideas that take their turus in our understandings.
Locke. On Humane Understanding, b. ii. c. 14.
With royal pride to brave the skies.
Francis. Horace, b. iv. Ode 30.
A Gothic cathedral raises ideas of grandeur in our minds, by its size, its height, its awful obscurity, its strength, its antiquity, and its durability.—Blair, vol. 1. Lect. 3.
The durableness of metals is the foundation of this extra-
Dirstelie. Boldy, or as we might say, durstingly, of one
To be or become dark or
The penonnes and the pomels. and poyntes of sheldes
Time had somewhat sullied the colour of it with such kind
Dusked his eyen too, and failled his breth.
Chaucer. The Knightes Tale, v.2808.
The faithfulnes of a wife is not stained with deceipt, nor dusked with any dissembling, nor yet parted with any charge of the world, but disseuered at last by death only, no not by death neither.-Wilson. Arte of Rhetorique, p. 55.
And yet neuertheles the sayd epigrame was not vtterly defaced, but onely duskened or so rased, that it myght be redde, thoughe that with some difficulty.
Nicoll. Thucydides, fol. 163. Wherof is ingendred, duskynge of the eyes, head aches, hotte and thyn reumes, after euery littel surfete, and many other inconueniences.-Sir T. Elyot. Castel of Helth, b. iii.
Which ascendynge vp into the head, and touchynge the
A showre aboue his head there stoode, all dusky blacke
Both night and storme it brought, and straight the waters
Sir T. Elyot. The Governour, b. iii. c. 21.
Milton. Paradise Lost, b. xi.
So spake our Morning Star then in his rise,
Id. Paradise Regained, b. i.
But straight the sun that gives me light,
Bacon. Naturall History, § 369.
But see, the smoke mounting in village nigh,
P. Fletcher. The Purple Island, c. 5.
For who can it unfold, and reade aright
The divers colours and the tinctures fair,
It [a spot in the sun] was a very dark spot almost of a quadrangular form, and was inclosed round with a kind of a duskish cloud.-Boyle. Works, vol. iii. p. 511.
So may I reach, conceal'd, the cooling flood,
Pope. Homer. Iliad, b. xxii.
The sergeant soon after went to him, and ordered him to follow him to the deck; he obeyed him without reply; but it being in the dusk of the evening he slipped from the sergeant and went forward.-Cook. Voyage, vol. i. b. i. c. 6.
We all saw an atmosphere or dusky cloud round the body of the planet, [Venus,] which very much disturbed the times of contact, especially of the internal ones; and we differed from each other in our accounts of the times of the contacts much more than might have been expected. Id. Ib. vol. i. b. i. c. 13.
DU'SSONS, i. e. dozens.
If I priz'd life so much
As to deny my act, but that I would not,
Beaum. & Fletch. The two Noble Kinsmen, Act iii. sc. 2.
Dut. Dust; A. S. Dyste or Dust, pulvis, powder, (Somner.) Skinner thinks it may be from the Ger. Durren, to dry, to parch, (as if Durst.) In the Goth. Thaursjan is arescere, siccari, whence also thirst. But the A. S. Thystrian; Dut. Duysteren, to obscure, to darken, seems to present a more probable etymology: Clouds of dust; the dust flies in clouds; are common terms of expression. As now applied, dust is—
Any thing reduced to a dry powder, any thing pulverised. And more generally to the earth; and met., to a low, humble or contemptible state or condition. To dust is
Either to sprinkle, to cover with dust; or,-to wipe, to clear away the dust.
And the kyng Vortiger was to doust y barn'd ther inne.
And when they commyn to hur, she satt vppe, and with
And who evir resseyveth not you, ne heerith youre wordis, go ye fro that hous or citee, and sprenge off the dust of yours feet.-Wiclif. Matthew, c. 10.
In fortune is full trust,
In hope is all his sustaining.-Chaucer. Rom. of the Rose.
And as David and his men went by the way, Shimei went along on the hils side over against him, and cursed as he went, and threw stones at him, and cast dus. ¡Heb. dusted him with dust.]-Bible. 2 Samuel, xvi. 13.
Men into stones therewith he could transmew,
Beaum. & Fletch. The Captain, Act iii. sc. 1. The most part of the people abode and dwelt in the country, and such were termed Compodes, which is as much as to say, as dusty-feet, for that when they came down to the city (as a man may conjecture) they were known by their dusty-feet.-Holland. Plutarch, p. 727.
Although the terraqueous globe be of an orbicular figure, yet it is not strictly so. 1. On account of its hills and vallies. But these are [so] inconsiderable to the earth's semidiameter, that they are but as dust upon a common globe. Derham. Physico-Theology, b. ii. c. 1. (Note 1.) Whom nor the prancing steed, nor pond'rous shield, Nor the hack'd helmet nor the dusty field, But the soft joys of luxury and ease, The purple vests and flow'ry garlands please.
Addison. Ovid. Metam. b. iii.